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Olivine

This page kindly sponsored by John Weidner
Formula:
(Mg,Fe2+)2SiO4
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Yellowish green, olive ...
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
6½ - 7
Member of:
Name:
Named after the green color
Series Formula:
Mg2SiO4 to Fe22+SiO4
A series between Forsterite and Fayalite

Equivalent to Fayalite-Forsterite Series; usually a more or less Fe-bearing forsterite. Very common in volcanic rocks.
See also Olivine Group.

May contain some PO4 replacing SiO4 (Schneider et al., 2013).

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Olivine.

Classification of Olivine

14.21.1

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
21 : Silicates of Fe and Mg
mindat.org URL:
http://www.mindat.org/min-2983.html
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Physical Properties of Olivine

Vitreous
Colour:
Yellowish green, olive green, greenish black, or reddish brown
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
6½ - 7

Crystallography of Olivine

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic

Crystallographic forms of Olivine

Crystal Atlas:
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Olivine no.31 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Olivine no.89 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Optical Data of Olivine

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.630 - 1.650 nβ = 1.650 - 1.670 nγ = 1.670 - 1.690
2V:
Measured: 46° to 98°, Calculated: 88°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.040
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
relatively weak

Chemical Properties of Olivine

Relationship of Olivine to other Species

Member of:
Other Members of Group:
Calcio-olivineCa2SiO4
FayaliteFe22+SiO4
ForsteriteMg2SiO4
GlaucochroiteCaMn2+SiO4
KirschsteiniteCaFe2+SiO4
LaihuniteFe2+Fe23+(SiO4)2
Liebenbergite(Ni,Mg)2SiO4
MonticelliteCaMgSiO4
Roepperite (of Brush)(Fe22+,Mn,Zn)SiO4
TephroiteMn22+SiO4
14.21.2Ringwoodite(Mg,Fe2+)2SiO4
14.21.3Wadsleyite(Mg,Fe2+)2(SiO4)
14.21.4ClinoferrosiliteFe2+SiO3
14.21.5Anthophyllite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
14.21.6Cummingtonite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
14.21.7 Magnesiocummingtonite
14.21.8Grunerite☐{Fe22+}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
14.21.9Minnesotaite(Fe,Mg)3(Si4O10)(OH)2
14.21.10Chesterite(Mg,Fe)17Si20O54(OH)6
14.21.11Jimthompsonite(Mg,Fe)5Si6O16(OH)2
14.21.12Clinojimthompsonite(Mg,Fe)5Si6O16(OH)2
14.21.13MajoriteMg3(Fe2+,Si,Al)2(SiO4)3
14.21.14Balangeroite(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+,Mn2+)42Si16O54(OH)40

Other Names for Olivine

Name in Other Languages:
Basque:Olibino
Bosnian (Latin Script):Olivin
Croatian:Olivin
Czech:Olivín
Danish:Olivin
Dutch:Olivijn
Esperanto:Olivino
Estonian:Oliviin
Finnish:Oliviini
French:Olivine
Galician:Olivina
Hungarian:Olivin
Icelandic:Ólivín
Italian:Olivina
Korean:감람석
Lithuanian:Olivinas
Norwegian (Bokmål):Olivin
Polish:Oliwiny
Portuguese:Olivina
Romanian:Olivină
Russian:Оливин
Simplified Chinese:橄榄石
Slovak:Olivín
Slovenian:Olivin
Swedish:Olivin
Turkish:Olivin

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Olivine

Reference List:
Hawkes, Herbert Edwin, Jr. (1946), Olivine from northern California showing perfect cleavage: American Mineralogy: 31: 276-283.

Sahama, T.G. and Hytoenen, K. (1958) Calcium-bearing magnesium-iron olivines. American Mineralogist: 43: 862-871.

Olsen, E.J. and Grossman, L. (1974) A scanning electron microscope study of olivine crystal surfaces. Meteoritics: 9: 243-254.

Lager, G.A. & E.P. Meagher (1978), High-temperature structural study of six olivines: American Mineralogy: 63: 365-377.

Brown, G.E. (1982) Olivines and silicate spinels. In P.H. Ribbe, Ed., Orthosilicates, 5, p. 275-381. Reviews in Mineralogy, Mineralogical Society of America, Chantilly, Virginia.

Beran, A. and Putnis, A. (1983) A model of the OH positions in olivine, derived from infrared-spectroscopic investigations. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 9: 57-60.

Ricoult, D.L., & D.L. Kohlstedt (1985), Experimental evidence for the effect of chemical environment upon the creep rate of olivine. In R.N. Schick, Ed., Point defects Minerals, Geophysical Monograph, 31,: 171-184. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C.

Miller, G.H., Rossman, G.R., and Harlow, G.E. (1987) The natural occurrence of hydroxide in olivine. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 14: 461-472.

Karato, S.-I. (1989) Grain growth kinetics in olivine aggregates. Tectonophysics: 168: 255-273.

Kurosawa, M., Yurimoto, H., Matsumoto, K., and Sueno, S. (1992) Hydrogen analysis of mantle olivine by secondary ion mass spectrometry. In Y. Sono and M.H. Manghnani, Eds., High-pressure research: application to Earth and Planetary Sciences, p. 283-287. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C.

Bai, Q. and Kohlstedt, D.L. (1993) Effects of chemical environment on the solubility and incorporation mechanism for hydrogen in olivine. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 19: 460-471.

Kohlstedt, D.L., Keppler, H., and Rubie, D.C. (1996) Solubility of water in the α, β, and γ phases of (Mg,Fe)2SiO4. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 123: 345-357.

Deer, et al (1997), Vol. 1A: 3-336.

Kitamura, M., Kondoh, S., Morimoto, N., Miller, G.H., Rossman, G.R., and Putnis, A. (1987) Planar OH-bearing defects in mantle olivine. Nature: 328: 143-145.

Morishima, H., Kato, T., Suto, M., Ohtani, E., Urakawa, S., Utsumi, W., Shimomura, O., and Kikegawa, T. (1994) The phase boundary between α-and-β Mg2SiO4 determined by in situ X-ray diffraction. Science: 265: 1202-1203.

Kurosawa, M., Yurimoto, H. and Sueno, S. (1997) Patterns in the hydrogen and trace element compositions of mantle olivines. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 24: 385-395.

Dyar, M.D., Delaney, J.S., Sutton, S.R., and Schaefer, M.W. (1998) Fe 3+ distribution in oxidized olivine: A synchrotron micro-XANES study. American Mineralogist: 83: 1361-1365.

Kohlstedt, D.L. and Mackwell, S.J. (1998) Diffusion of hydrogen and point defects in olivine. Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie: 207: 147-162.

Mei, S. & D.L. Kohlstedt (2000a), Influence of water on plastic deformation of olivine aggregates; 1, Diffusion creep regime: Journal of Geophysical Research, B, Solid Earth and Planets: 105(9): 21, 457, 469.

Mei, S. & D.L. Kohlstedt (2000b), Influence of water on plastic deformation of olivine aggregates; 2, Dislocation creep regime: Journal of Geophysical Research, B, Solid Earth and Planets: 105: 21471-21481.

Goodrich, C.A., Fioretti, A.M., Tribaudino, M., and Molin, G.M. (2001) Primary trapped melt inclusions in olivine in the olivine-augite-orthopyroxene ureilites Hughes 009. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 65: 621-652.

Jamtveit, B., Brooker, R., Brooks, K., Larsen, L.M., and Pedersen, T. (2001) The water content of olivines from the North Atlantic Volcanic Province. Earth and Planetary Science Letters: 186(3-4): 401-415.

Khisina, N.R., Wirth, R., Andrut, M., and Ukhanov, A.V. (2001) Extrinsic and intrinsic mode of hydrogen occurrence in natural olivines: FTIR and TEM investigation. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 29: 98-111.

Kent, A.J.R. and Rossman, G.R. (2002) Hydrogen, lithium and boron in mantle-derived olivine: The role of couple substitutions. American Mineralogist: 87: 1432-1436.

Khisina, N.R., Wirth, R., and Andrut, M. (2002) Forms of occurrence of OH in mantle olivines I. Structural hydroxyl. Geochemistry International (Geokhimya): 40: 332-341.

Bell, D., Rossman, G.R., Maldener J., Endisch, D., and Rauch, F. (2003) Hydroxide in olivine: a quantitative determination of the absolute amount and calibration of the IR spectrum. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108(2105), DOI: 10.1029/2001JB000679.

Li, L. (2003), Rheology of olivine at high temperature and high pressure, 137 p., SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY.

Li, L., P. Raterron, D. Weidner, & J. Chen (2003), Olivine flow mechanisms at 8GPa: Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interior: 138: 113-129.

Berry, A., Hermann, J., and O'Neill, H. (2004) The water site in mantle olivine. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 68: A36.

Li, L., D. Weidner, P. Raterron, J. Chen, & M. Vaughan (2004a), Stress measurements of deforming olivine at high pressure: Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interior: 143-144, 357-367.

Matsyuk, S.S. and Langer, K. (2004) Hydroxyl in olivines from mantle xenoliths in kimberlites from the Siberian platform. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 147: 413-437.

Mosenfelder, J.L., Sharp, T.G., Asimow, P.D., and Rossman, G.R. (2004) Hydrogen in olivines from the Colorado Plateau: implications for water in the mantle and the Alpe Arami controversy. EOS Trans AGU: 85(47), Abstract T32B-07.

Zhao, Y.-H., Ginsberg, S.B., and Kohlstedt, D.L. (2004) Solubility of hydrogen in olivine: dependence on temperature and iron content. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 147: 155-161.

Li, L., D. Weidner, P. Raterron, J. Chen, M. Vaughn, S. Mei, & W. Durham (2005), Deformation of olivine at mantle pressure using D-DIA: European Journal of Mineralogy:

Matveev, S., Portnyagin, M., Ballhaus, C., Brooker, R., and Geiger, C.A. (2005) FTIR spectrum of phenocryst olivine as an indicator of silica saturation in magmas. Journal of Petrology: 46: 603-614.

Papike, J.J., Karner, J.M., and Shearer, C.K. (2005) Comparative planetary mineralogy: Valence-state partitioning of Cr, Fe, Ti and V among crystallographic sites in olivine, pyroxene, and spinel from planetary basalts. American Mineralogist: 90: 277-290.

Mosenfelder, J.L., Deligne, N.I., Asimow, P.D., and Rossman, G.R. (2006) Hydrogen incorporation in olivine from 2-12 GPa. American Mineralogist: 91: 285-294.

Terumi EJIMA, Masahide AKASAKA, Takashi NAGAO, Hiroaki OHFUJI (2012): Oxidation state of Fe in olivine in andesitic scoria from Kasayama volcano, Hagi, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences 107, 215-225.

Schneider, P., Tropper, P., Kaindl, R. (2013): The formation of phosphoran olivine and stanfieldite from the pyrometamorphic breakdown of apatite in slags from a prehistoric ritual immolation site (Goldbichl, Igls, Tyrol, Austria). Mineralogy and Petrology 107, 327-340.

Internet Links for Olivine

Localities for Olivine

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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