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Pachnolite

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Formula:
NaCa[AlF
 
6
] · H
 
2
O
System:MonoclinicColour:Colourless, white; ...
Lustre:VitreousHardness:3
Name:From the Greek πάχνη, frost, and λίθος, stone, in allusion to its appearance.
Dimorph of:Thomsenolite
This page provides mineralogical data about Pachnolite.

Classification of Pachnolite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:3/C.02-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:3.CB.40

3 : HALIDES
C : Complex halides
B : Neso-aluminofluorides
Dana 8th edition ID:11.6.5.1

11 : HALIDE COMPLEXES
6 : Aluminofluorides - Isolated Octahedra
Hey's CIM Ref.:8.6.18

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
6 : Halides of Al
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Type Occurrence of Pachnolite

Type Locality:Ivigtut Cryolite deposit, Ivittuut (Ivigtut), Arsuk Fjord, Sermersooq, Greenland
Year of Discovery:1863
Associated Minerals at type locality:
Thomsenolite

Physical Properties of Pachnolite

Lustre:Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Colourless, white; colourless in transmitted light.
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):3
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Poor/Indistinct
On {001}.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (measured):2.983 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.97 g/cm3

Crystallography of Pachnolite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:a = 12.117(4) Å, b = 10.414(3) Å, c = 15.680(4) Å
β = 90.37(2)°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.164 : 1 : 1.506
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,978.56 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:16
Morphology:Crystals prismatic [001], commonly acutely terminated. Terminated by {001} at times. {110} striated parallel to the intersection with {001}. Massive, cleavale to granular; stalactitic masses.
Twinning:On {100} common, yielding crystals with an orthorhombic appearance; giving a grid pattern in thin section.
Comment:Non-standard space-group setting F2/d.
Crystal Atlas:
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Pachnolite no.10 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Pachnolite no.11 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Epitaxial Relationships of Pachnolite

Epitaxial Minerals:
Thomsenolite
NaCa[AlF
 
6
] · H
 
2
O
Epitaxi Comments:Oriented growths of thomsenolite on pachnolite, with thomsenolite (001) and (110) quasi-parallel to pachnolite (110) and (001). Also with thomsenolite (110) and (110) quasi-parallel to pachnolite (110) and (001).
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.95 (100)
3.26 (10)
3.02 (20)
2.92 (10)
2.79 (70)
2.16 (50)
1.971 (90)

Optical Data of Pachnolite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.411 nβ = 1.413 nγ = 1.420
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.009

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:r > v

Chemical Properties of Pachnolite

Formula:
NaCa[AlF
 
6
] · H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:NaCa[AlF6]·H2O
Essential elements:Al, Ca, F, H, Na, O
All elements listed in formula:Al, Ca, F, H, Na, O

Relationship of Pachnolite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
3.CB.05Cryolithionite
Na
 
3
Li
 
3
[AlF
 
6
]
 
2
3.CB.15Cryolite
Na
 
3
[AlF
 
6
]
3.CB.15Elpasolite
NaK
 
2
[AlF
 
6
]
3.CB.15Simmonsite
Na
 
2
Li[AlF
 
6
]
3.CB.20Colquiriite
CaLi[AlF
 
6
]
3.CB.25Weberite
Na
 
2
Mg[AlF
 
6
]F
3.CB.30Karasugite
SrCa[Al(F,OH)
 
7
]
3.CB.35Usovite
Ba
 
2
CaMgAl
 
2
F
 
14
3.CB.40Thomsenolite
NaCa[AlF
 
6
] · H
 
2
O
3.CB.45Carlhintzeite
Ca
 
2
[AlF
 
6
]F · H
 
2
O
3.CB.50Yaroslavite
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
F
 
10
(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
8.6.1Zharchikhite
AlF(OH)
 
2
8.6.2Chloraluminite
AlCl
 
3
· 6H
 
2
O
8.6.3Cadwaladerite
AlCl(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.6.4Cryolithionite
Na
 
3
Li
 
3
[AlF
 
6
]
 
2
8.6.5Cryolite
Na
 
3
[AlF
 
6
]
8.6.6Chiolite
Na
 
5
Al
 
3
F
 
14
8.6.7Elpasolite
NaK
 
2
[AlF
 
6
]
8.6.8Weberite
Na
 
2
Mg[AlF
 
6
]F
8.6.9Ralstonite
NaMg[Al(F,OH)
 
6
] · H
 
2
O
8.6.10Koenenite
Na
 
4
Mg
 
9
Al
 
4
Cl
 
12
(OH)
 
22
8.6.11 Chlor-manasseite
Mg
 
x
Al(OH)
 
2x+2
Cl · (x-0.8)H
 
2
O x about 1.75
8.6.12Gearksutite
Ca[Al(F,OH)
 
5
(H
 
2
O)]
8.6.13Prosopite
CaAl
 
2
(F,OH)
 
8
8.6.14Yaroslavite
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
F
 
10
(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
8.6.15Carlhintzeite
Ca
 
2
[AlF
 
6
]F · H
 
2
O
8.6.16Colquiriite
CaLi[AlF
 
6
]
8.6.17Thomsenolite
NaCa[AlF
 
6
] · H
 
2
O
8.6.19Zirklerite
(Fe,Mg,Ca)
 
9
Al
 
4
Cl
 
18
(OH)
 
12
· 14H
 
2
O (?)

Other Names for Pachnolite

Synonyms:
Pyroconite
Other Languages:
German:Pachnolith
Pyroconit
Spanish:Pachnolita
Pyroconita

Other Information

Other Information:Readily soluble in H2SO4.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Pachnolite

Reference List:

- +
Knop (1863) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 127: 61.

Wöhler (1875) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 180: 231 (as Pyroconite).

Koenig (1876) Proceedings of the Academy of Science, Philadelphia: 42.

Des Cloizeaux (1882) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 5: 310.

Groth (1883) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 7: 457.

Cross and Hillebrand (1885) USGS Bulletin 20: 49.

Krenner (1885) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 10: 528.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 179.

Goldschmidt, V. (1920) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 6: 113.

Larsen, E.S. and Berman, H. (1934) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, Second edition, USGS Bulletin 848: 95.

Ferguson (1946) Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, Sect. 4: 40: 11

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 114-116.
Hawthorne, F.C. and Ferguson, R.B. (1983): The crystal structure of pachnolite. Canadian Mineralogist, 21, 561–566.

Pauly, H. and O.V. Petersen (1983): Pachnolite: new optical data with a note on artificial precipitates. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte, 241–250.

Mineralogical Record (1993): 24: 34.

Internet Links for Pachnolite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Pachnolite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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    Localities for Pachnolite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Argentina
     
    • Córdoba
      • Punilla Department
        • Tanti
    Dina, H. (1993). Hentschelita en Cerro Blanco, Tanti, Córdoba. Informacion Tecnologica, 48(3-4), 277-282.
    American Mineralogist (1978): 53: 416-431.; Černý, P., Galliski, M. A., Oyarzábal, J. C., Teertstra, D. K., Chapman, R., MacBride, L., & Ferreira, K. (2003). Stranded and equilibrated assemblages of late feldspars in two granitic pegmatites in the Pampean Ranges, Argentina. The Canadian Mineralogist, 41(4), 1013-1026.; Demartin F, Gay H D, Gramaccioli C M, Pilati T (1997) Benyacarite, a new titanium-bearing phosphate mineral species from Cerro Blanco, Argentina. The Canadian Mineralogist 35, 707-712
    Brazil
     
    • Paraíba
      • Borborema mineral province
        • Pedra Lavrada
    R. Wegner, H. Pöllmann, T. Witzke, & W. Schuckmann (1998): Colquiriite, carlhintzeite, ralstonite and pachnolite from Serra Branca-Pegmatite/Brazil.- Proceedings 17th General Meeting, IMA, August 1998, Toronto, A151
    Finland
     
    • Southern Finland Region
      • Kotka
    Ilkka Mikkola collection
    Germany
     
    • Bavaria
      • Upper Palatinate
        • Oberpfälzer Wald
          • Vohenstrauß
            • Pleystein
    Dill, H.G., Weber, B. (2009), Pleystein-City on Pegmatite, 4th International Symposium on Granitic Pegmatites, Recife, Brazil.
            • Waidhaus
              • Hagendorf
    http://www.berthold-weber.de/h_miner.htm
    Greenland
     
    • Sermersooq
      • Arsuk Fjord
        • Ivittuut (Ivigtut)
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 112; Canadian Mineralogist, 21, 561 (1983); Lapis 11 (1985), 9.; Petersen, O. V and K Secher (1993) The Minerals of Greenland. Mineralogical Record 24:36
    Norway
     
    • Oppland
      • Lunner
        • Nordmarka
    Raade, G. & Haug, J. (1980): Rare Fluorides from a soda granite in the Oslo Region, Norway. Mineralogical Record, 11,83-91
    Russia
     
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
          • Ilmen Mts
            • Ilmen Natural Reserve
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
    Ukraine
     
    • Zhytomyr Oblast' (Zhitomir Oblast')
    Yurk Yu.Yu., Gurov E.P., Gurova E.P. (1973) Pecularities of fluorin mineralogy of Ukrainian crystalline shield, - Naukova Dumka, Kiev, pp.184 (in Russian).; Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
    USA
     
    • Colorado
      • El Paso Co.
        • Cheyenne District (St. Peters Dome District)
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 112, 120, 122; Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    Am Min 51:299-323
    Am Min 51:299-323
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.; Am Min 51:299-323; American Mineralogist (1936): 20: 319-333
      • Fremont Co.
    "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 16, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; Armbrustmacher, T. J. (1988) Geology and resources of thorium and associated elements in the Wet Mountains area, Fremont and Custer counties, Colorado. USGS Professional Paper: 1049-F
    • Florida
      • Hillsborough Co.
        • Tampa
    AmMin 67:1258
    • Nevada
      • Mineral Co.
        • Fitting District
          • Gillis Range
    Mineralogical Record: 31: 204.
    • Virginia
      • Amelia Co.
        • Winterham
    [L.E. Kearns, 1995 - Mineralogical Record Vol 26 No.6 - "Alumino-Fluorides from the Morefield Pegmatite"]
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