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Arsenopyrite

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Formula:
FeAsS
System:MonoclinicColour:Silver-white to ...
Lustre:MetallicHardness:5½ - 6
Member of:Arsenopyrite Group
Name:Named in 1847 by Ernst Friedrich Glocker for its composition, a contraction of the antiquated term "arsenical pyrite." Arsenopyrite was known much before 1847 and arsenopyrite, as a name, may be taken as a simple translation of "arsenkies".


Arsenopyrite Group.

For possible Ni analogue see Unnamed (Ni,Fe,Co)AsS; see also Unnamed (Ni Arsenide Sulphide). Arsenopyrite is closely related to Alloclasite, but is not an exact analogue, because of different As-S and S-As ordering.

Arsenopyrite may contain up to about 9 wt.% Co; with higher Co contents, Glaucodot will appear as a separate phase (Gammon, 1966).

Classification of Arsenopyrite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:2/D.22-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:2.EB.20

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
E : Metal Sulfides, M: S <= 1:2
B : M:S = 1:2, with Fe, Co, Ni, PGE, etc.
Dana 7th edition ID:2.12.4.1
Dana 8th edition ID:2.12.4.1

2 : SULFIDES
12 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Hey's CIM Ref.:3.9.12

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
9 : Sulphides etc. of Fe
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Occurrences of Arsenopyrite

Geological Setting:High temperature gold-quartz or tin hydrothermal veins, pegmatites, contact metamorphic rocks, gneisses, schists.

Physical Properties of Arsenopyrite

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Silver-white to steel-grey
Streak:Grey-black
Hardness (Mohs):5½ - 6
Hardness (Vickers):VHN100=1081 kg/mm2
Comment:VHN on (001) section
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Distinct/Good
Distinct on {001}; {010} in traces
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (measured):6.07(15) g/cm3
Density (calculated):6.18 g/cm3

Crystallography of Arsenopyrite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:P21/b
Space Group Setting:P21/c
Cell Parameters:a = 5.744Å, b = 5.675Å, c = 5.785Å
β = 112.3°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.012 : 1 : 1.019
Unit Cell Volume:V 174.47 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Flat tabular to blocky (sometimes pseudo-octahedral) to prismatic.
Twinning:Common on {100} and {001}. Contact or penetration on {101}, on {012} trillings or cruciform.
Comment:Pseudo-orthorhombic, face-centred cell: ~5.7, ~6.4, ~9.6 A.
Crystal Atlas:
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Arsenopyrite no.5 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Arsenopyrite no.12 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Arsenopyrite no.14 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Arsenopyrite no.62 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Arsenopyrite no.64 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Arsenopyrite no.113 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
2.677 (100)
2.662 (100)
2.440 (90)
2.418 (95)
2.412 (95)
1.824 (70)
1.814 (90)

Optical Data of Arsenopyrite

Type:Anisotropic
Anisotropism:Strong red-violet
Reflectivity:
400nmR1=50.3%R2= 51.8%
420nmR1=50.3%R2= 51.8%
440nmR1=51.3%R2= 51.8%
460nmR1=50.6%R2= 51.8%
480nmR1=51.0%R2= 51.9%
500nmR1=51.4%R2= 51.9%
520nmR1=51.8%R2= 51.9%
540nmR1=52.2%R2= 51.9%
560nmR1=52.5%R2= 51.9%
580nmR1=53.0%R2= 51.8%
600nmR1=53.4%R2= 51.6%
620nmR1=53.6%R2= 51.5%
640nmR1=53.6%R2= 51.3%
660nmR1=53.6%R2= 51.3%
680nmR1=53.4%R2= 51.2%
700nmR1=53.2%R2= 51.0%


Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Peak reflectance is 53.6%.
R1 shown in black, R2 shown in red
Colour in reflected light:White with faint yellow tint
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:White or bluish tint, faint reddish yellow

Chemical Properties of Arsenopyrite

Formula:
FeAsS
Essential elements:As, Fe, S
All elements listed in formula:As, Fe, S
Analytical Data:O'Brien mine, Cobalt, Canada.
Fe (34.53)
Co (0.09)
Bi (0.79)
As (44.34)
S (20.22)
Total (99.97)
Common Impurities:Ag,Au,Co,Sn,Ni,Sb,Bi,Cu,Pb

Relationship of Arsenopyrite to other Species

Member of:Arsenopyrite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Glaucodot
(Co
 
0.50
Fe
 
0.50
)AsS
Gudmundite
FeSbS
Osarsite
(Os,Ru)AsS
Ruarsite
(Ru,Os)AsS
Common Associates:
ScheelitePyrrhotitePyriteGoldChalcopyrite
Cassiterite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
2.EB.05aAurostibite
AuSb
 
2
2.EB.05bBambollaite
Cu(Se,Te)
 
2
2.EB.05aCattierite
CoS
 
2
2.EB.05aErlichmanite
OsS
 
2
2.EB.05aFukuchilite
Cu
 
3
FeS
 
8
2.EB.05aGeversite
PtSb
 
2
2.EB.05aHauerite
MnS
 
2
2.EB.05aInsizwaite
Pt(Bi,Sb)
 
2
2.EB.05aKrut'aite
CuSe
 
2
2.EB.05aLaurite
RuS
 
2
2.EB.05aPenroseite
(Ni,Co,Cu)Se
 
2
2.EB.05aPyrite
FeS
 
2
2.EB.05aSperrylite
PtAs
 
2
2.EB.05aTrogtalite
CoSe
 
2
2.EB.05aVaesite
NiS
 
2
2.EB.05aVillamaninite
(Cu,Ni,Co,Fe)S
 
2
2.EB.05aDzharkenite
FeSe
 
2
2.EB.05aGaotaiite
Ir
 
3
Te
 
8
2.EB.10bAlloclasite
Co
 
1-x
Fe
 
x
AsS
2.EB.10dCostibite
CoSbS
2.EB.10aFerroselite
FeSe
 
2
2.EB.10aFrohbergite
FeTe
 
2
2.EB.10cGlaucodot
(Co
 
0.50
Fe
 
0.50
)AsS
2.EB.10aKullerudite
NiSe
 
2
2.EB.10aMarcasite
FeS
 
2
2.EB.10aMattagamite
CoTe
 
2
2.EB.10eParacostibite
CoSbS
2.EB.10ePararammelsbergite
NiAs
 
2
2.EB.10fOenite
CoSbAs
2.EB.15aAnduoite
(Ru,Os)As
 
2
2.EB.15aClinosafflorite
CoAs
 
2
2.EB.15aLöllingite
FeAs
 
2
2.EB.15aNisbite
NiSb
 
2
2.EB.15aOmeiite
(Os,Ru)As
 
2
2.EB.15cPaxite
CuAs
 
2
2.EB.15aRammelsbergite
NiAs
 
2
2.EB.15aSafflorite
CoAs
 
2
2.EB.15bSeinäjokite
(Fe,Ni)(Sb,As)
 
2
2.EB.20Gudmundite
FeSbS
2.EB.20Osarsite
(Os,Ru)AsS
2.EB.20Ruarsite
(Ru,Os)AsS
2.EB.25Cobaltite
CoAsS
2.EB.25Gersdorffite
NiAsS
2.EB.25Hollingworthite
(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsS
2.EB.25Irarsite
(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
2.EB.25Jolliffeite
NiAsSe
2.EB.25Krutovite
NiAs
 
2
2.EB.25Maslovite
PtBiTe
2.EB.25Michenerite
PdBiTe
2.EB.25Padmaite
PdBiSe
2.EB.25Platarsite
PtAsS
2.EB.25Testibiopalladite
PdTe(Sb,Te)
2.EB.25Tolovkite
IrSbS
2.EB.25Ullmannite
NiSbS
2.EB.25Willyamite
(Co,Ni)SbS
2.EB.25Changchengite
IrBiS
2.EB.25Mayingite
IrBiTe
2.EB.25Hollingsworthite
2.EB.25Kalungaite
PdAsSe
2.EB.25Milotaite
PdSbSe
2.EB.30Urvantsevite
Pd(Bi,Pb)
 
2
2.EB.35Rheniite
ReS
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
3.9.1Pyrrhotite
Fe
 
1-x
S (x = 0 to 0.17)
3.9.3Pyrite
FeS
 
2
3.9.4Marcasite
FeS
 
2
3.9.5Greigite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
S
 
4
3.9.6Mackinawite
(Fe,Ni)
 
9
S
 
8
3.9.7Smythite
(Fe,Ni)
 
3+x
S
 
4
(x=0-0.3)
3.9.8Achavalite
(Fe,Cu)Se
3.9.9Ferroselite
FeSe
 
2
3.9.10Frohbergite
FeTe
 
2
3.9.11Löllingite
FeAs
 
2
3.9.13Gudmundite
FeSbS

Other Names for Arsenopyrite

Synonyms:
Arsenical IronArsenical PyritesArsenomarcasiteDalarnitePlinian
Thalheimite
Other Languages:
French:Mispickel
German:Mispickel
Arsenikkies
Arsenikstein
Arsenkies
Arsenomarcasit
Arsenomarkasit
Arsenopyrit
Dalarnit
Glanzarsenikkies
Hüttraucherz
Mistpuckel
Rauschgelbkies
Thalheimit
Italian:Arsenopirite
Japanese:硫砒鉄鉱
Norwegian (Bokmål):Arsenkis
Russian:Арсенопирит
Simplified Chinese:毒砂
砷黄铁矿
Spanish:Agujillas
Arsenomarcasita
Arsenopyrita
Dalarnita
Pirita de Arsénico
Thalheimita
Swedish:Arsenikkis
Varieties:
Danaite

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Arsenopyrite

Reference List:

- +
Buerger, M. J. (1936) The symmetry and crystal structure of the minerals of the arsenopyrite group. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, 95, 83-113.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 316-322.

Morimoto, N., Clark, L. A. (1961) Arsenopyrite crystal-chemical relations. American Mineralogist 46, 1448-1469.

Mineralogical Magazine (1962): 33: 263.

Brostigen, G., Kjekshus, A., Rømming, C. (1973) Compounds with the marcasite type crystal structure. VIII. Redetermination of the prototype. Acta Chemica Scandinavica, 27, 2791-2796.

Kretschmar, U., Scott, S. D. (1976) Phase relations involving arsenopyrite in the system Fe-As-S and their application. The Canadian Mineralogist, 14, 364-386.

Tossell, J. A., Vaughan, D. J., Burdett, J. K. (1981) Pyrite, marcasite, and arsenopyrite type minerals: Crystal chemical and structural principles. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 7, 177-184.

Fuess, H., Kratz, T., Topel-Schadt, J., Miehe, G. (1987) Crystal structure refinement and electron microscopy of arsenopyrite. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 179, 335-346.

Fleet, M.E. and Mumin, A.H. (1997) Gold-bearing arsenian pyrite and marcasite and arsenopyrite from Carlin-trend gold deposits and laboratory synthesis. American Mineralogist 82, 182-193.

Schaufuss, A.G., Nesbitt, H.W., Scaini, M.J., Hoechst, H., Bancroft, M.G., and Szargan, R. (2000) Reactivity of surface sites on fractured arsenopyrite (FeAsS) toward oxygen. American Mineralogist 85, 1754-1766.

Tomkins A G, Frost B R, Pattison D R M (2006): Arsenopyrite melting during metamorphism of sulfide ore deposits. Canadian Mineralogist, 44, 1045-1062.

H. Yang and R.T. Downs (2008) Crystal structure of glaucodot, (Co,Fe)AsS, and its relationships to marcasite and arsenopyrite, American Mineralogist 93, 1183-1186.

Bindi L, Moëlo Y, Léone P, Suchaud M (2012): Stoichiometric arsenopyrite, FeAsS, from La Roche-Balue Quarry, Loire-Atlantique, France: Crystal structure and Mössbauer study. Canadian Mineralogist, 50, 471-479.

Internet Links for Arsenopyrite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Arsenopyrite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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    Localities for Arsenopyrite

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