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Arsenopalladinite

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Formula:
Pd
 
8
(As,Sb)
 
3
System:TriclinicColour:Yellowish, creamy white ...
Lustre:MetallicHardness:4
Member of:Arsenopalladinite Group
Name:For its chemical composition
This page provides mineralogical data about Arsenopalladinite.

Classification of Arsenopalladinite

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:2/A.05-40
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:2.AC.10c

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
A : Alloys
C : Alloys of metalloids with PGE
Dana 8th edition ID:2.16.5.1

2 : SULFIDES
16 : Miscellaneous
Hey's CIM Ref.:3.12.29

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
12 : Sulphides etc. of the platinum metals
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Type Occurrence of Arsenopalladinite

Type Locality:Itabira, Iron Quadrangle, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Place of Conservation of Type Material:The Natural History Museum, London, England, 1934,72, 1977,258; Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada, M34726; National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., USA, 142504.
Year of Discovery:1955
Associated Minerals at type locality:
PalladseiteStillwateriteAtheneiteGoldHematite
IsomertieiteQuartz

Occurrences of Arsenopalladinite

Geological Setting:Gold deposits

Physical Properties of Arsenopalladinite

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Yellowish, creamy white in reflected light.
Hardness (Mohs):4
Hardness (Vickers):VHN100=379 - 449 kg/mm2
Tenacity:Malleable
Density (measured):10.40 g/cm3
Density (calculated):11.028 g/cm3

Crystallography of Arsenopalladinite

Crystal System:Triclinic
Class (H-M):1 - Pedial
Space Group:P1
Cell Parameters:a = 7.43Å, b = 13.95Å, c = 7.35Å
α = 92.88°, β = 119.5°, γ = 87.85°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.533 : 1 : 0.527
Unit Cell Volume:V 662.14 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:6
Morphology:Rounded grains to 1.8 mm
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
2.34 (60)
2.28 (20)
2.19 (20)
2.13 (100)
1.41 (40)
1.24 (30)
1.21 (30)
Comments:Itabira, Brazil.

Optical Data of Arsenopalladinite

Type:Anisotropic
Anisotropism:Strong - red and golden brown to blue-gray - air; khaki-brown to blue gray and bright steel-gray in oil
Reflectivity:
400nmR1=43.9%R2= 44.5%
420nmR1=44.7%R2= 45.8%
440nmR1=45.7%R2= 46.5%
460nmR1=46.8%R2= 47.8%
480nmR1=48.1%R2= 49.4%
500nmR1=49.4%R2= 50.8%
520nmR1=50.8%R2= 52.4%
540nmR1=52.1%R2= 53.9%
560nmR1=53.2%R2= 55.1%
580nmR1=54.4%R2= 56.4%
600nmR1=55.4%R2= 57.3%
620nmR1=56.4%R2= 58.1%
640nmR1=57.0%R2= 58.8%
660nmR1=57.7%R2= 59.2%
680nmR1=58.2%R2= 59.8%
700nmR1=58.8%R2= 60.0%


Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Peak reflectance is 60.0%.
R1 shown in black, R2 shown in red
Colour in reflected light:White, with yellowish creamy tint

Chemical Properties of Arsenopalladinite

Formula:
Pd
 
8
(As,Sb)
 
3
Simplified for copy/paste:Pd8(As,Sb)3
Essential elements:As, Pd
All elements listed in formula:As, Pd, Sb
Analytical Data:Itabira, Brazil; by electron microprobe.
Pd (77.56)
Cu (0.02)
As (17.08)
Sb (5.15)
Total (99.81)
Empirical Formula:
Pd
 
8.10
(As
 
2.53
Sb
 
0.47
)
Common Impurities:Cu

Relationship of Arsenopalladinite to other Species

Member of:Arsenopalladinite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Common Associates:
BraggitePalladseitePalladiumStillwateriteQuartz
HematiteGoldVysotskiteSperryliteHollingworthite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
2.AC.05aAtheneite
Pd
 
2
As
 
0.75
Hg
 
0.25
2.AC.05bVincentite
Pd
 
3
As
2.AC.10bMertieite-II
Pd
 
8
(Sb,As)
 
3
2.AC.10aStillwaterite
Pd
 
8
As
 
3
2.AC.15aIsomertieite
Pd
 
11
Sb
 
2
As
 
2
2.AC.15bMertieite-I
Pd
 
11
(Sb,As)
 
4
2.AC.15aMiessiite
Pd
 
11
Te
 
2
Se
 
2
2.AC.20bPalarstanide
Pd
 
8
(As,Sn)
 
3
2.AC.20aStibiopalladinite
Pd
 
5
Sb
 
2
2.AC.20cMenshikovite
Pd
 
3
Ni
 
2
As
 
3
2.AC.25eMajakite
PdNiAs
2.AC.25aPalladoarsenide
Pd
 
2
As
2.AC.25fPalladobismutharsenide
Pd
 
2
(As,Bi)
2.AC.25cPalladodymite
(Pd,Rh)
 
2
As
2.AC.25bRhodarsenide
(Rh,Pd)
 
2
As
2.AC.25dNaldrettite
Pd
 
2
Sb
2.AC.30UM1999-02-As:NiRh
(Rh,Ni)
 
7
As
 
4
2.AC.30Polkanovite
Rh
 
12
As
 
7
2.AC.35aGenkinite
(Pt,Pd,Rh)
 
4
Sb
 
3
2.AC.35bUngavaite
Pd
 
4
Sb
 
3
2.AC.40Polarite
Pd(Bi,Pb)
2.AC.45cBorishanskiite
Pd
 
1+x
(As,Pb)
 
2
, x = 0-0.2
2.AC.45aFroodite
α-PdBi
 
2
2.AC.45bIridarsenite
(Ir,Ru)As
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
3.12.1Seinäjokite
(Fe,Ni)(Sb,As)
 
2
3.12.2Laurite
RuS
 
2
3.12.3Ruthenarsenite
(Ru,Ni)As
3.12.4Anduoite
(Ru,Os)As
 
2
3.12.5Ruarsite
(Ru,Os)AsS
3.12.6Xingzhongite
(Pb,Cu,Fe)(Ir,Pt,Rh)
 
2
S
 
4
3.12.7Rhodplumsite
Rh
 
3
Pb
 
2
S
 
2
3.12.8Cuprorhodsite
(Cu,Fe)Rh
 
2
S
 
4
3.12.9Konderite
Cu
 
3
Pb(Rh,Pt,Ir)
 
8
S
 
16
3.12.10Bowieite
(Rh,Ir,Pt)
 
2
S
 
3
3.12.11Cherepanovite
RhAs
3.12.12Hollingworthite
(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsS
3.12.13Vysotskite
(Pd,Ni)S
3.12.14Vasilite
(Pd,Cu)
 
16
(S,Te)
 
7
3.12.15Palladseite
Pd
 
17
Se
 
15
3.12.16Oosterboschite
(Pd,Cu)
 
7
Se
 
5
3.12.17Telluropalladinite
Pd
 
9
Te
 
4
3.12.18Temagamite
Pd
 
3
HgTe
 
3
3.12.19Sopcheite
Ag
 
4
Pd
 
3
Te
 
4
3.12.20Michenerite
PdBiTe
3.12.21Kotulskite
Pd(Te,Bi)
3.12.22Telargpalite
(Pd,Ag)
 
3
(Te,Bi)
3.12.23Merenskyite
(Pd,Pt)(Te,Bi)
 
2
3.12.24Palladoarsenide
Pd
 
2
As
3.12.25Stillwaterite
Pd
 
8
As
 
3
3.12.26Atheneite
Pd
 
2
As
 
0.75
Hg
 
0.25
3.12.27Majakite
PdNiAs
3.12.28Palarstanide
Pd
 
8
(As,Sn)
 
3
3.12.30Vincentite
Pd
 
3
As
3.12.31Palladobismutharsenide
Pd
 
2
(As,Bi)
3.12.32Stibiopalladinite
Pd
 
5
Sb
 
2
3.12.33Hexatestibiopanickelite
(Pd,Ni)(Sb,Te)
3.12.34Sudburyite
(Pd,Ni)Sb
3.12.35Testibiopalladite
PdTe(Sb,Te)
3.12.36Borovskite
Pd
 
3
SbTe
 
4
3.12.37Isomertieite
Pd
 
11
Sb
 
2
As
 
2
3.12.38Mertieite-I
Pd
 
11
(Sb,As)
 
4
3.12.39Mertieite-II
Pd
 
8
(Sb,As)
 
3
3.12.40Sobolevskite
Pd(Bi,Te)
3.12.41Froodite
α-PdBi
 
2
3.12.42Polarite
Pd(Bi,Pb)
3.12.43Urvantsevite
Pd(Bi,Pb)
 
2
3.12.44Cooperite
PtS
3.12.45Braggite
(Pt,Pd,Ni)S
3.12.46Kharaelakhite
(Cu,Pt,Pb,Fe,Ni)
 
9
S
 
8
3.12.47Malanite
Cu(Pt
3+
 
,Ir
3+
 
)
 
2
S
 
4
3.12.48Moncheite
(Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)
 
2
3.12.49Maslovite
PtBiTe
3.12.50Sperrylite
PtAs
 
2
3.12.51Platarsite
PtAsS
3.12.52Geversite
PtSb
 
2
3.12.53Daomanite
CuPtAsS
 
2
3.12.54Genkinite
(Pt,Pd,Rh)
 
4
Sb
 
3
3.12.55Stumpflite
Pt(Sb,Bi)
3.12.56Insizwaite
Pt(Bi,Sb)
 
2
3.12.57Erlichmanite
OsS
 
2
3.12.58Omeiite
(Os,Ru)As
 
2
3.12.59Osarsite
(Os,Ru)AsS
3.12.60Kashinite
(Ir,Rh)
 
2
S
 
3
3.12.61Inaglyite
Cu
 
3
Pb(Ir,Pt)
 
8
S
 
16
3.12.62Cuproiridsite
(Cu,Fe)Ir
 
2
S
 
4
3.12.63Iridarsenite
(Ir,Ru)As
 
2
3.12.64Irarsite
(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
3.12.65Tolovkite
IrSbS

Other Names for Arsenopalladinite

Other Languages:
German:Arsenopalladinit
Spanish:Arsenopalladinita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:Palladium ore

References for Arsenopalladinite

Reference List:

- +
American Mineralogist (1974): 59: 1332.

Clark, A.M., Criddle, A.J. and Fejer, E.E. (1974): Palladium arsenide–antimonides from Itabira, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mineralogical Magazine, 39, 528-543.

American Mineralogist (1979): 64: 658.

Cabri, L.J., Clark, A.M., and Chen, T.T. (1977) Arsenopalladinite from Itabira, Brazil, and from the Stillwater Complex, Montana. Canadian Mineralogist: 15: 70-73.

Mineralogical Magazine (1994): 59: 455-463.

Internet Links for Arsenopalladinite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Arsenopalladinite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Arsenopalladinite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Brazil
     
    • Minas Gerais
      • Iron Quadrangle
    Canadian Mineralogist: 15: 70-73; Chem. Index of Minerals (1955) p. 23 and 339; Min.Mag.(1974): 39, 528-543
    CanMin 34:547-557
    Canada
     
    • Ontario
      • Thunder Bay District
        • Seeley Lake Area
    EcoMetrix Reort for Stillwater Canada Inc, Marathon Project (2012) Table 4.1-3
    China
     
    • Yunnan Province
      • Dali Autonomous Prefecture
        • Midu Co.
    Huanbin Song, Mingqin He, Shangzhong Zhang, and Fenghuang Yi (2008): Chinese Journal of Geochemistry 27, 104-108.
    Finland
     
    Törnroos Ragnar, Johanson Bo, Kojonen Kari, 1998. Alluvial nuggets of platinum group minerals and alloys from Finnish Lapland. Geological survey of Finland, Special Paper
      • Inari
        • Lemmenjoki
    33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Pt-Pd selenides from river placers, northern Finland
      • Portimo complex
    Econ Geol (1986) 81:1236-1241
    Japan
     
    • Hokkaido
    The Mineral Species of Japan (5th ed) Matsubara
    Norway
     
    • Finnmark
      • Porsanger
    Nilsson, L. P. & Larsen, R. B. (1998): Edle mineraler i mafiske og ultramafiske bergarter- en oppsummering av platina-gruppe mineraler (PGM) funnet i Norge i de senere år. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 14: 40-49
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Taymyrskiy Autonomous Okrug
        • Taimyr Peninsula
          • Putoran Plateau
    • Northern Region
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
          • Monche-Tundra
            • Monchegorsk
    33 IGC excursion No 48, August 15 – 21, 2008
    Chashchin, V. V., & Petrov, S. V. (2013). Low-sulfide PGE ore in the Volchetundra gabbro-anorthosite pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Geology of Ore Deposits, 55(5), 357-382.
    South Africa
     
    • Limpopo Province
    Minerals of South Africa
      • Phalaborwa
        • Loolekop
    Nikolay Rudashevsky et al (2001) Efficient Technology of Ore Minerals Investigation of PGE-Bearing Deposits – Case Study in (2001) European Union of Geosciences Conference XI (OS6)
    USA
     
    • Montana
      • Stillwater Co.
        • Nye
    Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240.
    Canadian Mineralogist (1977): 15: 70-73.; Canadian Mineralogist Vol.24, pp. 329-346 (1986)
          • J-M Reef (Howland Reef)
    www.cannonmicroprobe.com/Mineral_Specimens.htm
    • Pennsylvania
      • Chester Co.
        • State Line Chromite District
    Smith, II, R. C. and Barnes, J. H. (2011)
    Mineral and/or Locality  
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