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Paralaurionite

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Formula:
PbCl(OH)
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Colourless, white, ...
Hardness:
3
Name:
From the Greek for "near", para-, and laurionite, in allusion to its polymorphic relationship to that species.
Dimorph of:

Classification of Paralaurionite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
3.DC.05

3 : HALIDES
D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
C : With Pb (As,Sb,Bi), without Cu
10.2.3.1

10 : OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
2 : A(O,OH)Xq
8.8.8

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
8 : Halides of Pb
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http://www.mindat.org/min-3096.html
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Type Occurrence of Paralaurionite

Year of Discovery:
1899

Physical Properties of Paralaurionite

Sub-Adamantine
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent
Colour:
Colourless, white, yellow, violet, green
Hardness (Mohs):
3
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {001}.
Density:
6.15 g/cm3 (Measured)    6.28 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Paralaurionite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
B2/m
Space Group Setting:
C1 2/m 1
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.865(4) Å, b = 4.006(2) Å, c = 7.233(3) Å
β = 117.24(4)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 2.712 : 1 : 1.806
Unit Cell Volume:
V 279.90 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals thin tabular {100} or lath-like by elongation [001]. The terminations of the plates or laths are rectangular or wedge-shaped as a result of development of pyramidal faces at the corners.
Twinning:
Twin plane {100}, very common, as symmetrical contact twins with composition face (100), simulating orthorhombic holohedry.
Comment:
OD structure. I-centred setting has a ~ 9.92 A, β 103°.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Paralaurionite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 2.050 nβ = 2.150 nγ = 2.200
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.150
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
r < v strong
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
Violet-tinted crystals are pleochroic with absorption Y is greater than X, Z.
Comments:
Plates on {100} exhibit abnormal interference figures due to twinning.

Chemical Properties of Paralaurionite

Formula:
PbCl(OH)
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Paralaurionite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
Bismoclite(BiO)Cl
Daubréeite(BiO)(OH,Cl)
LaurionitePbCl(OH)
MatlockitePbFCl
RorisiteCaFCl
Zavaritskite(BiO)F
3.DC.05LaurionitePbCl(OH)
3.DC.10FiedleritePb3FCl4(OH) · H2O
3.DC.15PenfielditePb2Cl3(OH)
3.DC.20LaurelitePb7F12Cl2
3.DC.25Bismoclite(BiO)Cl
3.DC.25Daubréeite(BiO)(OH,Cl)
3.DC.25MatlockitePbFCl
3.DC.25RorisiteCaFCl
3.DC.25Zavaritskite(BiO)F
3.DC.25ZhangpeishaniteBaFCl
3.DC.30NadoritePbSbClO2
3.DC.30PeritePbBiClO2
3.DC.35AravaipaitePb3AlF9 · H2O
3.DC.37CalcioaravaipaitePbCa2AlF9
3.DC.40ThorikositePb3Cl2(OH)(SbO3,AsO3)
3.DC.45MereheaditePb47Cl25(OH)13O24(CO3)(BO3)2
3.DC.50BlixitePb2(O,OH)2Cl
3.DC.55PinalitePb3WO5Cl2
3.DC.60SymesitePb10(SO4)O7Cl4 · H2O
3.DC.65EcdemitePb6Cl4(As2O7)
3.DC.65HeliophyllitePb6Cl4(As2O7)
3.DC.70MendipitePb3Cl2O2
3.DC.75DamaraitePb3Cl(OH)O2
3.DC.80OnoratoiteSb8Cl2O11
3.DC.85CotunnitePbCl2
3.DC.90PseudocotunniteK2PbCl4
3.DC.95BarstowitePb4Cl6(CO3) · H2O
8.8.1AbhuriteSn21Cl16(OH)14O6
8.8.2MatlockitePbFCl
8.8.3LaurelitePb7F12Cl2
8.8.4CotunnitePbCl2
8.8.5MendipitePb3Cl2O2
8.8.6DamaraitePb3Cl(OH)O2
8.8.7LaurionitePbCl(OH)
8.8.9PenfielditePb2Cl3(OH)
8.8.10FiedleritePb3FCl4(OH) · H2O
8.8.11BlixitePb2(O,OH)2Cl
8.8.12PseudocotunniteK2PbCl4
8.8.13DiaboleitePb2CuCl2(OH)4
8.8.14PseudoboleitePb31Cu24Cl62(OH)48
8.8.15ChloroxiphitePb3CuO2Cl2(OH)2
8.8.17BideauxitePb2AgCl3(F,OH)2
8.8.18BoleiteKPb26Ag9Cu24(OH)48Cl62
8.8.19AravaipaitePb3AlF9 · H2O
8.8.20YedlinitePb6Cr3+Cl6(O,OH,H2O)8
8.8.21KolaritePbTeCl2
8.8.22HematophanitePb4Fe3O8(OH,Cl)

Other Names for Paralaurionite

Other Information

Other Information:
Soluble in nitric acid.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Paralaurionite

Reference List:
Arzruni and Thaddéeff (1899) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 31: 229 (as Rafaëlit).

Smith, G. F. H. (1899): On some lead minerals from Laurium, namely, laurionite, phosgenite, fiedlerite, and (new species) paralaurionite. Mineralogical Magazine 12, 102-110.

Smith, G. F. H. (1899): Mineralogical Magazine 12, 183.

Ktenas (1910) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 33: 173.

Russell (1927) Mineralogical Magazine: 21: 221.

Palache, C. (1934). The form relations of the lead oxychlorides, laurionite, paralaurionite, and fiedlerite. Mineralogical Magazine 23, 573-586.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 64-66.

Mineralogical Magazine: 29: 341.

Merlino S., Pasero M., Perchiazzi N. (1993): Crystal structure of paralaurionite and its OD relationships with laurionite. Mineralogical Magazine 57, 323-328.

Internet Links for Paralaurionite

Localities for Paralaurionite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • Western Australia
    • Ashburton Shire
Min. Record 24,203-218(1993)
Nickel, E., Gartrell, B(1993): Secondary Minerals from Ashburton Downs Western Australia, Mineralogical Record (May-June 1993): 24:3:203-218
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Friesach - Hüttenberg area
      • Hüttenberg
        • Waitschach
U. Kolitsch and H. Pristacz (2009): An orthorhombic dimorph of barstowite, Pb4Cl6(CO3)•H2O, from slags at Maria Waitschach, Austria, and Lavrion, Greece. Poster, Joint MinPet 2009 and 4th MSCC, Budapest, Hungary, September 7-11; abstract in Mitt. Österr. Mineral. Ges. 155, 83.; Kolitsch, U., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fink, R. & Auer, C. (2013): Die Mineralogie der weltweit einzigartigen Schlacken von Waitschach, Kärnten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A, 115, 19-87 (in German).
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta Region
    • Antofagasta Province
Econ Geol (1991) 86:1222-1237
      • Sierra Gorda District
Palache, C. (1950): Paralaurionite. Mineralogical Magazine 29, 341-345. ["rafaelite" = paralaurionite]
http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/penfieldite.pdf
M. Dini specimens
Arzruni and Thaddéeff (1899) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 31: 229; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 65, 317.
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Central Bohemia Region
      • Příbram
RÜSENBERG, K. A. & PAULIŠ, P. (1996): Umbildungen und Neubildungen in den Schlackehalden der Blei- und Silberhütte von Příbram/ČR. Aufschluss 47, 267-287 (in German).
France
 
  • Brittany
    • Côtes-d'Armor
      • Callac
        • Carnoët
          • Menez-Plom
P. Le Roch collection
    • Finistère
      • Poullaouen
Germain C., Leydet J-C., Saget Ph. (1990), Les minéraux de néoformation de Huelgoat (Finistère), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°3, 3-16
  • Rhône-Alpes
    • Ardèche
      • Thueyts
        • Mayres
Gol D. (2009) - Histoire et minéralogie de l'ancienne concession minière de Mayres in Le Règne Minéral n°85
Germany
 
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • Goslar
        • Astfeld
van den Berg, W. & van Loon, C. (1990): Slag Minerals from the Rammelsberg, Harz Mountains, Germany. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 8, 18-23.
Greece
 
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
      • Lavrion District Mines
        • Sounion area
          • Sounion Mines
Kolitsch, U., Rieck, B., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fabritz, K. H., Blaß, G. & Gröbner, J. (2014): Neufunde aus dem altem Bergbau und den Schlacken von Lavrion (I). Mineralien-Welt 25 (1), 60-75 (in German).
Smith, G. F. H. (1899): On some lead minerals from Laurium, namely, laurionite, phosgenite, fiedlerite, and (new species) paralaurionite. Mineral. Mag., 12, 102-110.; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 65; Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, Laurion (1996): The Minerals in the Ancient Slags.; Grolig, H. & Grolig, E. (1978): Lavrion in Attika. Lapis, 3 (5), 16-25; 40 (in German).
        • Agios Nikolaos [St Nicholas] area
No reference listed
        • Lavrion (Laurion; Laurium)
No reference listed
        • Oxygon area
No reference listed
        • Panormos area
No reference listed
        • Passa Limani area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; - Rüsenberg, K. A. (2001): Mineralparagenesen in den Schlacken von Lavrion und ihre Entstehung. Aufschluss 52, 25-44 (in German)
        • Puntazeza area (Punta Zeza area)
Rüsenberg, K. A. (2001): Mineralparagenesen in den Schlacken von Lavrion und ihre Entstehung. Aufschluss 52, 25-44 (in German)
        • Sounion area
van Kalmthout, P. (2012): De slakkenmineralen van Lavrion (Gr.) - Ontwikkelingen na 1996, inclusief een archeologische ontdekking. GEA, 45 (1), 14-19 (in Dutch); Fritz Schreiber Collection
Collection of Elmar Lackner; van Kalmthout, P. (2012): De slakkenmineralen van Lavrion (Gr.) - Ontwikkelingen na 1996, inclusief een archeologische ontdekking. GEA, 45 (1), 14-19 (in Dutch).
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Thorikos area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Tourkolimanon area
No reference listed
        • Vrissaki area
Lacroix, A. & De Schulten, A. (1908): Note sur des minéraux plombifères des scories athéniennes du Laurion. Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie, 31, 79-90 (in French).; Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Italy
 
  • Liguria
    • Genova Province
      • Genova
        • Varenna Valley
Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 2 (Avril/Juin), 175-188.
  • Piedmont
    • Vercelli Province
      • Sesia Valley
Luigi Chiappino data
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Campiglia Marittima
http://www.comune.pisa.it/apsn/Articoli/Scorie/Capattoli.htm
        • Sassetta
Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
      • Piombino
Cerutti, G. and Preite, D. (1995): Mineralien der etruskischen Schlacken von Baratti, Toskana. Lapis, 20 (4), 13-18; 50 (in German).
Luigi Chiappino data
Morocco
 
  • Meknès-Tafilalet Region
    • Khénifra Province
      • Midelt
Gaudefroy, C. (1955): Paralaurionite from Mibladen. In: description provisoire des espèces minérales du Maroc. III. Notes Mémoires Service Géologique Maroc. 123, 170-172
  • Oriental Region
    • Jerada Province
      • Touissit District
        • Touissit
Van King
South Africa
 
  • Mpumalanga Province
    • Nkangala District
      • Delmas
Minerals of South Africa
UK
 
  • England
    • Bristol
      • Westbury on Trym
BMS Database
    • Cornwall
      • Mount's Bay District
        • Porthleven
Russell, A and Hutchinson, A. (1927): On laurionite and associated minerals from Cornwall. Mineral. Mag., 21, 221-228.; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 65
      • St Agnes District
        • Crantock
BMS Newsletter 79, March 2010 (http://britishmicromountsociety.homestead.com/Gannell-Smelter.html)
      • Wadebridge District
        • St Minver
          • Trebetherick
Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
    • Somerset
      • Cranmore
Turner, R.W. and Rumsey, M.S. (2010): Mineral Relationships in the Mendip Hills. Journal of the Russell Society, vol 13, pp 3-46; Turner, R.W., (2006) A Mechanism for the formation of the Mineralised Mn Deposits at Merehead Quarry, Cranmore, Somerset, England. Min. Mag. vol. 70, no. 6, pp 629 - 653
      • Holwell
BMS Database
  • Scotland
    • Dumfries & Galloway
      • Wanlockhead
BMS Database; Green, D. I. (1987): The minerals of Meadowfoot smelter. UK Journal of Mines and Minerals 2, 3-9.
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Gila Co.
      • Dripping Spring Mts
        • Banner District
          • Christmas area
            • Christmas
Raman analyzed at the University of Arizona.
    • Maricopa Co.
      • Big Horn Mts
        • Osborn District
          • Tonopah
            • Belmont Mountain
Collected by and in the collection of Joe Ruiz. Analyzed by the University of Arizona.
    • Pinal Co.
      • Mammoth District
        • Tiger
          • St. Anthony deposit
Palache, C. (1950): Paralaurionite. Mineralogical Magazine 29, 341-345.; Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 141; Fahey, J.J., et al (1950), Wherryite, a new mineral from the Mammoth mine, AZ, Am.Min.: 35: 93-98; Bideaux, R.A. (1980), Tiger, AZ, Min.Rec.: 11: 155-181; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 67.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 320; Bideaux, R.A. (1980), Tiger, Arizona, Min.Rec.: 11: 155-181; Palache, C. (1950), Paralaurionite, Min.Mag.: 29: 341-345; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 44.
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