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Pararealgar

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Formula:
As
 
4
S
 
4
System:MonoclinicColour:Light yellow to ...
Lustre:Vitreous, ResinousHardness:1 - 1½
Name:Named in 1980 by Andrew C. Roberts, H. Gary Ansell, and Maurizio Bonardi from the Greek παρα "para" = beyond for the polymorphous structural relationship to realgar.


Red Realgar alters to yellow/yellow-orange pararealgar on exposure to light.

Classification of Pararealgar

IMA status:Approved 1980
Strunz 8th edition ID:2/F.02-40
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:2.FA.15b

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
F : Sulfides of arsenic, alkalies; sulfides with halide, oxide, hydroxide, H2O
A : With As, (Sb), S
Dana 8th edition ID:2.8.21.2

2 : SULFIDES
8 : AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Hey's CIM Ref.:3.7.5

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
7 : Sulphides etc. of V, As, Sb and Bi
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Type Occurrence of Pararealgar

Co-type Localities:Grey Rock Mine, Truax Creek, Bridge River area, Lillooet Mining Division, British Columbia, Canada
Mt Washington mine, Comox District, Vancouver Island, Nanaimo Mining Division, British Columbia, Canada
Year of Discovery:1980

Physical Properties of Pararealgar

Lustre:Vitreous, Resinous
Colour:Light yellow to orange-brown
Streak:Light yellow
Hardness (Mohs):1 - 1½
Cleavage:None Observed

Crystallography of Pararealgar

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:P21/b {P1 1 21/b} {P21/c} {P1 21/c 1} {P21/a}
Space Group Setting:P21/c
Cell Parameters:a = 9.909Å, b = 9.655Å, c = 8.502Å
β = 97.20°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.026 : 1 : 0.881
Unit Cell Volume:V 806.8 ų

Chemical Properties of Pararealgar

Formula:
As
 
4
S
 
4
Simplified for copy/paste:As4S4
Essential elements:As, S
All elements listed in formula:As, S

Relationship of Pararealgar to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
2.FA.05Duranusite
As
 
4
S
2.FA.10Dimorphite
As
 
4
S
 
3
2.FA.15aRealgar
As
 
4
S
 
4
2.FA.15cUM1970-19-S:As
As
 
4
S
 
4
2.FA.15dUM1970-18-S:As
As
 
4
S
 
4
2.FA.20Alacránite
As
 
8
S
 
9
2.FA.25Uzonite
As
 
4
S
 
5
2.FA.30Laphamite
As
 
2
(Se,S)
 
3
2.FA.30Orpiment
As
 
2
S
 
3
2.FA.35Getchellite
AsSbS
 
3
2.FA.40Wakabayashilite
[(As,Sb)
 
6
S
 
9
][As
 
4
S
 
5
]
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
3.7.1Patrónite
VS
 
4
3.7.2Duranusite
As
 
4
S
3.7.3Dimorphite
As
 
4
S
 
3
3.7.4Realgar
As
 
4
S
 
4
3.7.6Alacránite
As
 
8
S
 
9
3.7.7Uzonite
As
 
4
S
 
5
3.7.8Orpiment
As
 
2
S
 
3
3.7.9Jeromite
3.7.10Laphamite
As
 
2
(Se,S)
 
3
3.7.11Getchellite
AsSbS
 
3
3.7.12Wakabayashilite
[(As,Sb)
 
6
S
 
9
][As
 
4
S
 
5
]
3.7.13Pääkkönenite
Sb
 
2
AsS
 
2
3.7.14Stibnite
Sb
 
2
S
 
3
3.7.15Metastibnite
Sb
 
2
S
 
3
3.7.16Tellurantimony
Sb
 
2
Te
 
3
3.7.17Bismuthinite
Bi
 
2
S
 
3
3.7.18Nevskite
Bi(Se,S)
3.7.19Guanajuatite
Bi
 
2
(Se,S)
 
3
3.7.21Ikunolite
Bi
 
4
(S,Se)
 
3
3.7.22Laitakarite
Bi
 
4
Se
 
2
S
3.7.23Poubaite
PbBi
 
2
(Se,Te,S)
 
4
3.7.24Tellurobismuthite
Bi
 
2
Te
 
3
3.7.25Součekite
PbCuBi(S,Se)
 
3
3.7.26Tsumoite
BiTe
3.7.27Pilsenite
Bi
 
4
Te
 
3
3.7.28Hedleyite
Bi
 
7
Te
 
3
3.7.29Tetradymite
Bi
 
2
Te
 
2
S
3.7.30Joséite
Bi
 
4
TeS
 
2
3.7.31Joséite-B
Bi
 
4
Te
 
2
S
3.7.32Ingodite
Bi
 
2
TeS
3.7.33Sulphotsumoite
Bi
 
3
Te
 
2
S
3.7.34Kawazulite
Bi
 
2
Te
 
2
Se
3.7.36Skippenite
Bi
 
2
TeSe
 
2
3.7.37Kochkarite
PbBi
 
4
Te
 
7
3.7.38Rucklidgeite
(Bi,Pb)
 
3
Te
 
4
3.7.39Aleksite
PbBi
 
2
Te
 
2
S
 
2
3.7.40Junoite
Cu
 
2
Pb
 
3
Bi
 
8
(S,Se)
 
16

Other Names for Pararealgar

Synonyms:
IMA1980-034
Other Languages:
Russian:Парареальгар

Other Information

Health Warning:Contains arsenic - always wash hands after handling. Avoid inhaling dust when handling or breaking. Never lick or ingest.

References for Pararealgar

Reference List:

- +
ROBERTS, A.C., ANSELL, H.G. & BONARDI, M. (1980): Pararealgar, a new polymorph of AsS, from British Columbia. Canadian Mineralogist 18, 525-527.
BONAZZI, P., MENCHETTI, S. & PRATESI, G. (1995): The crystal structure of pararealgar,As4S4. American Mineralogist 80, 400-403.

Kyono, A., Kimata, M. & Hatta, T. (2005): Light-induced degradation dynamics in realgar: In situ structural investigation using single-crystal X-ray diffraction study and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. American Mineralogist: 90: 1563-1570.

Ballirano, P. & Maras, A. (2006): In-situ X-ray transmission powder diffraction study of the kinetics of the light induced alteration of realgar (alpha-As4S4). European Journal of Mineralogy, 18, 589–599.

P. Bonazzi, L. Bindi, G. Pratesi & S. Menchetti (2006): Light-induced changes in molecular arsenic sulfides: state of the art and new evidence by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. American Mineralogist, 91, 1323–1330.

Bonazzi, P. & Bindi, L. (2008): A crystallographic review of arsenic sulfides: Effects of chemical variations and changes induced by exposure to light. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, 223, 132-147.

Internet Links for Pararealgar

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  • Localities for Pararealgar

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Austria
     
    • Carinthia
      • Friesach - Hüttenberg area
        • Hüttenberg
          • Lölling
    Schnorrer, G. (2000): Mineralogische Notizen VII. Der Aufschluss, 51, 281-293
      • Völkermarkt
        • Rammersdorf
          • Dragonerfels
    G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
    • Styria
      • Fischbacher Alpen
        • St Marein im Mürztal
    C.Auer (2005)
    Christian Auer
    • Tyrol
      • North Tyrol
        • Inn valley
          • Brixlegg - Schwaz area
            • Schwaz
    Lapis 19(7/8):13-78 (1994)
    Canada
     
    • British Columbia
      • Kamloops Mining Division
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; A. G. Roberts, H. G. Ansell, and M. Bonardi (1980) Pararealgar, a new polymorph of AsS, from British Columbia. Can. Mineral.,l8, 525-52
      • Lillooet Mining Division
        • Bridge River area
          • Truax Creek
    ROBERTS, A.C., ANSELL, H.G. & BONARDI, M. (1980): Pararealgar, a new polymorph of AsS, from British Columbia. Canadian Mineralogist 18, 525-527. BONAZZI, P., MENCHETTI, S. & PRATESI, G. (1995): The crystal structure of pararealgar, As4S4. American Mineralogist 80, 400-403.
      • Nanaimo Mining Division
        • Vancouver Island
          • Comox District
    ROBERTS, A.C., ANSELL, H.G. & BONARDI, M. (1980): Pararealgar, a new polymorph of AsS, from British Columbia. Canadian Mineralogist 18, 525-527. BONAZZI, P., MENCHETTI, S. & PRATESI, G. (1995): The crystal structure of pararealgar, As4S4. American Mineralogist 80, 400-403.
    • Ontario
      • Thunder Bay District
        • Bomby Township
    Harris (1989)
    Ann P.Sabina (1991), Rocks and Minerals for the Collector, Sudbury to Winnipeg. GSC Misc. Report 49. p.86
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Karlovy Vary Region
        • Krušné Hory Mtns (Erzgebirge)
          • Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal)
    Lapis 2002(7/8), 63-65
    France
     
    • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
      • Alpes-Maritimes
        • Duranus
    Mari G. & D. (2012) : "La mine d'arsenic de Duranus". Riviera Scientifique n°96, p 39-70
      • Hautes-Alpes
        • La Chapelle-en-Valgaudémar
    Bourgoin, V., Favreau, G., Boulliard, J.-C. (2011): Jas Roux: un gisement exceptionnel à minéraux de thallium. Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2011, 2-91.
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Black Forest
        • Hornberg
    Gröbner, J. & Schrenk, D. (2005): Die Mineralien des Tunnels bei Hornberg. Der Erzgräber 19, 17-25. (in German)
        • Schenkenzell
          • Wittichen
            • Böckelsbach valley
    Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
            • Burgfelsen
    No reference listed
            • Heubach Valley
    No reference listed
    • Lower Saxony
      • Harz
        • St Andreasberg District
    No reference listed
    • Saxony
      • Dresden
        • Hänichen
    Thalheim, K.; Reichel, W. & Witzke, T. (1991): Die Minerale des Döhlener Beckens.- Schriften des Staatlichen Museums für Mineralogie und Geologie zu Dresden, Nr. 3
        • Possendorf
      • Erzgebirge
        • Schlema-Hartenstein District
          • Alberoda
    Vollstädt,H. & Weiß,St. (1991): Mineralfundstellen Sächsisches Erzgebirge, München, S.26ff.
    • Thuringia
      • Gera
        • Ronneburg U deposit
    T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
    Italy
     
    • Campania
      • Phlegrean Volcanic Complex
        • Naples Province
          • Phlegrean Fields
            • Pozzuoli
    Russo, M. (2004): Realgar e pararealgar della Solfatara di Pozzuoli. Micro (notizie mineralogiche), 2004, 25-28
    • Lombardy
      • Sondrio Province
    AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Kanto region
        • Gunma Prefecture
    Matsubara, S. & Miyawaki, R. (2005) Bulletin of the National Science Museum (Tokyo), 31, 1-6.
    Peru
     
    • Huancavelica Department
      • Castrovirreyna Province
    Hyrsl, J. & Rosales, Z. (2006) New mineral finds in Peru (2000-2006). Mineral Up (Barcelona), 1(1), 4-21.; Min Rec 39:95-99
    Republic of Macedonia
     
    • Roszdan
    [Rieck, B. (1993) - Famous mineral localities: Allchar, Macedonia, Mineralogical Record, 24 (6), 437-449]; The Canadian Mineralogist Vol.32, pp. 649-665 (1994)
    Romania
     
    • Covasna Co.
      • Covasna (Kovászna)
    Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F. (Eds.) (2010): Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Csík County Nature and Conservation Society, Sfantu Gheorghe, etc.
    • Harghita Co.
    Ed.:Szakáll S.-Kristály F.2010:Mineralogy of Székelyland,Eastern Transylvania,Romania
    • Maramureș Co.
      • Baia Sprie (Felsöbánya)
    Dion Glastra specimen
    Minerals of Carpathians,2004
    • Suceava Co.
    Koller G.2009,Own found
    Russia
     
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Kamchatka Oblast'
    OT. Ljostad collection
    Slovakia
     
    • Banská Bystrica Region
      • Banská Bystrica Co.
    Ďuďa R., Pauliš P., 2004: Minerály Slovenskej republiky. Kuttna, Kutná Hora, 134p
    • Prešov Region
      • Prešov Co.
        • Červenica
    Duda,R. et. all.,1981: MIneralogia severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovaca,Monografia 2, Bratislava, 98p
    Spain
     
    • Asturias
      • Pola de Lena
    A Borrelli collection
    Switzerland
     
    • Grischun (Grisons; Graubünden)
      • Puschlav (Poschiavo Valley)
    Romani E. (2000): Andar per cristalli - Tesori nascosti. Centro studi del Museo mineralogico naturalistico di Bormio, 151 p.
    • Wallis (Valais)
      • Binn Valley
        • Binn
    Cannon, R., Hensel, H. & Raber, T. (2008): Der Reckibach-Dolomit im Binntal, Schweiz: Mineralbestand und Neufunde. Lapis, 33 (3), 20-28; 50. (in German)
        • Imfeld (Im Feld; Feld; Fäld)
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 297.
    Taiwan
     
    • Taiwan Province
      • Taipei Co.
        • Jui-Fang Town
    UK
     
    • Wales
      • Powys (Radnorshire)
        • Old Radnor
          • Wethel
    Cotterell TF et al (2011) The mineralogy of Dolyhir quarry, Old Radnor. Powys, Wales. UKJMM 32:5-61
    USA
     
    • California
      • Kern Co.
        • Kramer District
    www.mineralsocal.org
            • Kramer Borate deposit
    • Nevada
      • Douglas Co.
        • Wellington Hills
          • Silver Glance District (Wellington District)
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Eureka Co.
        • Carlin Trend
          • Maggie Creek Subdistrict
    MinRec 26(5):449-469.
        • Lynn District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Humboldt Co.
        • Golconda District
    Handbook of Mineralogy; A. G. Roberts, H. G. Ansell, and M. Bonardi (1980) Pararealgar, a new polymorph of AsS, from British Columbia. Can. Mineral.,l8, 525-527.
        • Osgood Mts
          • Potosi District
            • Adam Peak
    Handbook of Mineralogy
      • Nye Co.
        • Manhattan District
          • Manhattan
    Excalibur mineral list CATALOG 21001 - Vol. XXXVII, No. 1
    • New Jersey
      • Sussex Co.
        • Franklin Mining District
          • Ogdensburg
            • Sterling Hill
    J. Cianciulli, Curator, Franklin Mineral Museum
    • Oregon
      • Lane Co.
        • Trent
    Microprobe, Fall 2007
    • Washington
      • King Co.
        • Palmer
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