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Palladium

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Formula:
(Pd,Pt)
Colour:
White
Hardness:
4½ - 5
Platinum Group. Gold-Palladium Series and Palladium-Silver Series.

Natural Palladium always contains some Platinum.

(Pd,Cu) alloys, some with the approximate composition PdCu4, are reported by Kapsiotis et al. (2010).

Classification of Palladium

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
1.AF.10

1 : ELEMENTS (Metals and intermetallic alloys; metalloids and nonmetals; carbides, silicides, nitrides, phosphides)
A : Metals and Intermetallic Alloys
F : Platinum group elements
Dana 7th ed.:
1.2.1.4
1.2.1.4

1 : NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
2 : Platinum Group Metals and Alloys
1.66

1 : Elements and Alloys (including the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au)
mindat.org URL:
http://www.mindat.org/min-3067.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Type Occurrence of Palladium

Year of Discovery:
1803

Physical Properties of Palladium

Metallic
Colour:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
4½ - 5

Chemical Properties of Palladium

Formula:
(Pd,Pt)
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Pt,Ir,Pb,Sn,Bi,Sb,Hg

Relationship of Palladium to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Silver (see here)
Forms a series with Gold (see here)
1.AF.05Osmium(Os,Ir,Ru)
1.AF.05Rutheniridosmine(Ir,Os,Ru)
1.AF.05Ruthenium(Ru,Ir)
1.AF.10Iridium(Ir,Os,Ru)
1.AF.10PlatinumPt
1.AF.10Rhodium(Rh,Pt)
1.1CopperCu
1.2SilverAg
1.5GoldAu
1.6AuricuprideCu3Au
1.7Tetra-auricuprideAuCu
1.8ZincZn
1.9CadmiumCd
1.10DanbaiteCuZn2
1.11ZhanghengiteCuZn
1.12MercuryHg
1.13KolymiteCu7Hg6
1.14MoschellandsbergiteAg2Hg3
1.15EugeniteAg11Hg2
1.16SchachneriteAg1.1Hg0.9
1.17ParaschachneriteAg3Hg2
1.18LuanheiteAg3Hg
1.19Weishanite(Au,Ag)3Hg2
1.20IndiumIn
1.21AluminiumAl
1.22Khatyrkite(Cu,Zn)Al2
1.23Cupalite(Cu,Zn)Al
1.24DiamondC
1.25GraphiteC
1.26ChaoiteC
1.27LonsdaleiteC
1.28SiliconSi
1.29TinSn
1.30LeadPb
1.31AnyuiiteAu(Pb,Sb)2
1.31NovodnepriteAuPb3
1.32LeadamalgamPb0.7Hg0.3
1.33ArsenicAs
1.34ArsenolampriteAs
1.35PaxiteCuAs2
1.36KoutekiteCu5As2
1.37DomeykiteCu3As
1.38Algodonite(Cu1-xAsx)
1.39NovákiteCu20AgAs10
1.40KutinaiteAg6Cu14As7
1.41AntimonySb
1.42StibarsenAsSb
1.43ParadocrasiteSb3As
1.44HorsforditeCu, Sb
1.45CuprostibiteCu2(Sb,Tl)
1.46Allargentum(Ag1-xSbx)
1.47AurostibiteAuSb2
1.48DyscrasiteAg3Sb
1.49BismuthBi
1.50MaldoniteAu2Bi
1.51SulphurS8
1.52RosickýiteS
1.53SeleniumSe
1.54TelluriumTe
1.55ChromiumCr
1.56RheniumRe
1.57IronFe
1.58ChromferideFe3Cr1-x (x=0.6)
1.59FerchromideCr3Fe1-x
1.60WairauiteCoFe
1.61NickelNi
1.62Kamacite(Fe,Ni)
1.63Taenite(Fe,Ni)
1.64TetrataeniteFeNi
1.65AwaruiteNi3Fe
1.67PotaritePdHg
1.68PaolovitePd2Sn
1.69Stannopalladinite(Pd,Cu)3Sn2
1.70CabriitePd2CuSn
1.71Taimyrite-I(Pd,Cu,Pt)3Sn
1.72Atokite(Pd,Pt)3Sn
1.73Rustenburgite(Pt,Pd)3Sn
1.74Zvyagintsevite(Pd,Pt,Au)3(Pb,Sn)
1.75PlumbopalladinitePd3Pb2
1.76Osmium(Os,Ir,Ru)
1.77Iridium(Ir,Os,Ru)
1.82PlatinumPt
1.83HongshiitePtCu
1.84NiggliitePtSn
1.85IsoferroplatinumPt3Fe
1.86TetraferroplatinumPtFe
1.87TulameenitePt2CuFe
1.88FerronickelplatinumPt2FeNi
1.89Rhodium(Rh,Pt)
1.2.1.1PlatinumPt
1.2.1.2Iridium(Ir,Os,Ru)
1.2.1.3Rhodium(Rh,Pt)
1.2.1.5Rutheniridosmine(Ir,Os,Ru)

Other Names for Palladium

Name in Other Languages:
Afrikaans:Palladium
Basque:Paladio
Belarusian:Паладый
Bosnian (Latin Script):Paladijum
Bulgarian:Паладий
Catalan:Pal·ladi
Corsican:Palladiu
Croatian:Paladij
Czech:Palladium
Danish:Palladium
Dutch:Palladium
Esperanto:Paladio
Estonian:Pallaadium
Finnish:Palladium
French:Palladium
Friulian:Paladi
Galician:Paladio
Haitian:Paladyòm
Hungarian:Palládium
Icelandic:Palladín
Indonesian:Paladium
Italian:Palladio
Javanese:Paladium
Korean:팔라듐
Kurdish (Latin Script):Palladyûm
Latin:Palladium
Latvian:Pallādijs
Lithuanian:Paladis
Luxembourgish:Palladium
Norwegian (Bokmål):Palladium
Norwegian (Nynorsk):Palladium
Occitan:Palladi
Polish:Pallad
Portuguese:Paládio
Romanian:Paladiu
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Паладијум
Serbo-Croatian:Paladijum
Sicilian:Palladiu
Simplified Chinese:自然钯
Slovak:Paládium
Slovenian:Paladij
Spanish:Paladio
Swahili:Paladi
Swedish:Palladium
Turkish:Paladyum
Ukrainian:Паладій
Uzbek (Latin Script):Palladiy
Vietnamese:Paladi

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Palladium

Reference List:
McKeehan (1922) Physical Review, a Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics: 20: 424.

Holgersson and Sedström (1924) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 75: 143.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 109-110.

Canadian Mineralogist (1976): 14: 410-413.

Fleet, M.E., De Almeida, C.M., and Angeli, N. (2002) Botryoidal platinum, palladium and potarite from the Bom Sucesso stream, Minas Gerais, Brazil: compositional zoning and origin. Canadian Mineralogist: 40: 341-355.

Argyrios Kapsiotis, Tassos A. Grammatikopoulos, Basilios Tsikouras and Konstantinos Hatzipanagiotou (2010): Platinum-Group Mineral Characterization in Concentrates from High-Grade PGE Al-rich Chromitites of Korydallos Area in the Pindos Ophiolite Complex (NW Greece). Resource Geology 60, 178-191.

Internet Links for Palladium

Localities for Palladium

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Fitzroy Co.
      • Coffs Harbour
Alan Melbourne pers comm
  • Northern Territory
    • West Arnhem Region
      • South Alligator River
Carlo Tortorella; G. A. Albertson Data
Crohn, P.W. (1968): The Mines and Mineral Deposits of the Katherine-Darwin Region, Dept of National Development (1968):Bulletin 82/ Reszatt, T.N., Balding. G., Fawcett M.: Remediation of Small Scale Uranium Mining Activities in the South Alligator River Valley Kakadu National Park
  • Tasmania
    • Zeehan district
      • North Dundas
G. A. Albertson Data
G. A. Albertson Data
  • Western Australia
    • Roebourne Shire
      • Karratha
Barnes, S. J., 1993 Partitioning of the Platinum Group Elements and Gold Between Silicate and Sulphide Magmas in the Munni Munni Complex, Western Australia Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Volume 57, p. 1277 - 1290
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
    • Iron Quadrangle
      • Itabira
CanMin 34:547-557; Kwitko, R., Cabral, A. R., Lehmann, B., Laflamme, J. G., Cabri, L. J., Criddle, A. J., & Galbiatti, H. F. (2002). Hongshiite, PtCu, from itabirite-hosted Au–Pd–Pt mineralization (jacutinga), Itabira district, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Canadian Mineralogist, 40(2), 711-723.
Thorman, C.H., DeWitt, E., Maron, M.A.C., and Ladeira, E.A. (2001): Mineralium Deposita 36, 218-227
      • Santa Bárbara
MinMag 67:453-463
    • Serro (Serro Frio; Cerrado Frio)
Canadian Mineralogist; April 2002; v. 40; no. 2; p. 341-355
  • Pará
    • Carajás mineral province
      • Curionópolis
Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 40, pp. 1451-1463
Bulgaria
 
  • Burgas Oblast (Bourgas Oblast)
    • Kameno Obshtina
Atanasov, A. V. (1990). Vasilite,(Pd, Cu) 16 (S, Te) 7, a new mineral species from Novoseltsi, Bulgaria. The Canadian Mineralogist, 28(3), 687-689.
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Victoria Mining Division
      • Vancouver Island
  • Ontario
    • Nipissing District
      • Phyllis Township
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copperfield%27s_Mine
China
 
  • Sichuan Province
    • Garzê Autonomous Prefecture (Ganzi Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Danba Co.
        • Yangliuping Cu-Ni-PGE ore field
Xiaoqiang Hu, Yunquan Li, and Dequan Shuai (2001): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 21(1), 14-18
  • Tibet Autonomous Region
    • Shannan Prefecture (Lhokha Prefecture; Lhoka Prefecture)
      • Qusum Co. (Qusong Co.)
Wenji Bai, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Binggang Yan, Zhongming Zhang, Yufeng Ren, Nicheng Shi, Zhesheng Ma, and Mingquan Dai (2004): Earth Science Frontiers 11(1), 179-187
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Yili Hasake Autonomous Prefecture (Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Aletai Prefecture (Altay Prefecture)
        • Fuyun Co. (Koktokay Co.)
Minqing Cheng, Yuchun Yang, Fuyi Jia, Qingshan Yang, Guifang Zhao, Cunchang Wang, and Sen Huang (1993): Geology and Prospecting 29(7), 35-39
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
 
  • Katanga (Shaba)
    • Katanga Copper Crescent
      • Kolwezi District
        • Kolwezi
No reference listed
      • Shinkolobwe
MinRec 20:287-288
Greece
 
  • Epirus Department (Ipeiros)
    • Pindos Mtn
      • Pindos ophiolite complex
Argyrios Kapsiotis, Tassos A. Grammatikopoulos, Basilios Tsikouras and Konstantinos Hatzipanagiotou (2010): Platinum-Group Mineral Characterization in Concentrates from High-Grade PGE Al-rich Chromitites of Korydallos Area in the Pindos Ophiolite Complex (NW Greece). Resource Geology 60, 178-191.
Norway
 
  • Finnmark
    • Porsanger
Nilsson, L. P. & Larsen, R. B. (1998): Edle mineraler i mafiske og ultramafiske bergarter- en oppsummering av platina-gruppe mineraler (PGM) funnet i Norge i de senere år. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 14: 40-49
Oman
 
  • Northern Oman Ophiolite
Ahmed, A. H., & Arai, S. (2003). Platinum-group minerals in podiform chromitites of the Oman ophiolite. The Canadian Mineralogist, 41(3), 597-616.
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
    • Legnica
Kucha H., Plimer I.R., Stumpfl E. F. 1998: Geochemistry and mineralogy of gold and PGE's in mesothermal and epithermal deposits and their bearing on the metal recovery. Fizykochemiczne Problemy Metalurgii, 32, 7-30
Kucha H. 2007: Mineralogia kruszcowa i geochemia ciała rudnego złoża Lubin-Sieroszowice. Biuletyn PIG, vol. 423, pp. 77-94
    • Ząbkowice District
      • Ząbkowice (Frankenstein)
Sachanbiński et al. 2000: Heavy minerals in the serpentinite weathering cover of the Szklary massif. Geologia Sudetica, vol. 33, pp. 131-141.
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Taymyrskiy Autonomous Okrug
      • Taimyr Peninsula
        • Putoran Plateau
          • Noril'sk
Krivolutskaya et al. (2011): Mineralogy, geochemistry and stratigraphy of the Maslovsky Pt–Cu–Ni sulfide deposit, Noril’sk Region, Russia: implications for relationship of ore-bearing intrusions and lavas. Mineralium Deposita 47, 69-88.
            • Talnakh Cu-Ni Deposit
  • Northern Region
    • Komi Republic
      • Prepolar Ural
        • Kozhim River Basin
          • Maldynyrd range (Maldy-nyrd range)
P.M. Kartashov data
    • Murmanskaja Oblast'
      • Kola Peninsula
        • Fedorovo-Pansky massif (Pana layered complex)
33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Platinum-group minerals in the PGE deposit of the Fedorovo-Pansky layered intrusion, Kola Peninsula
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
        • Ufaley District (Ufalei District)
Talovina, I.V., Lazarenkov, V.G., and Vorontsova, N.I. (2003): Lithology and Mineral Resources 38(5), 403-415.
South Africa
 
  • North West Province
    • Bojanala Platinum District
      • Western Bushveld Complex
        • Brits (Brits District)
          • Mooinooi
http://www.sylvaniaplatinum.com/im/files/documents/slv_AR2013.pdf
http://www.platmin.com/our-assets/pilansberg
http://www.platmin.com/our-assets/pilansberg
http://www.platmin.com/our-assets/pilansberg
http://www.platmin.com/our-assets/pilansberg
        • Rustenburg (Rustenburg District)
          • Frischgewaagd Farm
http://www.wesizwe.com/projects-key-facts-about-the-bakubung-platinum-mine.php
http://www.implats.co.za/implats/Impala-platinum.asp
          • Marikana
https://www.lonmin.com/downloads/media_centre/news/press/2014/Q2%202014%20Production%20Report%20-%2009052014%20-%20FINAL.pdf
http://aquariusplatinum.com/sites/aquariusplatinum.com/files/annual_results_2006.pdf
Spain
 
  • Catalonia
    • Tarragona
      • Conca de Barberà
        • Vimbodí
          • Poblet Monastery
C.. Canet et al. , The Canadian Mineralogist, 2003, V41, pp. 581-595
USA
 
  • Alaska
    • Bethel Borough
      • Goodnews Bay
www.dggs.dnr.state.ak.us/scan2/pdf89/text/PDF89-20.PDF
    • Haines Borough
      • Juneau District
        • Skagway District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
    • Yukon-Koyukuk Borough
      • Innoko District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
  • California
    • Nevada Co.
      • North San Juan District (Badger Hill District)
        • Yuba River
Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15, figure 1; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 45.
    • Shasta Co.
      • Redding District
        • Redding
Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15, figure 1; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 43.
    • Yuba Co.
      • Hammonton District (Yuba River District; Yuba Gold Field; Yuba Dredge Field; Yuba Consolidated Gold Fields)
        • Hammonton
Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 45.
  • Colorado
    • La Plata Co.
      • La Plata District (California District)
        • La Plata
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
  • Maryland
    • Montgomery Co.
      • Rockville
Minerals of Washington D.C. Area; L.R. Bernstein
  • Montana
    • Ravalli Co.
      • Mineral Point District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Stillwater Co.
      • Nye
Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240.
Canadian Mineralogist (1975) 13:321-335
  • Nevada
    • Clark Co.
      • Spring Mts
        • Goodsprings District
[Hewett, D (1931) Geology and Ore Depositsof the Goodsprings Quadrangle, Nevada; USGS PP 162]
      • Virgin Mts
        • Bunkerville District
          • Whitney Pocket Basin
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • North Carolina
Genth,Frederick Augustus.,1891,The Minerals Of North Carolina;USGS Bulletion No.74
    • Jackson Co.
      • Webster-Balsam
Edwin H.Bentzen III (1971) Platinum Group Content Of Some Western North Carolina Chromites
Genth, F.A (1891) The Minerals Of North Carolina: USGS Bulletion No.74
  • Pennsylvania
    • Chester Co.
      • State Line Chromite District
Smith and Barnes (2011) Pennsylvania Geology v. 41, no. 3/4.
  • Utah
    • Salt Lake Co.
      • Oquirrh Mts
        • Bingham District (West Mountain District)
James R. Wilson (1995) A Collector's Guide to Rock, Mineral, & Fossil Localities of Utah UGS Miscellaneous Publication 95-4
Mineral and/or Locality  
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