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Paralaurionite

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Formula:
PbCl(OH)
System:MonoclinicColour:Colourless, white, ...
Hardness:3
Member of:Matlockite Group
Name:From the Greek for "near", para-, and laurionite, in allusion to its polymorphic relationship to that species.
Dimorph of:Laurionite

Classification of Paralaurionite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:3/D.0-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:3.DC.05

3 : HALIDES
D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
C : With Pb (As,Sb,Bi), without Cu
Dana 8th edition ID:10.2.3.1

10 : OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
2 : A(O,OH)Xq
Hey's CIM Ref.:8.8.8

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
8 : Halides of Pb
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Type Occurrence of Paralaurionite

Type Locality:Lavrion District slag localities, Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium), Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika), Greece
Year of Discovery:1899

Physical Properties of Paralaurionite

Lustre:Sub-Adamantine
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:Colourless, white, yellow, violet, green
Hardness (Mohs):3
Cleavage:Perfect
On {001}.
Density (measured):6.15 g/cm3
Density (calculated):6.28 g/cm3

Crystallography of Paralaurionite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:B2/m
Space Group Setting:C1 2/m 1
Cell Parameters:a = 10.865(4) Å, b = 4.006(2) Å, c = 7.233(3) Å
β = 117.24(4)°
Ratio:a:b:c = 2.712 : 1 : 1.806
Unit Cell Volume:V 279.90 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Crystals thin tabular {100} or lath-like by elongation [001]. The terminations of the plates or laths are rectangular or wedge-shaped as a result of development of pyramidal faces at the corners.
Twinning:Twin plane {100}, very common, as symmetrical contact twins with composition face (100), simulating orthorhombic holohedry.
Comment:OD structure.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Paralaurionite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 2.050 nβ = 2.150 nγ = 2.200
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.150

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Dispersion:r < v strong
Pleochroism:Visible
Comments:Violet-tinted crystals are pleochroic with absorption Y is greater than X, Z.
Comments:Plates on {100} exhibit abnormal interference figures due to twinning.

Chemical Properties of Paralaurionite

Formula:
PbCl(OH)
Essential elements:Cl, H, O, Pb
All elements listed in formula:Cl, H, O, Pb

Relationship of Paralaurionite to other Species

Member of:Matlockite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Bismoclite
(BiO)Cl
Daubréeite
(BiO)(OH,Cl)
Laurionite
PbCl(OH)
Matlockite
PbFCl
Rorisite
CaFCl
Zavaritskite
(BiO)F
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
3.DC.05Laurionite
PbCl(OH)
3.DC.10Fiedlerite
Pb
 
3
FCl
 
4
(OH) · H
 
2
O
3.DC.15Penfieldite
Pb
 
2
Cl
 
3
(OH)
3.DC.20Laurelite
Pb
 
7
F
 
12
Cl
 
2
3.DC.25Bismoclite
(BiO)Cl
3.DC.25Daubréeite
(BiO)(OH,Cl)
3.DC.25Matlockite
PbFCl
3.DC.25Rorisite
CaFCl
3.DC.25Zavaritskite
(BiO)F
3.DC.25Zhangpeishanite
BaFCl
3.DC.30Nadorite
PbSbClO
 
2
3.DC.30Perite
PbBiClO
 
2
3.DC.35Aravaipaite
Pb
 
3
F
 
3
[AlF
 
6
] · H
 
2
O
3.DC.37Calcioaravaipaite
PbCa
 
2
AlF
 
9
3.DC.40Thorikosite
Pb
 
3
Cl
 
2
(OH)(SbO
 
3
,AsO
 
3
)
3.DC.45Mereheadite
Pb
 
47
Cl
 
25
(OH)
 
13
O
 
24
(CO
 
3
)(BO
 
3
)
 
2
3.DC.50Blixite
Pb
 
2
(O,OH)
 
2
Cl
3.DC.55Pinalite
Pb
 
3
WO
 
5
Cl
 
2
3.DC.60Symesite
Pb
 
10
(SO
 
4
)O
 
7
Cl
 
4
· H
 
2
O
3.DC.65Ecdemite
Pb
 
6
Cl
 
4
(As
 
2
O
 
7
)
3.DC.65Heliophyllite
Pb
 
6
Cl
 
4
(As
 
2
O
 
7
)
3.DC.70Mendipite
Pb
 
3
Cl
 
2
O
 
2
3.DC.75Damaraite
Pb
 
3
Cl(OH)O
 
2
3.DC.80Onoratoite
Sb
 
8
Cl
 
2
O
 
11
3.DC.85Cotunnite
PbCl
 
2
3.DC.90Pseudocotunnite
K
 
2
PbCl
 
4
3.DC.95Barstowite
Pb
 
4
Cl
 
6
(CO
 
3
) · H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
8.8.1Abhurite
Sn
 
21
Cl
 
16
(OH)
 
14
O
 
6
8.8.2Matlockite
PbFCl
8.8.3Laurelite
Pb
 
7
F
 
12
Cl
 
2
8.8.4Cotunnite
PbCl
 
2
8.8.5Mendipite
Pb
 
3
Cl
 
2
O
 
2
8.8.6Damaraite
Pb
 
3
Cl(OH)O
 
2
8.8.7Laurionite
PbCl(OH)
8.8.9Penfieldite
Pb
 
2
Cl
 
3
(OH)
8.8.10Fiedlerite
Pb
 
3
FCl
 
4
(OH) · H
 
2
O
8.8.11Blixite
Pb
 
2
(O,OH)
 
2
Cl
8.8.12Pseudocotunnite
K
 
2
PbCl
 
4
8.8.13Diaboleite
Pb
 
2
CuCl
 
2
(OH)
 
4
8.8.14Pseudoboleite
Pb
 
31
Cu
 
24
Cl
 
62
(OH)
 
48
8.8.15Chloroxiphite
Pb
 
3
CuO
 
2
Cl
 
2
(OH)
 
2
8.8.17Bideauxite
Pb
 
2
AgCl
 
3
(F,OH)
 
2
8.8.18Boleite
KPb
 
26
Ag
 
9
Cu
 
24
(OH)
 
48
Cl
 
62
8.8.19Aravaipaite
Pb
 
3
F
 
3
[AlF
 
6
] · H
 
2
O
8.8.20Yedlinite
Pb
 
6
Cr
3+
 
Cl
 
6
(O,OH,H
 
2
O)
 
8
8.8.21Kolarite
PbTeCl
 
2
8.8.22Hematophanite
Pb
 
4
Fe
 
3
O
 
8
(OH,Cl)

Other Names for Paralaurionite

Synonyms:
Laurionite-2MRafaelite (of Arzruni)
Other Languages:
German:Paralaurionit
Rafaëlit (of Arzruni and Thaddéeff)
Russian:Паралаурионит
Spanish:Paralaurionita

Other Information

Other Information:Soluble in nitric acid.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Paralaurionite

Reference List:

- +
Arzruni and Thaddéeff (1899) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 31: 229 (as Rafaëlit).

Smith, G. F. H. (1899): On some lead minerals from Laurium, namely, laurionite, phosgenite, fiedlerite, and (new species) paralaurionite. Mineralogical Magazine 12, 102-110.

Smith, G. F. H. (1899): Mineralogical Magazine 12, 183.

Ktenas (1910) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 33: 173.

Russell (1927) Mineralogical Magazine: 21: 221.

Palache, C. (1934). The form relations of the lead oxychlorides, laurionite, paralaurionite, and fiedlerite. Mineralogical Magazine 23, 573-586.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 64-66.

Mineralogical Magazine: 29: 341.

Merlino S., Pasero M., Perchiazzi N. (1993): Crystal structure of paralaurionite and its OD relationships with laurionite. Mineralogical Magazine 57, 323-328.

Internet Links for Paralaurionite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Paralaurionite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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    Localities for Paralaurionite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • Western Australia
      • Ashburton Shire
    Min. Record 24,203-218(1993)
    Nickel, E., Gartrell, B(1993): Secondary Minerals from Ashburton Downs Western Australia, Mineralogical Record (May-June 1993): 24:3:203-218
    Austria
     
    • Carinthia
      • Friesach - Hüttenberg area
        • Hüttenberg
          • Waitschach
    U. Kolitsch and H. Pristacz (2009): An orthorhombic dimorph of barstowite, Pb4Cl6(CO3)•H2O, from slags at Maria Waitschach, Austria, and Lavrion, Greece. Poster, Joint MinPet 2009 and 4th MSCC, Budapest, Hungary, September 7-11; abstract in Mitt. Österr. Mineral. Ges. 155, 83.; Kolitsch, U., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fink, R. & Auer, C. (2013): Die Mineralogie der weltweit einzigartigen Schlacken von Waitschach, Kärnten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A, 115, 19-87 (in German).
    Chile
     
    • Antofagasta Region
      • Antofagasta Province
    Econ Geol (1991) 86:1222-1237
        • Sierra Gorda District
    Palache, C. (1950): Paralaurionite. Mineralogical Magazine 29, 341-345. ["rafaelite" = paralaurionite]
    http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/penfieldite.pdf
    M. Dini specimens
    Arzruni and Thaddéeff (1899) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 31: 229; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 65, 317.
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Central Bohemia Region
        • Příbram
    RÜSENBERG, K. A. & PAULIŠ, P. (1996): Umbildungen und Neubildungen in den Schlackehalden der Blei- und Silberhütte von Příbram/ČR. Aufschluss 47, 267-287 (in German).
    France
     
    • Brittany
      • Côtes-d'Armor
        • Callac
          • Carnoët
            • Menez-Plom
    P. Le Roch collection
      • Finistère
        • Poullaouen
    Germain C., Leydet J-C., Saget Ph. (1990), Les minéraux de néoformation de Huelgoat (Finistère), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°3, 3-16
    • Rhône-Alpes
      • Ardèche
        • Thueyts
          • Mayres
    Gol D. (2009) - Histoire et minéralogie de l'ancienne concession minière de Mayres in Le Règne Minéral n°85
    Germany
     
    • Lower Saxony
      • Harz
        • Goslar
          • Astfeld
    van den Berg, W. & van Loon, C. (1990): Slag Minerals from the Rammelsberg, Harz Mountains, Germany. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 8, 18-23.
    Greece
     
    • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
      • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
        • Lavrion District Mines
          • Sounion area
            • Sounion Mines
    Kolitsch, U., Rieck, B., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fabritz, K. H., Blaß, G. & Gröbner, J. (2014): Neufunde aus dem altem Bergbau und den Schlacken von Lavrion (I). Mineralien-Welt 25 (1), 60-75 (in German).
    Smith, G. F. H. (1899): On some lead minerals from Laurium, namely, laurionite, phosgenite, fiedlerite, and (new species) paralaurionite. Mineral. Mag., 12, 102-110.; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 65; Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, Laurion (1996): The Minerals in the Ancient Slags.; Grolig, H. & Grolig, E. (1978): Lavrion in Attika. Lapis, 3 (5), 16-25; 40 (in German).
          • Agios Nikolaos [St Nicholas] area
    No reference listed
          • Lavrion (Laurion; Laurium)
    No reference listed
          • Oxygon area
    No reference listed
          • Panormos area
    No reference listed
          • Passa Limani area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; - Rüsenberg, K. A. (2001): Mineralparagenesen in den Schlacken von Lavrion und ihre Entstehung. Aufschluss 52, 25-44 (in German)
          • Puntazeza area (Punta Zeza area)
    Rüsenberg, K. A. (2001): Mineralparagenesen in den Schlacken von Lavrion und ihre Entstehung. Aufschluss 52, 25-44 (in German)
          • Sounion area
    van Kalmthout, P. (2012): De slakkenmineralen van Lavrion (Gr.) - Ontwikkelingen na 1996, inclusief een archeologische ontdekking. GEA, 45 (1), 14-19 (in Dutch); Fritz Schreiber Collection
    Collection of Elmar Lackner; van Kalmthout, P. (2012): De slakkenmineralen van Lavrion (Gr.) - Ontwikkelingen na 1996, inclusief een archeologische ontdekking. GEA, 45 (1), 14-19 (in Dutch).
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Thorikos area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Tourkolimanon area
    No reference listed
          • Vrissaki area
    Lacroix, A. & De Schulten, A. (1908): Note sur des minéraux plombifères des scories athéniennes du Laurion. Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie, 31, 79-90 (in French).; Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Italy
     
    • Liguria
      • Genova Province
        • Genova
          • Varenna Valley
    Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 2 (Avril/Juin), 175-188.
    • Piedmont
      • Vercelli Province
        • Sesia Valley
    Luigi Chiappino data
    • Tuscany
      • Livorno Province
        • Campiglia Marittima
    http://www.comune.pisa.it/apsn/Articoli/Scorie/Capattoli.htm
          • Sassetta
    Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
        • Piombino
    Cerutti, G. and Preite, D. (1995): Mineralien der etruskischen Schlacken von Baratti, Toskana. Lapis, 20 (4), 13-18; 50 (in German).
    Luigi Chiappino data
    Morocco
     
    • Meknès-Tafilalet Region
      • Khénifra Province
        • Midelt
    Gaudefroy, C. (1955): Paralaurionite from Mibladen. In: description provisoire des espèces minérales du Maroc. III. Notes Mémoires Service Géologique Maroc. 123, 170-172
    • Oriental Region
      • Jerada Province
        • Touissit District
          • Touissit
    Van King
    South Africa
     
    • Mpumalanga Province
      • Nkangala District
        • Delmas
    Minerals of South Africa
    UK
     
    • England
      • Bristol
        • Westbury on Trym
    BMS Database
      • Cornwall
        • Mount's Bay District
          • Porthleven
    Russell, A and Hutchinson, A. (1927): On laurionite and associated minerals from Cornwall. Mineral. Mag., 21, 221-228.; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 65
        • St Agnes District
          • Crantock
    BMS Newsletter 79, March 2010 (http://britishmicromountsociety.homestead.com/Gannell-Smelter.html)
        • Wadebridge District
          • St Minver
            • Trebetherick
    Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
      • Somerset
        • Cranmore
    Turner, R.W. and Rumsey, M.S. (2010): Mineral Relationships in the Mendip Hills. Journal of the Russell Society, vol 13, pp 3-46; Turner, R.W., (2006) A Mechanism for the formation of the Mineralised Mn Deposits at Merehead Quarry, Cranmore, Somerset, England. Min. Mag. vol. 70, no. 6, pp 629 - 653
        • Holwell
    BMS Database
    • Scotland
      • Dumfries & Galloway (Dumfriesshire)
        • Wanlockhead
    BMS Database; Green, D. I. (1987): The minerals of Meadowfoot smelter. UK Journal of Mines and Minerals 2, 3-9.
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Gila Co.
        • Dripping Spring Mts
          • Banner District
            • Christmas area
              • Christmas
    Raman analyzed at the University of Arizona.
      • Maricopa Co.
        • Big Horn Mts
          • Osborn District
            • Tonopah
              • Belmont Mountain
    Collected by and in the collection of Joe Ruiz. Analyzed by the University of Arizona.
      • Pinal Co.
        • Mammoth District
          • Tiger
            • St. Anthony deposit
    Palache, C. (1950): Paralaurionite. Mineralogical Magazine 29, 341-345.; Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 141; Fahey, J.J., et al (1950), Wherryite, a new mineral from the Mammoth mine, AZ, Am.Min.: 35: 93-98; Bideaux, R.A. (1980), Tiger, AZ, Min.Rec.: 11: 155-181; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 67.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 320; Bideaux, R.A. (1980), Tiger, Arizona, Min.Rec.: 11: 155-181; Palache, C. (1950), Paralaurionite, Min.Mag.: 29: 341-345; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 44.
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