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Pennantite

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Thomas Pennant
Formula:
Mn52+Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
System:
Triclinic
Colour:
Orange-red, red-brown, ...
Hardness:
2 - 2½
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1946 by Walter Campbell Smith, Frederick Allen Bannister, and Max Hutchinson Hey in honor of Thomas Pennant [14 June {Old Style}, 1726 Whitford, Flintshire, Wales, United Kingdom - 16 December 1798 Whitford, Flintshire, Wales], author, naturalist, and antiquary.
This page provides mineralogical data about Pennantite.

Classification of Pennantite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
9.EC.55

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
C : Phyllosilicates with mica sheets, composed of tetrahedral and octahedral nets
71.4.1.8

71 : PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
4 : Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
16.16.7

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
16 : Aluminosilicates of Mn
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First Recorded Occurrence of Pennantite

Year of Discovery:
1946

Occurrences of Pennantite

Geological Setting:
Hydrothermal alteration of manganese minerals

Physical Properties of Pennantite

Waxy, Greasy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent
Comment:
Pearly on cleavage
Colour:
Orange-red, red-brown, brown, dark red, dark green, black
Hardness (Mohs):
2 - 2½
Tenacity:
Flexible
Cleavage:
Perfect
on {001}
Density:
2.89 - 3.07 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.18 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Pennantite

Crystal System:
Triclinic
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.45Å, b = 9.50Å, c = 14.40Å
α = 90°, β = 97.3°, γ = 90°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.574 : 1 : 1.516
Z:
2
Morphology:
Lamellar crystals and flakes

Optical Data of Pennantite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.646 nβ = 1.661 nγ = 1.661
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.015
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
weak
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X= pinkish orange, orange-buff, reddish brown
Y=Z= orange, yellowish orange, very dark brown

Chemical Properties of Pennantite

Formula:
Mn52+Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Fe,Zn,Mg,Ba,H2O

Relationship of Pennantite to other Species

Member of:
Other Members of Group:
Baileychlore(Zn,Fe,Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)8
BorocookeiteLi1+3xAl4-x(BSi3O10)(OH)8
Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg)5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Clinochlore(Mg,Fe2+)5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Corundophilite(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
DonbassiteAl4.33(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
FranklinfurnaceiteCa2Fe3+Mn32+Mn3+(Zn2Si2O10)(OH)8
Nimite(Ni,Mg,Al)6((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)8
Orthochamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH,O)8
Sudoite(Mg,Fe2+)2Al3(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.05Minnesotaite(Fe,Mg)3(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.05TalcMg3(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.05Willemseite(Ni,Mg)3(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.10FerripyrophylliteFe23+(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.10PyrophylliteAl2(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15BoromuscoviteKAl2(BSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15CeladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Fe3+(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15Chernykhite(Ba,Na)(V3+,Al,Mg)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15Montdorite(K,Na)2(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)5(Si4O10)2(OH,F)4
9.EC.15MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15NanpingiteCsAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2
9.EC.15ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15RoscoeliteK(V3+,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15Tobelite(NH4,K)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15AluminoceladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Al(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15ChromphylliteK(Cr,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2
9.EC.15FerroaluminoceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Al,Fe3+)(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15FerroceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Fe3+,Al)(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15ChromceladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)(Cr,Al)(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15TainioliteKLiMg2(Si4O10)F2
9.EC.15Ganterite(Ba,Na,K)(Al,Mg)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20AnniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20EphesiteLiNaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20HendricksiteK(Zn,Mg,Mn2+)3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20Masutomilite(K,Rb)(Li,Mn3+,Al)3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.20NorrishiteKLiMn23+(Si4O10)O2
9.EC.20PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2
9.EC.20PolylithioniteKLi2Al(Si4O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.20PreiswerkiteNaMg2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20SiderophylliteKFe22+Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20TetraferriphlogopiteKMg3(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH,F)2
9.EC.20FluorotetraferriphlogopiteKMg3(Fe3+Si3O10)F2
9.EC.20Wonesite(Na,K)(Mg,Fe,Al)6((Al,Si)4O10)2(OH,F)4
9.EC.20EastoniteKMg2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20TetraferrianniteKFe32+((Fe3+,Al)Si3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20TrilithioniteK(Li1.5Al1.5)(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.20FluoranniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.20ShirokshiniteKNaMg2(Si4O10)F2
9.EC.20ShirozuliteK(Mn2+,Mg)3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20SokolovaiteCsLi2Al(Si4O10)F2
9.EC.20AspidoliteNaMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20FluorophlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.20UM2004-49-SiO:AlCsFHKLi(Cs,K)(Al,Li)2.6((Si,Al)4O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.20Suhailite(NH4)Fe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20YangzhumingiteKMg2.5(Si4O10)F2
9.EC.20OrloviteKLi2Ti(Si4O10)OF
9.EC.20OxyphlogopiteK(Mg,Ti,Fe)3[(Si,Al)4O10](O,F)2
9.EC.25Brammallite(Na,H3O)(Al,Mg,Fe)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.30MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
9.EC.35Anandite(Ba,K)(Fe2+,Mg)3((Si,Al,Fe)4O10)(S,OH)2
9.EC.35BityiteLiCaAl2(AlBeSi2O10)(OH)2
9.EC.35ClintoniteCa(Mg,Al)3(Al3SiO10)(OH)2
9.EC.35Kinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Mg,Mn2+,Al)3(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
9.EC.35Ferrokinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Fe2+,Mg)3(Al2Si2O10)(OH,F)2
9.EC.35Oxykinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Mg,Ti,Fe3+,Fe2+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(O,OH,F)2
9.EC.35FluorokinoshitaliteBaMg3(Al2Si2O10)F2
9.EC.40Beidellite(Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
9.EC.40Kurumsakite(Zn,Ni,Cu)8Al8V25+Si5O35 · 27H2O (?)
9.EC.40Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
9.EC.40NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
9.EC.40VolkonskoiteCa0.3(Cr,Mg,Fe)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
9.EC.40Yakhontovite(Ca,Na)0.5(Cu,Fe,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 3H2O
9.EC.45HectoriteNa0.3(Mg,Li)3(Si4O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.45SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
9.EC.45SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
9.EC.45SpadaiteMgSiO2(OH)2 · H2O (?)
9.EC.45Stevensite(Ca,Na)xMg3-x(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.45SwineforditeLi(Al,Li,Mg)4((Si,Al)4O10)2(OH,F)4 · nH2O
9.EC.45ZincsiliteZn3(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
9.EC.45FerrosaponiteCa0.3(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
9.EC.50Vermiculite(Mg,Fe,Al)3((Al,Si)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
9.EC.55Baileychlore(Zn,Fe,Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg)5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55Clinochlore(Mg,Fe2+)5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55FranklinfurnaceiteCa2Fe3+Mn32+Mn3+(Zn2Si2O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55Gonyerite(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55Nimite(Ni,Mg,Al)6((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55Orthochamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH,O)8
9.EC.55Sudoite(Mg,Fe2+)2Al3(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55DonbassiteAl4.33(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55GlagoleviteNa(Mg,Al)6(AlSi3O10)(OH,O)8
9.EC.55BorocookeiteLi1+3xAl4-x(BSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.60AliettiteCa0.2Mg6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 4H2O
9.EC.60Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2O
9.EC.60DozyiteMg7Al2(Al2Si4O15)(OH)12
9.EC.60HydrobiotiteK(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2O
9.EC.60Karpinskite(Ni,Mg)2Si2O5(OH)2 (?)
9.EC.60KulkeiteMg8Al(AlSi7O20)(OH)10
9.EC.60LunijianlaiteLi0.7Al6.2(AlSi7O20)(OH,O)10
9.EC.60Rectorite(Na,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2O
9.EC.60Saliotite(Li,Na)Al3(AlSi3O10)(OH)5
9.EC.60TosuditeNa0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2O
9.EC.60BrinrobertsiteNa0.3Al4(Si4O10)2(OH)4 · 3.5 H2O
9.EC.65Macaulayite(Fe,Al)24Si4O43(OH)2
9.EC.70BurckhardtitePb2(Fe3+Te6+)[AlSi3O8]O6
9.EC.75Ferrisurite(Pb,Ca)2.4Fe23+(Si4O10)(CO3)1.7(OH)3 · nH2O
9.EC.75Surite(Pb,Ca)3(Al,Fe2+,Mg)2((Si,Al)4O10)(CO3)2(OH)2
9.EC.75Niksergievite(Ba,Ca)2Al3(AlSi3O10)(CO3)(OH)6 · nH2O
9.EC.80KegelitePb8Al4(Si8O20)(SO4)2(CO3)4(OH)8
16.16.1KanonaiteMn3+Al(SiO4)O
16.16.2SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
16.16.3DavreuxiteMnAl6Si4O17(OH)2
16.16.4SursassiteMn22+Al3(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)3
16.16.5CarpholiteMn2+Al2(Si2O6)(OH)4
16.16.6KellyiteMn22+Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4
16.16.8Akatoreite(Mn2+,Fe2+)9Al2(HSi4O13)2(OH)6
16.16.9Ganophyllite(K,Na,Ca)2Mn8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)32 · 8H2O
16.16.10Mangano-ferri-eckermannite[Na][Na2][Mn42+(Fe3+)]Si8O22(OH)2
16.16.11Masutomilite(K,Rb)(Li,Mn3+,Al)3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
16.16.13HowieiteNa(Fe,Mn)10(Fe,Al)2Si12O31(OH)13
16.16.14Eggletonite(Na,K,Ca)2(Mn,Fe)8(Si,Al)12O29(OH)7 · 11H2O
16.16.15BannisteriteCa0.5(K,Na)0.5(Mn,Fe,Zn)10(Si,Al)16O38(OH)8 · 5.5H2O
16.16.16Taneyamalite(Na,Ca)(Mn,Mg,Fe)12Si12(O,OH)44
16.16.17ZussmaniteK(Fe,Mg,Mn)13(Si,Al)18O42(OH)14
16.16.18CoombsiteK(Mn,Fe,Mg)13(Si,Al)18O42(OH)14
16.16.19HenritermieriteCa3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
16.16.20MacfalliteCa2(Mn3+,Al)3(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)3
16.16.21Ottrélite(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
16.16.22Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
16.16.23OkhotskiteCa2(Mn2+,Mg)(Mn3+,Al,Fe3+)2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O
16.16.24Pumpellyite-(Mn2+)Ca2(Mn2+,Mg)(Al,Mn3+,Fe3+)2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O
16.16.25Piemontite-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)

Other Names for Pennantite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Pennantit
Spanish:Pennantita

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Pennantite

Reference List:
American Mineralogist (1947): 32: 254.

Canadian Mineralogist (1983): 21: 545.

Internet Links for Pennantite

Localities for Pennantite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • South Australia
    • Eyre Peninsula
      • Middleback Range
        • Iron Knob
www.crocoite.com (Steve Sorrell) and refs therein
Austria
 
  • Styria
    • Mitterdorf
      • Veitsch
        • Kleinveitsch
          • Kaiblinggraben
Francis, C.A. (2004)
Italy
 
  • Liguria
    • Genova Province
      • Ne
        • Graveglia Valley
Matteo Chinellato specimen
          • Reppia
Palenzona, A. (1990): I nostri minerali. Geologia e mineralogia in Liguria. Aggiornamento 1990. Amici Mineralogisti Fiorentini - Associazione Piemontese Mineralogia Paleontologia & Mostra Torinese Minerali - Centro Mineralogico Varesino - Gruppo Mineralogico "A. Negro" Coop Liguria (GE) - Gruppo Mineralogico Lombardo - Gruppo Mineralogico Paleontologico "3M" Ferrania (SV), Ed., Milano, 48 pp.
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Kanto Region
      • Tochigi Prefecture
        • Kanuma City
Akira Kato (undated manuscript): Country rock and Minerals of the Kaso mine, Kanuma City, Tochigi Prefecture. (in japanese)
Kazakhstan
 
  • Karagandy Province (Qaragandy Oblysy; Karaganda Oblast')
    • Zhayrem (Zhairem)
Frank Dzubeck; Kayupova, M.M. (1965) Doklady of the Academy of Sciences U.S.S.R., Earth Science sections, 163, 97-100.
[var: Fe-pennantite] No reference listed
Frank Dzubeck
Romania
 
  • Maramureș Co.
http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
South Africa
 
  • Limpopo Province
    • Vhembe District
Minerals of South Africa - Bruce Cairncross & Roger Dixon pg 52
Sweden
 
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
      • Persberg district
        • Pajsberg
No reference listed
Switzerland
 
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Turtmann Valley
      • Pipjitälli
The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 44, pp. 000 (2006) page 205; Ansermet, S. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais - II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. With contributions by N. Meisser, Ed. Porte-plumes (Ayer)
UK
 
  • Wales
    • Gwynedd (Caernarvonshire)
      • Lleyn Peninsula
        • Llanfaelrhys
          • Rhiw
Campbell, et al (1946); Can. Min.:21(1983):545.; UK Journal of mines & Minerals, number 29 pp47-48; Am Min (1955) 40:32-40; W. Campbell Smith and F. A. Bannister (1948) Ganophyllite from the Benallt Mine, Rhiw, Carnarvonshire Mineralogical Magazine 28:343-352
USA
 
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
Dunn, P.J., et al: Am.Min.:68:1033-1037 (1983); Dunn(1995):Pt4:471.
  • North Carolina
    • Alleghany Co.
      • Sparta
        • Bald Knob
Rocks & Min.: 60:130-135.
  • South Dakota
    • Pennington Co.
      • Keystone District
SDSMT Bull 18 Roberts and Rapp "Mineralogy of the Black Hills"
  • Washington
    • Chelan Co.
      • Chiwawa District
        • Trinity
Minerals of Washington, Bart Cannon, 1975; Minerals of Washington, Bart Cannon, 1975
      • Leavenworth
Minerals of Washington, Bart Cannon, 1975
    • King Co.
      • Snoqualmie District
        • Snoqualmie Pass
          • Source Lake
Minerals of Washington, Bart Cannon, 1975
      • Taylor River & Snoqualmie Districts
        • Quartz Creek
Minerals of Washington, Bart Cannon, 1975
    • Snohomish Co.
      • Index District
        • Index
Minerals of Washington, Bart Cannon, 1975
      • Monte Cristo District
        • Monte Cristo
Minerals of Washington, Bart Cannon, 1975
    • Stevens Co.
      • Huckleberry Range
        • Deer Trail & Cedar Canyon Districts
          • Deer Trail District
            • Adams Mountain
Minerals of Washington, B. Cannon, 1975
Mineral and/or Locality  
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