Mindat Logo

Palladium

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.



Formula:
(Pd,Pt)
Colour:WhiteHardness:4½ - 5


Platinum Group. Gold-Palladium Series and Palladium-Silver Series.

Natural Palladium always contains some Platinum.

(Pd,Cu) alloys, some with the approximate composition PdCu4, are reported by Kapsiotis et al. (2010).

Classification of Palladium

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:1/A.14-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:1.AF.10

1 : ELEMENTS (Metals and intermetallic alloys; metalloids and nonmetals; carbides, silicides, nitrides, phosphides)
A : Metals and Intermetallic Alloys
F : Platinum group elements
Dana 7th edition ID:1.2.1.4
Dana 8th edition ID:1.2.1.4

1 : NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
2 : Platinum Group Metals and Alloys
Hey's CIM Ref.:1.66

1 : Elements and Alloys (including the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au)
mindat.org URL:http://www.mindat.org/min-3067.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Type Occurrence of Palladium

Type Locality:Bom Sucesso Creek, Serro (Serro Frio; Cerrado Frio), Minas Gerais, Brazil
Year of Discovery:1803

Physical Properties of Palladium

Lustre:Metallic
Colour:White
Hardness (Mohs):4½ - 5

Chemical Properties of Palladium

Formula:
(Pd,Pt)
Essential elements:Pd
All elements listed in formula:Pd, Pt
Common Impurities:Pt,Ir,Pb,Sn,Bi,Sb,Hg

Relationship of Palladium to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Silver (see here)
Forms a series with Gold (see here)
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
1.AF.05Osmium
(Os,Ir,Ru)
1.AF.05Rutheniridosmine
(Ir,Os,Ru)
1.AF.05Ruthenium
(Ru,Ir)
1.AF.10Iridium
(Ir,Os,Ru)
1.AF.10Platinum
Pt
1.AF.10Rhodium
(Rh,Pt)
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
1.1Copper
Cu
1.2Silver
Ag
1.5Gold
Au
1.6Auricupride
Cu
 
3
Au
1.7Tetra-auricupride
AuCu
1.8Zinc
Zn
1.9Cadmium
Cd
1.10Danbaite
CuZn
 
2
1.11Zhanghengite
CuZn
1.12Mercury
Hg
1.13Kolymite
Cu
 
7
Hg
 
6
1.14Moschellandsbergite
Ag
 
2
Hg
 
3
1.15Eugenite
Ag
 
11
Hg
 
2
1.16Schachnerite
Ag
 
1.1
Hg
 
0.9
1.17Paraschachnerite
Ag
 
3
Hg
 
2
1.18Luanheite
Ag
 
3
Hg
1.19Weishanite
(Au,Ag)
 
3
Hg
 
2
1.20Indium
In
1.21Aluminium
Al
1.22Khatyrkite
(Cu,Zn)Al
 
2
1.23Cupalite
(Cu,Zn)Al
1.24Diamond
C
1.25Graphite
C
1.26Chaoite
C
1.27Lonsdaleite
C
1.28Silicon
Si
1.29Tin
Sn
1.30Lead
Pb
1.31Anyuiite
Au(Pb,Sb)
 
2
1.31Novodneprite
AuPb
 
3
1.32Leadamalgam
Pb
 
0.7
Hg
 
0.3
1.33Arsenic
As
1.34Arsenolamprite
As
1.35Paxite
CuAs
 
2
1.36Koutekite
Cu
 
5
As
 
2
1.37Domeykite
Cu
 
3
As
1.38Algodonite
(Cu
 
1-x
As
 
x
)
1.39Novakite
Cu
 
20
AgAs
 
10
1.40Kutinaite
Ag
 
6
Cu
 
14
As
 
7
1.41Antimony
Sb
1.42Stibarsen
AsSb
1.43Paradocrasite
Sb
 
3
As
1.44Horsfordite
Cu, Sb
1.45Cuprostibite
Cu
 
2
(Sb,Tl)
1.46Allargentum
(Ag
 
1-x
Sb
 
x
)
1.47Aurostibite
AuSb
 
2
1.48Dyscrasite
Ag
 
3
Sb
1.49Bismuth
Bi
1.50Maldonite
Au
 
2
Bi
1.51Sulphur
S
 
8
1.52Rosickýite
S
1.53Selenium
Se
1.54Tellurium
Te
1.55Chromium
Cr
1.56Rhenium
Re
1.57Iron
Fe
1.58Chromferide
Fe
 
3
Cr
 
1-x
(x=0.6)
1.59Ferchromide
Cr
 
3
Fe
 
1-x
1.60Wairauite
CoFe
1.61Nickel
Ni
1.62Kamacite
(Fe,Ni)
1.63Taenite
(Fe,Ni)
1.64Tetrataenite
FeNi
1.65Awaruite
Ni
 
3
Fe
1.67Potarite
PdHg
1.68Paolovite
Pd
 
2
Sn
1.69Stannopalladinite
(Pd,Cu)
 
3
Sn
 
2
1.70Cabriite
Pd
 
2
CuSn
1.71Taimyrite-I
(Pd,Cu,Pt)
 
3
Sn
1.72Atokite
(Pd,Pt)
 
3
Sn
1.73Rustenburgite
(Pt,Pd)
 
3
Sn
1.74Zvyagintsevite
(Pd,Pt,Au)
 
3
(Pb,Sn)
1.75Plumbopalladinite
Pd
 
3
Pb
 
2
1.76Osmium
(Os,Ir,Ru)
1.77Iridium
(Ir,Os,Ru)
1.82Platinum
Pt
1.83Hongshiite
PtCu
1.84Niggliite
PtSn
1.85Isoferroplatinum
Pt
 
3
Fe
1.86Tetraferroplatinum
PtFe
1.87Tulameenite
Pt
 
2
CuFe
1.88Ferronickelplatinum
Pt
 
2
FeNi
1.89Rhodium
(Rh,Pt)
Related Minerals - Dana Grouping):

- +
1.2.1.1Platinum
Pt
1.2.1.2Iridium
(Ir,Os,Ru)
1.2.1.3Rhodium
(Rh,Pt)
1.2.1.5Rutheniridosmine
(Ir,Os,Ru)

Other Names for Palladium

Synonyms:
Native Palladium
Other Languages:
Afrikaans:Palladium
Arabic:بالاديوم
Armenian:Պալադիում
Basque:Paladio
Belarusian:Паладый
Bengali:প্যালাডিয়াম
Bosnian (Latin Script):Paladijum
Bulgarian:Паладий
Catalan:Pal·ladi
Corsican:Palladiu
Croatian:Paladij
Czech:Palladium
Danish:Palladium
Dutch:Palladium
Esperanto:Paladio
Estonian:Pallaadium
Finnish:Palladium
French:Palladium
Friulian:Paladi
Galician:Paladio
German:Palladium
Gediegen Palladium
Greek:Παλλάδιο
Haitian:Paladyòm
Hebrew:פלדיום
Hindi:पलाडियम
Hungarian:Palládium
Icelandic:Palladín
Ido:Paladio
Indonesian:Paladium
Italian:Palladio
Japanese:パラジウム
Javanese:Paladium
Kannada:ಪಲ್ಲಾಡಿಯಮ್
Korean:팔라듐
Kurdish (Latin Script):Palladyûm
Latin:Palladium
Latvian:Pallādijs
Lithuanian:Paladis
Lojban:jinmrpaladi
Luxembourgish:Palladium
Malayalam:പലേഡിയം
Manx:Pallaadjum
Marathi:पॅलॅडियम
Norwegian (Bokmål):Palladium
Norwegian (Nynorsk):Palladium
Occitan:Palladi
Polish:Pallad
Portuguese:Paládio
Romanian:Paladiu
Russian:Палладий
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Паладијум
Serbo-Croatian:Paladijum
Sicilian:Palladiu
Simplified Chinese:自然钯
Slovak:Paládium
Slovenian:Paladij
Spanish:Paladio
Swahili:Paladi
Swedish:Palladium
Tamil:பலேடியம்
Thai:แพลเลเดียม
Turkish:Paladyum
Ukrainian:Паладій
Uzbek (Latin Script):Palladiy
Vietnamese:Paladi
Varieties:
Platiniferous Palladium

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Palladium

Reference List:

- +
McKeehan (1922) Physical Review, a Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics: 20: 424.

Holgersson and Sedström (1924) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 75: 143.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 109-110.

Canadian Mineralogist (1976): 14: 410-413.

Fleet, M.E., De Almeida, C.M., and Angeli, N. (2002) Botryoidal platinum, palladium and potarite from the Bom Sucesso stream, Minas Gerais, Brazil: compositional zoning and origin. Canadian Mineralogist: 40: 341-355.

Argyrios Kapsiotis, Tassos A. Grammatikopoulos, Basilios Tsikouras and Konstantinos Hatzipanagiotou (2010): Platinum-Group Mineral Characterization in Concentrates from High-Grade PGE Al-rich Chromitites of Korydallos Area in the Pindos Ophiolite Complex (NW Greece). Resource Geology 60, 178-191.

Internet Links for Palladium

Search Engines:
  • Look for Palladium on Google
  • Look for Palladium images on Google
  • External Links:
  • Look for Palladium on Webmineral
  • Look for Palladium on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Palladium on Wikipedia
  • Look for Palladium on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Palladium details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
  • High-end worldwide specimens & outstanding customer service
  • Fabre Minerals - search for Palladium specimens
  • Buy from David K Joyce minerals
  • Buy RARE Minerals from Rocks of Africa
  • Buy rare minerals from Excalibur Minerals
  • rare and unusual minerals mainly crystallized
  • DAKOTA MATRIX offers Cabinet and Rare Species from Worldwide Localities.
  • Find Palladium on www.crystalclassics.co.uk
  • The Arkenstone - Fine Minerals
  • Search for Palladium on Well-Arranged Molecules
  • Rare and Unusual minerals at Mineralogical Research Company
  • Fine minerals from bisbeeborn.com
  • Localities for Palladium

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Fitzroy Co.
        • Coffs Harbour
    Alan Melbourne pers comm
    • Northern Territory
      • Alligator Rivers Region
        • South Alligator River
    Carlo Tortorella; G. A. Albertson Data
    Crohn, P.W. (1968): The Mines and Mineral Deposits of the Katherine-Darwin Region, Dept of National Development (1968):Bulletin 82/ Reszatt, T.N., Balding. G., Fawcett M.: Remediation of Small Scale Uranium Mining Activities in the South Alligator River Valley Kakadu National Park
    • Tasmania
      • Zeehan district
        • North Dundas
    G. A. Albertson Data
    G. A. Albertson Data
    • Western Australia
      • Roebourne Shire
        • Karratha
    Barnes, S. J., 1993 Partitioning of the Platinum Group Elements and Gold Between Silicate and Sulphide Magmas in the Munni Munni Complex, Western Australia Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Volume 57, p. 1277 - 1290
    Brazil
     
    • Minas Gerais
      • Iron Quadrangle
        • Itabira
    CanMin 34:547-557; Kwitko, R., Cabral, A. R., Lehmann, B., Laflamme, J. G., Cabri, L. J., Criddle, A. J., & Galbiatti, H. F. (2002). Hongshiite, PtCu, from itabirite-hosted Au–Pd–Pt mineralization (jacutinga), Itabira district, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Canadian Mineralogist, 40(2), 711-723.
    Thorman, C.H., DeWitt, E., Maron, M.A.C., and Ladeira, E.A. (2001): Mineralium Deposita 36, 218-227
        • Santa Bárbara
    MinMag 67:453-463
      • Serro (Serro Frio; Cerrado Frio)
    Canadian Mineralogist; April 2002; v. 40; no. 2; p. 341-355
    • Pará
      • Carajás mineral province
        • Curionópolis
    Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 40, pp. 1451-1463
    Bulgaria
     
    • Burgas Oblast (Bourgas Oblast)
      • Kameno Obshtina
    Atanasov, A. V. (1990). Vasilite,(Pd, Cu) 16 (S, Te) 7, a new mineral species from Novoseltsi, Bulgaria. The Canadian Mineralogist, 28(3), 687-689.
    Canada
     
    • British Columbia
      • Victoria Mining Division
        • Vancouver Island
    • Ontario
      • Nipissing District
        • Phyllis Township
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copperfield%27s_Mine
    China
     
    • Sichuan Province
      • Garzê Autonomous Prefecture (Ganzi Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Danba Co.
          • Yangliuping Cu-Ni-PGE ore field
    Xiaoqiang Hu, Yunquan Li, and Dequan Shuai (2001): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 21(1), 14-18
    • Tibet Autonomous Region
      • Shannan Prefecture (Lhokha Prefecture; Lhoka Prefecture)
        • Qusum Co. (Qusong Co.)
    Wenji Bai, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Binggang Yan, Zhongming Zhang, Yufeng Ren, Nicheng Shi, Zhesheng Ma, and Mingquan Dai (2004): Earth Science Frontiers 11(1), 179-187
    • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
      • Yili Hasake Autonomous Prefecture (Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Aletai Prefecture (Altay Prefecture)
          • Fuyun Co. (Koktokay Co.)
    Minqing Cheng, Yuchun Yang, Fuyi Jia, Qingshan Yang, Guifang Zhao, Cunchang Wang, and Sen Huang (1993): Geology and Prospecting 29(7), 35-39
    Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
     
    • Katanga (Shaba)
      • Katanga Copper Crescent
        • Kolwezi District
          • Kolwezi
    No reference listed
        • Shinkolobwe
    MinRec 20:287-288
    Greece
     
    • Epirus Department (Ipeiros)
      • Pindos Mtn
        • Pindos ophiolite complex
    Argyrios Kapsiotis, Tassos A. Grammatikopoulos, Basilios Tsikouras and Konstantinos Hatzipanagiotou (2010): Platinum-Group Mineral Characterization in Concentrates from High-Grade PGE Al-rich Chromitites of Korydallos Area in the Pindos Ophiolite Complex (NW Greece). Resource Geology 60, 178-191.
    Norway
     
    • Finnmark
      • Porsanger
    Nilsson, L. P. & Larsen, R. B. (1998): Edle mineraler i mafiske og ultramafiske bergarter- en oppsummering av platina-gruppe mineraler (PGM) funnet i Norge i de senere år. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 14: 40-49
    Oman
     
    • Northern Oman Ophiolite
    Poland
     
    • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
      • Legnica
    Kucha H., Plimer I.R., Stumpfl E. F. 1998: Geochemistry and mineralogy of gold and PGE's in mesothermal and epithermal deposits and their bearing on the metal recovery. Fizykochemiczne Problemy Metalurgii, 32, 7-30
    Kucha H. 2007: Mineralogia kruszcowa i geochemia ciała rudnego złoża Lubin-Sieroszowice. Biuletyn PIG, vol. 423, pp. 77-94
      • Ząbkowice District
        • Ząbkowice (Frankenstein)
    Sachanbiński et al. 2000: Heavy minerals in the serpentinite weathering cover of the Szklary massif. Geologia Sudetica, vol. 33, pp. 131-141.
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Taymyrskiy Autonomous Okrug
        • Taimyr Peninsula
          • Putoran Plateau
            • Noril'sk
    Krivolutskaya et al. (2011): Mineralogy, geochemistry and stratigraphy of the Maslovsky Pt–Cu–Ni sulfide deposit, Noril’sk Region, Russia: implications for relationship of ore-bearing intrusions and lavas. Mineralium Deposita 47, 69-88.
              • Talnakh Cu-Ni Deposit
    • Northern Region
      • Komi Republic
        • Prepolar Ural
          • Kozhim River Basin
            • Maldynyrd range (Maldy-nyrd range)
    P.M. Kartashov data
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
          • Fedorovo-Pansky massif (Pana layered complex)
    33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Platinum-group minerals in the PGE deposit of the Fedorovo-Pansky layered intrusion, Kola Peninsula
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
          • Ufaley District (Ufalei District)
    Talovina, I.V., Lazarenkov, V.G., and Vorontsova, N.I. (2003): Lithology and Mineral Resources 38(5), 403-415.
    South Africa
     
    • North West Province
      • Bojanala Platinum District
        • Western Bushveld Complex
          • Brits (Brits District)
            • Mooinooi
    http://www.sylvaniaplatinum.com/im/files/documents/slv_AR2013.pdf
    http://www.platmin.com/our-assets/pilansberg
    http://www.platmin.com/our-assets/pilansberg
    http://www.platmin.com/our-assets/pilansberg
    http://www.platmin.com/our-assets/pilansberg
          • Rustenburg (Rustenburg District)
            • Frischgewaagd Farm
    http://www.wesizwe.com/projects-key-facts-about-the-bakubung-platinum-mine.php
    http://www.implats.co.za/implats/Impala-platinum.asp
            • Marikana
    https://www.lonmin.com/downloads/media_centre/news/press/2014/Q2%202014%20Production%20Report%20-%2009052014%20-%20FINAL.pdf
    http://aquariusplatinum.com/sites/aquariusplatinum.com/files/annual_results_2006.pdf
    Spain
     
    • Catalonia
      • Tarragona
        • Conca de Barberà
          • Vimbodí
            • Poblet Monastery
    C.. Canet et al. , The Canadian Mineralogist, 2003, V41, pp. 581-595
    USA
     
    • Alaska
      • Bethel Borough
        • Goodnews Bay
    www.dggs.dnr.state.ak.us/scan2/pdf89/text/PDF89-20.PDF
      • Haines Borough
        • Juneau District
          • Skagway District
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
      • Yukon-Koyukuk Borough
        • Innoko District
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
    • California
      • Nevada Co.
        • North San Juan District (Badger Hill District)
          • Yuba River
    Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15, figure 1; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 45.
      • Shasta Co.
        • Redding District
          • Redding
    Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15, figure 1; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 43.
      • Yuba Co.
        • Hammonton District (Yuba River District; Yuba Gold Field; Yuba Dredge Field; Yuba Consolidated Gold Fields)
          • Hammonton
    Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 45.
    • Colorado
      • La Plata Co.
        • La Plata District (California District)
          • La Plata
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    • Maryland
      • Montgomery Co.
        • Rockville
    Minerals of Washington D.C. Area; L.R. Bernstein
    • Montana
      • Ravalli Co.
        • Mineral Point District
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • Stillwater Co.
        • Nye
    Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240.
    Canadian Mineralogist (1975) 13:321-335
    • Nevada
      • Clark Co.
        • Goodsprings District
    [Hewett, D (1931) Geology and Ore Depositsof the Goodsprings Quadrangle, Nevada; USGS PP 162]
        • Virgin Mts
          • Bunkerville District
            • Whitney Pocket Basin
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • North Carolina
    Genth,Frederick Augustus.,1891,The Minerals Of North Carolina;USGS Bulletion No.74
      • Jackson Co.
        • Webster-Balsam
    Edwin H.Bentzen III (1971) Platinum Group Content Of Some Western North Carolina Chromites
    Genth, F.A (1891) The Minerals Of North Carolina: USGS Bulletion No.74
    • Pennsylvania
      • Chester Co.
        • State Line Chromite District
    Smith and Barnes (2011) Pennsylvania Geology v. 41, no. 3/4.
    • Utah
      • Salt Lake Co.
        • Oquirrh Mts
          • Bingham District (West Mountain District)
    James R. Wilson (1995) A Collector's Guide to Rock, Mineral, & Fossil Localities of Utah UGS Miscellaneous Publication 95-4
    Mineral and/or Locality  
    Search Google  
    Copyright © Jolyon Ralph and Ida Chau 1993-2014. Site Map. Locality, mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. Site hosted & developed by Jolyon Ralph. Mindat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free mineralogical information to all. Mindat relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters. Mindat does not offer minerals for sale. If you would like to add information to improve the quality of our database, then click here to register.
    Current server date and time: September 28, 2014 17:56:00
    Mineral and Locality Search
    Mineral:
    and/or Locality:
    Options
    Fade toolbar when not in focusFix toolbar to bottom of page
    Hide Social Media Links
    Slideshow frame delay seconds