Help mindat.org|Log In|Register|
Home PageMindat NewsThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusManagement TeamContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatSponsor a PageSponsored PagesTop Available PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on MindatThe Mindat Store
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryRandom MineralSearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
Keyword(s):
 
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportAdd Glossary Item
StatisticsMember ListBooks & MagazinesMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryHow to Link to MindatDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery

Pararealgar

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Formula:
As4S4
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Light yellow to ...
Lustre:
Vitreous, Resinous
Hardness:
1 - 1½
Name:
Named in 1980 by Andrew C. Roberts, H. Gary Ansell, and Maurizio Bonardi from the Greek παρα "para" = beyond for the polymorphous structural relationship to realgar.
Red Realgar alters to yellow/yellow-orange pararealgar on exposure to light.

Classification of Pararealgar

Approved 1980
2.FA.15b

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
F : Sulfides of arsenic, alkalies; sulfides with halide, oxide, hydroxide, H2O
A : With As, (Sb), S
2.8.21.2

2 : SULFIDES
8 : AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
3.7.5

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
7 : Sulphides etc. of V, As, Sb and Bi
mindat.org URL:
http://www.mindat.org/min-3107.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Type Occurrence of Pararealgar

Year of Discovery:
1980

Physical Properties of Pararealgar

Vitreous, Resinous
Colour:
Light yellow to orange-brown
Streak:
Light yellow
Hardness (Mohs):
1 - 1½
Cleavage:
None Observed

Crystallography of Pararealgar

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/b
Space Group Setting:
P21/c
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.909Å, b = 9.655Å, c = 8.502Å
β = 97.20°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.026 : 1 : 0.881
Unit Cell Volume:
V 806.8 ų

Chemical Properties of Pararealgar

Formula:
As4S4
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Pararealgar to other Species

2.FA.05DuranusiteAs4S
2.FA.10DimorphiteAs4S3
2.FA.15aRealgarAs4S4
2.FA.15cUM1970-19-S:AsAs4S4
2.FA.15dUM1970-18-S:AsAs4S4
2.FA.20AlacrániteAs8S9
2.FA.25UzoniteAs4S5
2.FA.30LaphamiteAs2(Se,S)3
2.FA.30OrpimentAs2S3
2.FA.35GetchelliteAsSbS3
2.FA.40Wakabayashilite[(As,Sb)6S9][As4S5]
3.7.1PatróniteVS4
3.7.2DuranusiteAs4S
3.7.3DimorphiteAs4S3
3.7.4RealgarAs4S4
3.7.6AlacrániteAs8S9
3.7.7UzoniteAs4S5
3.7.8OrpimentAs2S3
3.7.9Jeromite
3.7.10LaphamiteAs2(Se,S)3
3.7.11GetchelliteAsSbS3
3.7.12Wakabayashilite[(As,Sb)6S9][As4S5]
3.7.13PääkköneniteSb2AsS2
3.7.14StibniteSb2S3
3.7.15MetastibniteSb2S3
3.7.16TellurantimonySb2Te3
3.7.17BismuthiniteBi2S3
3.7.18NevskiteBi(Se,S)
3.7.19GuanajuatiteBi2Se3
3.7.21IkunoliteBi4(S,Se)3
3.7.22LaitakariteBi4Se2S
3.7.23PoubaitePbBi2(Se,Te,S)4
3.7.24TellurobismuthiteBi2Te3
3.7.25SoučekitePbCuBi(S,Se)3
3.7.26TsumoiteBiTe
3.7.27PilseniteBi4Te3
3.7.28HedleyiteBi7Te3
3.7.29TetradymiteBi2Te2S
3.7.30JoséiteBi4TeS2
3.7.31Joséite-BBi4Te2S
3.7.32IngoditeBi2TeS
3.7.33SulphotsumoiteBi3Te2S
3.7.34KawazuliteBi2Te2Se
3.7.36SkippeniteBi2TeSe2
3.7.37KochkaritePbBi4Te7
3.7.38Rucklidgeite(Bi,Pb)3Te4
3.7.39AleksitePbBi2Te2S2
3.7.40JunoiteCu2Pb3Bi8(S,Se)16

Other Names for Pararealgar

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Pararealgar

Reference List:
ROBERTS, A.C., ANSELL, H.G. & BONARDI, M. (1980): Pararealgar, a new polymorph of AsS, from British Columbia. Canadian Mineralogist 18, 525-527.
BONAZZI, P., MENCHETTI, S. & PRATESI, G. (1995): The crystal structure of pararealgar,As4S4. American Mineralogist 80, 400-403.

Kyono, A., Kimata, M. & Hatta, T. (2005): Light-induced degradation dynamics in realgar: In situ structural investigation using single-crystal X-ray diffraction study and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. American Mineralogist: 90: 1563-1570.

Ballirano, P. & Maras, A. (2006): In-situ X-ray transmission powder diffraction study of the kinetics of the light induced alteration of realgar (alpha-As4S4). European Journal of Mineralogy, 18, 589–599.

P. Bonazzi, L. Bindi, G. Pratesi & S. Menchetti (2006): Light-induced changes in molecular arsenic sulfides: state of the art and new evidence by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. American Mineralogist, 91, 1323–1330.

Bonazzi, P. & Bindi, L. (2008): A crystallographic review of arsenic sulfides: Effects of chemical variations and changes induced by exposure to light. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, 223, 132-147.

Internet Links for Pararealgar

Localities for Pararealgar

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Friesach - Hüttenberg area
      • Hüttenberg
        • Lölling
Schnorrer, G. (2000): Mineralogische Notizen VII. Der Aufschluss, 51, 281-293
    • Völkermarkt
      • Rammersdorf
        • Dragonerfels
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
  • Styria
    • Fischbacher Alpen
      • St Marein im Mürztal
C.Auer (2005)
Christian Auer
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Inn valley
        • Brixlegg - Schwaz area
          • Schwaz
Lapis 19(7/8):13-78 (1994)
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Kamloops Mining Division
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; A. G. Roberts, H. G. Ansell, and M. Bonardi (1980) Pararealgar, a new polymorph of AsS, from British Columbia. Can. Mineral.,l8, 525-52
    • Lillooet Mining Division
      • Bridge River area
        • Truax Creek
ROBERTS, A.C., ANSELL, H.G. & BONARDI, M. (1980): Pararealgar, a new polymorph of AsS, from British Columbia. Canadian Mineralogist 18, 525-527. BONAZZI, P., MENCHETTI, S. & PRATESI, G. (1995): The crystal structure of pararealgar, As4S4. American Mineralogist 80, 400-403.
    • Nanaimo Mining Division
      • Vancouver Island
        • Comox District
ROBERTS, A.C., ANSELL, H.G. & BONARDI, M. (1980): Pararealgar, a new polymorph of AsS, from British Columbia. Canadian Mineralogist 18, 525-527. BONAZZI, P., MENCHETTI, S. & PRATESI, G. (1995): The crystal structure of pararealgar, As4S4. American Mineralogist 80, 400-403.
  • Ontario
    • Thunder Bay District
      • Bomby Township
Harris (1989)
Ann P.Sabina (1991), Rocks and Minerals for the Collector, Sudbury to Winnipeg. GSC Misc. Report 49. p.86
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Karlovy Vary Region
      • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
        • Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal)
Lapis 2002(7/8), 63-65
France
 
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Alpes-Maritimes
      • Duranus
Mari G. & D. (2012) : "La mine d'arsenic de Duranus". Riviera Scientifique n°96, p 39-70
    • Hautes-Alpes
      • La Chapelle-en-Valgaudemar (La Chapelle-en-Valgaudémar)
Bourgoin, V., Favreau, G., Boulliard, J.-C. (2011): Jas Roux: un gisement exceptionnel à minéraux de thallium. Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2011, 2-91.
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Hornberg
Gröbner, J. & Schrenk, D. (2005): Die Mineralien des Tunnels bei Hornberg. Der Erzgräber 19, 17-25. (in German)
      • Schenkenzell
        • Wittichen
          • Böckelsbach valley
Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
          • Burgfelsen
No reference listed
          • Heubach Valley
No reference listed
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • St Andreasberg District
No reference listed
  • Saxony
    • Dresden
      • Hänichen
Thalheim, K.; Reichel, W. & Witzke, T. (1991): Die Minerale des Döhlener Beckens.- Schriften des Staatlichen Museums für Mineralogie und Geologie zu Dresden, Nr. 3
      • Possendorf
    • Erzgebirge
      • Schlema-Hartenstein District
        • Alberoda
Vollstädt,H. & Weiß,St. (1991): Mineralfundstellen Sächsisches Erzgebirge, München, S.26ff.
  • Thuringia
    • Gera
      • Ronneburg U deposit
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
Italy
 
  • Campania
    • Phlegrean Volcanic Complex
      • Naples Province
        • Phlegrean Fields
          • Pozzuoli
Russo, M. (2004): Realgar e pararealgar della Solfatara di Pozzuoli. Micro (notizie mineralogiche), 2004, 25-28
  • Lombardy
    • Sondrio Province
      • Valtellina
        • Malenco Valley
          • Lanterna Valley
            • Lanzada
              • Campo Moro Valley
                • Poschiavina Valley
Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
        • Valfurva
          • Gavia Valley
Bianchi Potenza, B., Liborio, G. (1981): Prima segnalazione di pararealgar in Italia: il giacimento di Valle dell'Alpe (Valle del Gavia, Sondrio). Natura, 72, 129-133. AA. VV. (1996): Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work. Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (2006) I minerali della media-alta Valtellina, delle Orobie valtellinesi e della Val Poschiavo. Aggiornamenti sulle altre località della provincia di Sondrio. Bettini, Sondrio, 255 pp.
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Kanto region
      • Gunma Prefecture
Matsubara, S. & Miyawaki, R. (2005) Bulletin of the National Science Museum (Tokyo), 31, 1-6.
New Zealand
 
  • North Island
    • Waikato
      • Hauraki
        • Waihi
Rod Martin personal collection
Peru
 
  • Huancavelica Department
    • Castrovirreyna Province
Hyrsl, J. & Rosales, Z. (2006) New mineral finds in Peru (2000-2006). Mineral Up (Barcelona), 1(1), 4-21.; Min Rec 39:95-99
Republic of Macedonia
 
  • Roszdan
[Rieck, B. (1993) - Famous mineral localities: Allchar, Macedonia, Mineralogical Record, 24 (6), 437-449]; The Canadian Mineralogist Vol.32, pp. 649-665 (1994)
Romania
 
  • Covasna Co.
    • Covasna (Kovászna)
Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F. (Eds.) (2010): Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Csík County Nature and Conservation Society, Sfantu Gheorghe, etc.
  • Harghita Co.
Ed.:Szakáll S.-Kristály F.2010:Mineralogy of Székelyland,Eastern Transylvania,Romania
  • Maramureș Co.
    • Baia Sprie (Felsöbánya)
Dion Glastra specimen
Minerals of Carpathians,2004
  • Suceava Co.
Koller G.2009,Own found
Russia
 
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Kamchatka Oblast'
OT. Ljostad collection
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Banská Bystrica Co.
Ďuďa R., Pauliš P., 2004: Minerály Slovenskej republiky. Kuttna, Kutná Hora, 134p
  • Prešov Region
    • Prešov Co.
      • Červenica
Duda,R. et. all.,1981: MIneralogia severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovaca,Monografia 2, Bratislava, 98p
Spain
 
  • Asturias
    • Pola de Lena
A Borrelli collection
Switzerland
 
  • Grischun (Grisons; Graubünden)
    • Poschiavo Valley
      • Poschiavo (Puschlav)
Romani E. (2000): Andar per cristalli - Tesori nascosti. Centro studi del Museo mineralogico naturalistico di Bormio, 151 p.
Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (2006) I minerali della media-alta Valtellina, delle Orobie valtellinesi e della Val Poschiavo. Aggiornamenti sulle altre località della provincia di Sondrio. Bettini, Sondrio, 255 pp.
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Binn Valley
      • Binn
Cannon, R., Hensel, H. & Raber, T. (2008): Der Reckibach-Dolomit im Binntal, Schweiz: Mineralbestand und Neufunde. Lapis, 33 (3), 20-28; 50. (in German)
      • Fäld (Imfeld; Im Feld; Feld)
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 297.
Taiwan
 
  • Taiwan Province
    • Taipei Co.
      • Jui-Fang Town
UK
 
  • Wales
    • Powys (Radnorshire)
      • Old Radnor
        • Wethel
Cotterell TF et al (2011) The mineralogy of Dolyhir quarry, Old Radnor. Powys, Wales. UKJMM 32:5-61
USA
 
  • California
    • Kern Co.
      • Kramer District
www.mineralsocal.org
          • Kramer Borate deposit
  • Nevada
    • Douglas Co.
      • Wellington Hills
        • Silver Glance District (Wellington District)
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Eureka Co.
      • Carlin Trend
        • Maggie Creek Subdistrict
MinRec 26(5):449-469.
      • Lynn District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Humboldt Co.
      • Golconda District
Handbook of Mineralogy; A. G. Roberts, H. G. Ansell, and M. Bonardi (1980) Pararealgar, a new polymorph of AsS, from British Columbia. Can. Mineral.,l8, 525-527.
      • Osgood Mts
        • Potosi District
          • Adam Peak
Handbook of Mineralogy
    • Nye Co.
      • Toquima Range
        • Manhattan District
          • Manhattan
Excalibur mineral list CATALOG 21001 - Vol. XXXVII, No. 1
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
J. Cianciulli, Curator, Franklin Mineral Museum
  • Oregon
    • Lane Co.
      • Trent
Microprobe, Fall 2007
  • Washington
    • King Co.
      • Palmer
NEEDS REFERENCE
Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat.org is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2015, except where stated. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: May 29, 2015 07:31:06 Page generated: May 19, 2015 21:41:47