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Pararealgar

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Formula:
As4S4
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Light yellow to ...
Lustre:
Vitreous, Resinous
Hardness:
1 - 1½
Name:
Named in 1980 by Andrew C. Roberts, H. Gary Ansell, and Maurizio Bonardi from the Greek παρα "para" = beyond for the polymorphous structural relationship to realgar.
Red Realgar alters to yellow/yellow-orange pararealgar on exposure to light.

Classification of Pararealgar

Approved
Approval Year:
1980
2.FA.15b

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
F : Sulfides of arsenic, alkalies; sulfides with halide, oxide, hydroxide, H2O
A : With As, (Sb), S
2.8.21.2

2 : SULFIDES
8 : AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
3.7.5

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
7 : Sulphides etc. of V, As, Sb and Bi
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Type Occurrence of Pararealgar

Physical Properties of Pararealgar

Vitreous, Resinous
Colour:
Light yellow to orange-brown
Streak:
Light yellow
Hardness (Mohs):
1 - 1½
Cleavage:
None Observed

Crystallography of Pararealgar

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/b
Space Group Setting:
P21/c
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.909Å, b = 9.655Å, c = 8.502Å
β = 97.20°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.026 : 1 : 0.881
Unit Cell Volume:
V 806.8 ų

Chemical Properties of Pararealgar

Formula:
As4S4
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Pararealgar to other Species

2.FA.AnorpimentAs2S3
2.FA.05DuranusiteAs4S
2.FA.10DimorphiteAs4S3
2.FA.15aRealgarAs4S4
2.FA.15dUM1970-18-S:AsAs4S4
2.FA.20AlacrániteAs8S9
2.FA.25UzoniteAs4S5
2.FA.30LaphamiteAs2(Se,S)3
2.FA.30OrpimentAs2S3
2.FA.35GetchelliteAsSbS3
2.FA.40Wakabayashilite[(As,Sb)6S9][As4S5]
3.7.1PatróniteVS4
3.7.2DuranusiteAs4S
3.7.3DimorphiteAs4S3
3.7.4RealgarAs4S4
3.7.6AlacrániteAs8S9
3.7.7UzoniteAs4S5
3.7.8OrpimentAs2S3
3.7.9Jeromite
3.7.10LaphamiteAs2(Se,S)3
3.7.11GetchelliteAsSbS3
3.7.12Wakabayashilite[(As,Sb)6S9][As4S5]
3.7.13PääkköneniteSb2AsS2
3.7.14StibniteSb2S3
3.7.15MetastibniteSb2S3
3.7.16TellurantimonySb2Te3
3.7.17BismuthiniteBi2S3
3.7.18NevskiteBi(Se,S)
3.7.19GuanajuatiteBi2Se3
3.7.21IkunoliteBi4(S,Se)3
3.7.22LaitakariteBi4Se2S
3.7.23PoubaitePbBi2(Se,Te,S)4
3.7.24TellurobismuthiteBi2Te3
3.7.25SoučekitePbCuBi(S,Se)3
3.7.26TsumoiteBiTe
3.7.27PilseniteBi4Te3
3.7.28HedleyiteBi7Te3
3.7.29TetradymiteBi2Te2S
3.7.30JoséiteBi4TeS2
3.7.31Joséite-BBi4Te2S
3.7.32IngoditeBi2TeS
3.7.33SulphotsumoiteBi3Te2S
3.7.34KawazuliteBi2Te2Se
3.7.36SkippeniteBi2TeSe2
3.7.37KochkaritePbBi4Te7
3.7.38RucklidgeitePbBi2Te4
3.7.39AleksitePbBi2Te2S2
3.7.40JunoiteCu2Pb3Bi8(S,Se)16

Other Names for Pararealgar

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Health Risks:
Contains arsenic - always wash hands after handling. Avoid inhaling dust when handling or breaking. Never lick or ingest.

References for Pararealgar

Reference List:
Roberts, A.C., Ansell, H.G., Bonardi, M. (1980) Pararealgar, a new polymorph of AsS, from British Columbia. The Canadian Mineralogist: 18: 525-527.

Douglass, D.L., Shing, C., Wang, G. (1992) The light-induced alteration of realgar to pararealgar. American Mineralogist: 77: 1266-1274.

Bonazzi, P., Menchetti, S., Pratesi, G. (1995) The crystal structure of pararealgar,As4S4. American Mineralogist: 80: 400-403.

Kyono, A., Kimata, M., Hatta, T. (2005) Light-induced degradation dynamics in realgar: In situ structural investigation using single-crystal X-ray diffraction study and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. American Mineralogist: 90: 1563-1570.

Ballirano, P., Maras, A. (2006) In-situ X-ray transmission powder diffraction study of the kinetics of the light induced alteration of realgar (alpha-As4S4). European Journal of Mineralogy: 18: 589–599.

Bonazzi, P., Bindi, L., Pratesi, G., Menchetti, S. (2006) Light-induced changes in molecular arsenic sulfides: State of the art and new evidence by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. American Mineralogist: 91: 1323-1330.

Naumov, P., Makreski, P., Jovanovski, G. (2007) Direct atomic scale observations of linkage isomerization of As4S4 clusters during the photinduced transition of realgar to pararealgar. Inorganic Chemistry: 46: 10624-10631.

Bonazzi, P., Bindi, L. (2008) A crystallographic review of arsenic sulfides: Effects of chemical variations and changes induced by exposure to light. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 223: 132-147.

Internet Links for Pararealgar

Specimens:
The following Pararealgar specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Pararealgar

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Friesach - Hüttenberg area
      • Hüttenberg
        • Lölling
Schnorrer, G. (2000): Mineralogische Notizen VII. Der Aufschluss, 51, 281-293
    • Völkermarkt
      • Rammersdorf
        • Dragonerfels
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
  • Styria
    • Fischbacher Alpen
      • St Marein im Mürztal
C.Auer (2005)
Christian Auer
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Inn valley
        • Brixlegg - Schwaz area
          • Schwaz
Lapis 19(7/8):13-78 (1994)
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Kamloops Mining Division
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; A. G. Roberts, H. G. Ansell, and M. Bonardi (1980) Pararealgar, a new polymorph of AsS, from British Columbia. Can. Mineral.,l8, 525-52
    • Lillooet Mining Division
      • Bridge River area
        • Truax Creek
ROBERTS, A.C., ANSELL, H.G. & BONARDI, M. (1980): Pararealgar, a new polymorph of AsS, from British Columbia. Canadian Mineralogist 18, 525-527. BONAZZI, P., MENCHETTI, S. & PRATESI, G. (1995): The crystal structure of pararealgar, As4S4. American Mineralogist 80, 400-403.
    • Nanaimo Mining Division
      • Vancouver Island
        • Comox District
ROBERTS, A.C., ANSELL, H.G. & BONARDI, M. (1980): Pararealgar, a new polymorph of AsS, from British Columbia. Canadian Mineralogist 18, 525-527. BONAZZI, P., MENCHETTI, S. & PRATESI, G. (1995): The crystal structure of pararealgar, As4S4. American Mineralogist 80, 400-403.
  • Ontario
    • Thunder Bay District
      • Bomby Township
Harris (1989)
Ann P.Sabina (1991), Rocks and Minerals for the Collector, Sudbury to Winnipeg. GSC Misc. Report 49. p.86
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Karlovy Vary Region
      • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
        • Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal)
Lapis 2002(7/8), 63-65
France
 
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Alpes-Maritimes
      • Duranus
Mari G. & D. (2012) : "La mine d'arsenic de Duranus". Riviera Scientifique n°96, p 39-70
    • Hautes-Alpes
      • La Chapelle-en-Valgaudemar (La Chapelle-en-Valgaudémar)
Bourgoin, V., Favreau, G., Boulliard, J.-C. (2011): Jas Roux: un gisement exceptionnel à minéraux de thallium. Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2011, 2-91.
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Hornberg
Gröbner, J. & Schrenk, D. (2005): Die Mineralien des Tunnels bei Hornberg. Der Erzgräber 19, 17-25. (in German)
      • Schenkenzell
        • Wittichen
          • Böckelsbach valley
Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
          • Burgfelsen
No reference listed
          • Heubach Valley
No reference listed
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • St Andreasberg District
No reference listed
  • Saxony
    • Dresden
      • Hänichen
Thalheim, K.; Reichel, W. & Witzke, T. (1991): Die Minerale des Döhlener Beckens.- Schriften des Staatlichen Museums für Mineralogie und Geologie zu Dresden, Nr. 3
      • Possendorf
    • Erzgebirge
      • Schlema-Hartenstein District
        • Alberoda
Vollstädt,H. & Weiß,St. (1991): Mineralfundstellen Sächsisches Erzgebirge, München, S.26ff.
  • Thuringia
    • Gera
      • Ronneburg U deposit
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
Italy
 
  • Campania
    • Phlegrean Volcanic Complex
      • Naples Province
        • Phlegrean Fields
          • Pozzuoli
Russo, M. (2004): Realgar e pararealgar della Solfatara di Pozzuoli. Micro (notizie mineralogiche), 2004, 25-28
  • Lombardy
    • Sondrio Province
      • Valtellina
        • Malenco Valley
          • Lanterna Valley
            • Lanzada
              • Campo Moro Valley
                • Poschiavina Valley
Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
        • Valfurva
          • Gavia Valley
Bianchi Potenza, B., Liborio, G. (1981): Prima segnalazione di pararealgar in Italia: il giacimento di Valle dell'Alpe (Valle del Gavia, Sondrio). Natura, 72, 129-133. AA. VV. (1996): Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work. Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (2006) I minerali della media-alta Valtellina, delle Orobie valtellinesi e della Val Poschiavo. Aggiornamenti sulle altre località della provincia di Sondrio. Bettini, Sondrio, 255 pp.
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Kanto region
      • Gunma Prefecture
Matsubara, S. & Miyawaki, R. (2005) Bulletin of the National Science Museum (Tokyo), 31, 1-6.
New Zealand
 
  • North Island
    • Waikato
      • Hauraki
        • Waihi
Rod Martin personal collection
Peru
 
  • Huancavelica Department
    • Castrovirreyna Province
Hyrsl, J. & Rosales, Z. (2006) New mineral finds in Peru (2000-2006). Mineral Up (Barcelona), 1(1), 4-21.; Min Rec 39:95-99
Republic of Macedonia
 
  • Roszdan
[Rieck, B. (1993) - Famous mineral localities: Allchar, Macedonia, Mineralogical Record, 24 (6), 437-449]; The Canadian Mineralogist Vol.32, pp. 649-665 (1994); Boevl, B., Bermanec, V., Serafimovski, T., Lepitkoval, S., & Mikulcic, S. (2001). Allchar Mineral Assemblage. Geologica Macedonica, Vol. 15-16, p. 1-23 (2001-2002) Suppl
Romania
 
  • Covasna Co.
    • Covasna (Kovászna)
Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F. (Eds.) (2010): Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Csík County Nature and Conservation Society, Sfantu Gheorghe, etc.
  • Harghita Co.
Ed.:Szakáll S.-Kristály F.2010:Mineralogy of Székelyland,Eastern Transylvania,Romania
  • Maramureș Co.
    • Baia Sprie (Felsőbánya)
Dion Glastra specimen
Minerals of Carpathians,2004
  • Suceava Co.
Koller G.2009,Own found
Russia
 
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Kamchatka Oblast'
OT. Ljostad collection
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Banská Bystrica Co.
Ďuďa R., Pauliš P., 2004: Minerály Slovenskej republiky. Kuttna, Kutná Hora, 134p
  • Prešov Region
    • Prešov Co.
      • Červenica
Duda,R. et. all.,1981: MIneralogia severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovaca,Monografia 2, Bratislava, 98p
Spain
 
  • Asturias
    • Pola de Lena
A Borrelli collection
Switzerland
 
  • Grischun (Grisons; Graubünden)
    • Poschiavo Valley
      • Poschiavo (Puschlav)
Romani E. (2000): Andar per cristalli - Tesori nascosti. Centro studi del Museo mineralogico naturalistico di Bormio, 151 p.
Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (2006) I minerali della media-alta Valtellina, delle Orobie valtellinesi e della Val Poschiavo. Aggiornamenti sulle altre località della provincia di Sondrio. Bettini, Sondrio, 255 pp.
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Binn Valley
      • Binn
Cannon, R., Hensel, H. & Raber, T. (2008): Der Reckibach-Dolomit im Binntal, Schweiz: Mineralbestand und Neufunde. Lapis, 33 (3), 20-28; 50. (in German)
      • Fäld (Imfeld; Im Feld; Feld)
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 297.
Taiwan
 
  • Taiwan Province
    • Taipei Co.
      • Jui-Fang Town
Turkey
 
  • Eastern Anatolia Region
Erik Vercammen collection
Erik Vercammen collection and field observations (1988)
UK
 
  • Wales
    • Powys
      • Old Radnor
        • Wethel
Cotterell TF et al (2011) The mineralogy of Dolyhir quarry, Old Radnor. Powys, Wales. UKJMM 32:5-61
USA
 
  • California
    • Kern Co.
      • Kramer District (Kramer Borate District)
www.mineralsocal.org
          • Kramer Borate deposit
  • Nevada
    • Douglas Co.
      • Wellington Hills
        • Silver Glance District (Wellington District)
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Eureka Co.
      • Carlin Trend
        • Maggie Creek Subdistrict
MinRec 26(5):449-469.
      • Lynn District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Humboldt Co.
      • Golconda District
Handbook of Mineralogy; A. G. Roberts, H. G. Ansell, and M. Bonardi (1980) Pararealgar, a new polymorph of AsS, from British Columbia. Can. Mineral.,l8, 525-527.
      • Osgood Mts
        • Potosi District
          • Adam Peak
Handbook of Mineralogy
    • Nye Co.
      • Toquima Range
        • Manhattan District
          • Manhattan
Excalibur mineral list CATALOG 21001 - Vol. XXXVII, No. 1
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
J. Cianciulli, Curator, Franklin Mineral Museum
  • Oregon
    • Lane Co.
      • Trent
Microprobe, Fall 2007
  • Washington
    • King Co.
      • Palmer
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