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Perovskite

This page kindly sponsored by Göran Svensson
Count Lev Aleksevich von Perovski
Formula:
CaTiO3
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Dark brown, black, ...
Hardness:
Name:
Named by Gustav Rose in 1839 in honor of Count Lev Alekseevich Perovski (1792-1856), then in the Ministry of Regions, of St. Petersburg, Russia. Perovskii rose to vice-president of the Appanage Department in 1852-1856. During his tenure in the Appanage Department, Perovski "contributed to development of mining industry in Russia, inspected supplies and working of lapidary work; many new deposits started to be mined by his initiative." Perovski was also an influential mineral collector.
(Schmidt, 2011).
Isostructural with:
Perovskite Group. The Ti analogue of Lakargiite.

Classification of Perovskite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
4.CC.30

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
C : Metal: Oxygen = 2: 3,3: 5, and similar
C : With large and medium-sized cations
4.3.3.1

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
3 : A2X3
7.9.6

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
9 : Oxides of Ti
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First Recorded Occurrence of Perovskite

Year of Discovery:
1839

Occurrences of Perovskite

Geological Setting:
An accessory in alkaline mafic rocks.

Physical Properties of Perovskite

Adamantine, Metallic, Sub-Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Dark brown, black, red-brown, yellow shades
Streak:
Colourless, greyish white
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Imperfect/Fair
On {001}.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
3.98 - 4.26 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.02 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Calculated on synthetic material.

Crystallography of Perovskite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Pnma
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.447(1) Å, b = 7.654(1) Å, c = 5.388(1) Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.712 : 1 : 0.704
Unit Cell Volume:
V 224.63 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals usually cubic, highly modified at times, but the planes are often irregularly distributed. Cubic faces striated parallel to [001] and apparently penetrations twins (as if of pyritohedral individuals; also striated parallel to [110]. {001} less developed with {113} and {449} prominent. Also cubooctahedra or octahedra (esp. Ce and Nb varieties). Rarely reniform masses exhibiting small cubes on the surface, or massive granular.
Twinning:
On {111}: 1. penetration twins (esp. Ce or Nb varieties); 2. complex lamellar twinning. About [101] and rarely [121]

Crystallographic forms of Perovskite

Crystal Atlas:
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Perovskite no.3 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Perovskite no.10 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Perovskite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 2.300 nβ = 2.340 nγ = 2.380
2V:
Measured: 90° , Calculated: 88°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.080
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Type:
Isotropic
Dispersion:
r > v
Colour in reflected light:
Dark bluish grey
Internal Reflections:
Brown
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
Z greater than X

Chemical Properties of Perovskite

Formula:
CaTiO3
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Fe,Nb,Ce,La,TR

Relationship of Perovskite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
BarioperovskiteBaTiO3
Isolueshite(Na,La,Ca)(Nb,Ti)O3
LakargiiteCa(Zr,Sn,Ti)O3
Latrappite(Ca,Na)(Nb,Ti,Fe)O3
Loparite-(Ce)(Na,Ce,Ca,Sr,Th)(Ti,Nb,Fe)O3
LueshiteNaNbO3
MacedonitePbTiO3
MegawiteCaSnO3
TausoniteSrTiO3
VapnikiteCa3UO6
4.CC.05ChrombismiteBi16CrO27
4.CC.10FreudenbergiteNa2(Ti,Fe)8O16
4.CC.15GrossiteCaAl4O7
4.CC.20ChlormayeniteCa12Al14O32Cl2
4.CC.25YafsoaniteCa3Zn3(TeO6)2
4.CC.30Latrappite(Ca,Na)(Nb,Ti,Fe)O3
4.CC.30LueshiteNaNbO3
4.CC.30NatroniobiteNaNbO3
4.CC.30BarioperovskiteBaTiO3
4.CC.30LakargiiteCa(Zr,Sn,Ti)O3
4.CC.30MegawiteCaSnO3
4.CC.35Loparite-(Ce)(Na,Ce,Ca,Sr,Th)(Ti,Nb,Fe)O3
4.CC.35MacedonitePbTiO3
4.CC.35TausoniteSrTiO3
4.CC.35Isolueshite(Na,La,Ca)(Nb,Ti)O3
4.CC.40Crichtonite(Sr,La,Ce,Y)(Ti,Fe3+,Mn)21O38
4.CC.40Davidite-(Ce)(Ce,La)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)20(O,OH)38
4.CC.40Davidite-(La)(La,Ce)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)20(O,OH)38
4.CC.40Davidite-(Y)(La,Ce,Na,Ca,Pb)(Y,Fe2+,◻)(Fe2+,Mn2+)2(Ti,Fe3+,Nb,Zr)18O38 (hypothetical)
4.CC.40LandauiteNaMnZn2(Ti,Fe)6Ti12O38
4.CC.40Lindsleyite(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)2(Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
4.CC.40Loveringite(Ca,Ce,La)(Zr,Fe)(Mg,Fe)2(Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)18O38
4.CC.40Mathiasite(K, Ba, Sr)(Zr, Fe)(Mg,Fe)2 (Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
4.CC.40SenaitePb(Ti,Fe,Mn)21O38
4.CC.40Dessauite-(Y)(Sr,Pb)(Y,U)(Ti,Fe3+)20O38
4.CC.40Cleusonite(Pb,Sr)(U4+,U6+)(Fe2+,Zn)2(Ti,Fe2+,Fe3+)18(O,OH)38
4.CC.40Gramaccioliite-(Y)(Pb,Sr)(Y,Mn)Fe23+(Ti,Fe3+)18O38
4.CC.45DiaoyudaoiteNaAl11O17
4.CC.45HawthorneiteBa(MgTi3Cr4Fe4)O19
4.CC.45Hibonite(Ca,Ce)Al12O19
4.CC.45LindqvistitePb2Mn2+Fe16O27
4.CC.45Magnetoplumbite(Pb,Mn)(Fe,Mn)12O19
4.CC.45PlumboferritePb2Fe3+11-xMnx2+O19-2x, x = 1/3
4.CC.45YimengiteK(Cr,Ti,Fe,Mg)12O19
4.CC.45HaggertyiteBa[Fe62+Ti5Mg]O19
4.CC.45NežilovitePbZn2(Mn4+,Ti4+)2Fe83+O19
4.CC.45BatiferriteBa[Ti2Fe83+Fe22+]O19
4.CC.45Hibonite-(Fe)(Fe,Mg)Al12O19
4.CC.45BarioferriteBaFe123+O19
4.CC.50Jeppeite(K,Ba)2(Ti,Fe)6O13
4.CC.55ZenzénitePb3(Fe,Mn)4Mn3O13
4.CC.60Mengxianminite(Ca,Na)3(Fe,Mn)2Mg2(Sn,Zn)5Al8O29
7.9.1HongquiiteTiO
7.9.2RutileTiO2
7.9.3AnataseTiO2
7.9.4BrookiteTiO2
7.9.5GeikieliteMgTiO3
7.9.7KassiteCaTi2O4(OH)2
7.9.8TausoniteSrTiO3
7.9.9Crichtonite(Sr,La,Ce,Y)(Ti,Fe3+,Mn)21O38
7.9.10Lucasite-(Ce)CeTi2(O,OH)6
7.9.11Hibonite(Ca,Ce)Al12O19
7.9.12Yttrocrasite-(Y)(Y,Th,Ca,U)(Ti,Fe)2(O,OH)6
7.9.13PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3
7.9.14IwakiiteMn2+Fe23+O4
7.9.15IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
7.9.16PseudobrookiteFe2TiO5
7.9.17UlvöspinelFe2TiO4
7.9.18PseudorutileFe2Ti3O9
7.9.19FreudenbergiteNa2(Ti,Fe)8O16
7.9.20KennedyiteMgFe23+Ti3O10
7.9.21Armalcolite(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5
7.9.22Högbomite(Mg,Fe)2(Al,Ti)5O10
7.9.23Qandilite(Mg,Fe)2(Ti,Fe,Al)O4
7.9.24Cafetite(Ca,Mg)(Fe,Al)2Ti4O12 · 4H2O
7.9.25Loveringite(Ca,Ce,La)(Zr,Fe)(Mg,Fe)2(Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)18O38
7.9.26Lindsleyite(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)2(Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
7.9.27PrideriteK(Ti74+Fe3+)O16
7.9.28Jeppeite(K,Ba)2(Ti,Fe)6O13
7.9.29AnkangiteBa(Ti,V3+,Cr)8O16
7.9.30Ecandrewsite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)TiO3
7.9.31LandauiteNaMnZn2(Ti,Fe)6Ti12O38

Other Names for Perovskite

Name in Other Languages:
Catalan:Perovskita
Czech:Perovskit
Italian:Perovskite
Polish:Perowskit
Portuguese:Perovskita
Romanian:Perovskit
Simplified Chinese:鈣鈦礦
Spanish:Perovskita

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Perovskite

Reference List:
Rose (1839), Ann. Phys.: 48: 558 (as Perowskit).

Knop (1877), Zs. Kr.: 1: 284 (as Dysanalyte).

Baumhauer (1880), Zs. Kr.: 4: 187.

Ben Saude (1882), Preiss. Göttingen.

Federov (1892), Zs. Kr.: 20: 74 (as Metaperovskite).

Holmquist (1893), Geol. För. Forh.: 15: 588 (as Knopite).

Holmquist (1894), Geol. För. Forh.: 16: 73.

Holmquist (1897), Bull. Geol. Inst. Upsala: 3: 181.

Bowman (1908), Mineralogical Magazine: 15: 156.

Meigen and Hügel (1913), Zs. anorg. Chem.: 82: 242.

Goldschmidt (1918): 5: 32.

Goldschmidt (1920): 6: 131.

Fersmann (1922), Comptes rendus de académie des sciences Russie: 59.

Barth (1925), Norsk Geol. Tidsskr.: 8: 201.

Levi and Natta (1925), Acc. Linc., Att.: 2(6): 39.

Ellsworth and Walker (1926), Geological Survey of Canada, Summary report 230A.

Hevesy, Alexander, and Würstlin (1929), Zs. anorg. Chem.: 181: 95.

Zedlitz (1939), Jb. Min., Beil.-Bd.: 75: 245.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 730-735.

Turi B. (1968) - Note sull'analisi chimica della perovskite. Periodico di mineralogia – Roma, pp. 567-575.

Acta Crystallographica: 10: 219-226.

Kristallografiya: 42: 54-63.

Acta Crystallographica (1983): C39: 1323.

Caracas, R., Wentzcovitch, R., Price, G.D., and Brodholt, J. (2005), CaSiO3 perovskite at lower mantle pressures. Geophysical Research Letters: 32: L06306, DOI: 10.1029/2004GL022144.

Schmidt, L. J., 2011, Tracking Down the Truth of Perovski, 38th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium Program and Abstracts, p. 31-32.

Internet Links for Perovskite

Specimens:
The following Perovskite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Perovskite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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