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Perovskite

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Formula:
CaTiO
 
3
System:OrthorhombicColour:Dark brown, black, ...
Hardness:
Member of:Perovskite Group
Name:
Named by Gustav Rose in 1839 in honor of Count Lev Alekseevich Perovski (1792-1856), then in the Ministry of Regions, of St. Petersburg, Russia. Perovskii rose to vice-president of the Appanage Department in 1852-1856. During his tenure in the Appanage Department, Perovski "contributed to development of mining industry in Russia, inspected supplies and working of lapidary work; many new deposits started to be mined by his initiative." Perovski was also an influential mineral collector.
(Schmidt, 2011).
Isostructural with:Lakargiite


Perovskite Group. The Ti analogue of Lakargiite.

Classification of Perovskite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/C.10-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.CC.30

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
C : Metal: Oxygen = 2: 3,3: 5, and similar
C : With large and medium-sized cations
Dana 8th edition ID:4.3.3.1

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
3 : A2X3
Hey's CIM Ref.:7.9.6

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
9 : Oxides of Ti
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Type Occurrence of Perovskite

Type Locality:Akhmatovskaya Kop' (Achmatovsk Mine), Nazyamskie Mts, Zlatoust, Chelyabinsk Oblast', Southern Urals, Urals Region, Russia
Year of Discovery:1839

Occurrences of Perovskite

Geological Setting:An accessory in alkaline mafic rocks.

Physical Properties of Perovskite

Lustre:Adamantine, Metallic, Sub-Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Dark brown, black, red-brown, yellow shades
Streak:Colourless, greyish white
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Imperfect/Fair
On {001}.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density (measured):3.98 - 4.26 g/cm3
Density (calculated):4.02 g/cm3
Comment:Calculated on synthetic material.

Crystallography of Perovskite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:Pnma
Cell Parameters:a = 5.447(1) Å, b = 7.654(1) Å, c = 5.388(1) Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.712 : 1 : 0.704
Unit Cell Volume:V 224.63 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Crystals usually cubic, highly modified at times, but the planes are often irregularly distributed. Cubic faces striated parallel to [001] and apparently penetrations twins (as if of pyritohedral individuals; also striated parallel to [110]. {001} less developed with {113} and {449} prominent. Also cubooctahedra or octahedra (esp. Ce and Nb varieties). Rarely reniform masses exhibiting small cubes on the surface, or massive granular.
Twinning:On {111}: 1. penetration twins (esp. Ce or Nb varieties); 2. complex lamellar twinning. About [101] and rarely [121]
Crystal Atlas:
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Perovskite no.3 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Perovskite no.10 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Perovskite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 2.300 nβ = 2.340 nγ = 2.380
2V:Measured: 90° , Calculated: 88°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.080

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Type:Isotropic
Dispersion:r > v
Colour in reflected light:Dark bluish grey
Internal Reflections:Brown
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:Z greater than X

Chemical Properties of Perovskite

Formula:
CaTiO
 
3
Simplified for copy/paste:CaTiO3
Essential elements:Ca, O, Ti
All elements listed in formula:Ca, O, Ti
Common Impurities:Fe,Nb,Ce,La,TR

Relationship of Perovskite to other Species

Member of:Perovskite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Barioperovskite
BaTiO
 
3
Isolueshite
(Na,La,Ca)(Nb,Ti)O
 
3
Lakargiite
Ca(Zr,Sn,Ti)O
 
3
Latrappite
(Ca,Na)(Nb,Ti,Fe)O
 
3
Loparite-(Ce)
(Na,Ce,Ca,Sr,Th)(Ti,Nb,Fe)O
 
3
Lueshite
NaNbO
 
3
Macedonite
PbTiO
 
3
Megawite
CaSnO
 
3
Tausonite
SrTiO
 
3
Vapnikite
Ca
 
3
UO
 
6
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.CC.05Chrombismite
Bi
 
16
CrO
 
27
4.CC.10Freudenbergite
Na
 
2
(Ti,Fe)
 
8
O
 
16
4.CC.15Grossite
CaAl
 
4
O
 
7
4.CC.20Chlormayenite
Ca
 
12
Al
 
14
O
 
32
Cl
 
2
4.CC.25Yafsoanite
Ca
 
3
Zn
 
3
(TeO
 
6
)
 
2
4.CC.30Latrappite
(Ca,Na)(Nb,Ti,Fe)O
 
3
4.CC.30Lueshite
NaNbO
 
3
4.CC.30Natroniobite
NaNbO
 
3
4.CC.30Barioperovskite
BaTiO
 
3
4.CC.30Lakargiite
Ca(Zr,Sn,Ti)O
 
3
4.CC.30Megawite
CaSnO
 
3
4.CC.35Loparite-(Ce)
(Na,Ce,Ca,Sr,Th)(Ti,Nb,Fe)O
 
3
4.CC.35Macedonite
PbTiO
 
3
4.CC.35Tausonite
SrTiO
 
3
4.CC.35Isolueshite
(Na,La,Ca)(Nb,Ti)O
 
3
4.CC.40Crichtonite
(Sr,La,Ce,Y)(Ti,Fe
3+
 
,Mn)
 
21
O
 
38
4.CC.40Davidite-(Ce)
(Ce,La)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)
 
20
(O,OH)
 
38
4.CC.40Davidite-(La)
(La,Ce)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)
 
20
(O,OH)
 
38
4.CC.40Davidite-(Y)
(La,Ce,Na,Ca,Pb)(Y,Fe
2+
 
,◻)(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
,Nb,Zr)
 
18
O
 
38
(hypothetical)
4.CC.40Landauite
NaMnZn
 
2
(Ti,Fe)
 
6
Ti
 
12
O
 
38
4.CC.40Lindsleyite
(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)
 
2
(Ti,Cr,Fe)
 
18
O
 
38
4.CC.40Loveringite
(Ca,Ce,La)(Zr,Fe)(Mg,Fe)
 
2
(Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)
 
18
O
 
38
4.CC.40Mathiasite
(K, Ba, Sr)(Zr, Fe)(Mg,Fe)
 
2
(Ti,Cr,Fe)
 
18
O
 
38
4.CC.40Senaite
Pb(Ti,Fe,Mn)
 
21
O
 
38
4.CC.40Dessauite-(Y)
(Sr,Pb)(Y,U)(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
20
O
 
38
4.CC.40Cleusonite
(Pb,Sr)(U
4+
 
,U
6+
 
)(Fe
2+
 
,Zn)
 
2
(Ti,Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)
 
18
(O,OH)
 
38
4.CC.40Gramaccioliite-(Y)
(Pb,Sr)(Y,Mn)Fe
3+
2
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
18
O
 
38
4.CC.45Diaoyudaoite
NaAl
 
11
O
 
17
4.CC.45Hawthorneite
Ba(MgTi
 
3
Cr
 
4
Fe
 
4
)O
 
19
4.CC.45Hibonite
(Ca,Ce)Al
 
12
O
 
19
4.CC.45Lindqvistite
Pb
 
2
Mn
2+
 
Fe
 
16
O
 
27
4.CC.45Magnetoplumbite
(Pb,Mn)(Fe,Mn)
 
12
O
 
19
4.CC.45Plumboferrite
Pb
 
2
Fe
3+
11-x
Mn
2+
x
O
 
19-2x
, x = 1/3
4.CC.45Yimengite
K(Cr,Ti,Fe,Mg)
 
12
O
 
19
4.CC.45Haggertyite
Ba[Fe
2+
6
Ti
 
5
Mg]O
 
19
4.CC.45Nežilovite
PbZn
 
2
(Mn
4+
 
,Ti
4+
 
)
 
2
Fe
3+
8
O
 
19
4.CC.45Batiferrite
Ba[Ti
 
2
Fe
3+
8
Fe
2+
2
]O
 
19
4.CC.45Hibonite-(Fe)
(Fe,Mg)Al
 
12
O
 
19
4.CC.45Barioferrite
BaFe
3+
12
O
 
19
4.CC.50Jeppeite
(K,Ba)
 
2
(Ti,Fe)
 
6
O
 
13
4.CC.55Zenzénite
Pb
 
3
(Fe,Mn)
 
4
Mn
 
3
O
 
13
4.CC.60Mengxianminite
(Ca,Na)
 
3
(Fe,Mn)
 
2
Mg
 
2
(Sn,Zn)
 
5
Al
 
8
O
 
29
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
7.9.1Hongquiite
TiO
7.9.2Rutile
TiO
 
2
7.9.3Anatase
TiO
 
2
7.9.4Brookite
TiO
 
2
7.9.5Geikielite
MgTiO
 
3
7.9.7Kassite
CaTi
 
2
O
 
4
(OH)
 
2
7.9.8Tausonite
SrTiO
 
3
7.9.9Crichtonite
(Sr,La,Ce,Y)(Ti,Fe
3+
 
,Mn)
 
21
O
 
38
7.9.10Lucasite-(Ce)
CeTi
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
7.9.11Hibonite
(Ca,Ce)Al
 
12
O
 
19
7.9.12Yttrocrasite-(Y)
(Y,Th,Ca,U)(Ti,Fe)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
7.9.13Pyrophanite
Mn
2+
 
TiO
 
3
7.9.14Iwakiite
Mn(Fe,Mn)
 
2
O
 
4
7.9.15Ilmenite
Fe
2+
 
TiO
 
3
7.9.16Pseudobrookite
Fe
 
2
TiO
 
5
7.9.17Ulvöspinel
Fe
 
2
TiO
 
4
7.9.18Pseudorutile
Fe
 
2
Ti
 
3
O
 
9
7.9.19Freudenbergite
Na
 
2
(Ti,Fe)
 
8
O
 
16
7.9.20Kennedyite
MgFe
3+
2
Ti
 
3
O
 
10
7.9.21Armalcolite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Ti
 
2
O
 
5
7.9.22Högbomite
(Mg,Fe)
 
2
(Al,Ti)
 
5
O
 
10
7.9.23Qandilite
(Mg,Fe)
 
2
(Ti,Fe,Al)O
 
4
7.9.24Cafetite
(Ca,Mg)(Fe,Al)
 
2
Ti
 
4
O
 
12
· 4H
 
2
O
7.9.25Loveringite
(Ca,Ce,La)(Zr,Fe)(Mg,Fe)
 
2
(Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)
 
18
O
 
38
7.9.26Lindsleyite
(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)
 
2
(Ti,Cr,Fe)
 
18
O
 
38
7.9.27Priderite
K(Ti
4+
7
Fe
3+
 
)O
 
16
7.9.28Jeppeite
(K,Ba)
 
2
(Ti,Fe)
 
6
O
 
13
7.9.29Ankangite
Ba(Ti,V
3+
 
,Cr)
 
8
O
 
16
7.9.30Ecandrewsite
(Zn,Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)TiO
 
3
7.9.31Landauite
NaMnZn
 
2
(Ti,Fe)
 
6
Ti
 
12
O
 
38

Other Names for Perovskite

Synonyms:
MetaperovskitePerofskitePerovskite (of Rose)Uhligite (of Hauser)
Other Languages:
Catalan:Perovskita
Czech:Perovskit
Dutch:Perovskiet
French:Pérovskite
German:Perowskit
Perovskit
Italian:Perovskite
Japanese:ペロブスカイト構造
Polish:Perowskit
Portuguese:Perovskita
Romanian:Perovskit
Russian:Перовскит
Simplified Chinese:鈣鈦礦
Spanish:Perovskita
Ukrainian:Перовськіт
Varieties:
DysanalyteKnopite

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Perovskite

Reference List:

- +
Rose (1839), Ann. Phys.: 48: 558 (as Perowskit).

Knop (1877), Zs. Kr.: 1: 284 (as Dysanalyte).

Baumhauer (1880), Zs. Kr.: 4: 187.

Ben Saude (1882), Preiss. Göttingen.

Federov (1892), Zs. Kr.: 20: 74 (as Metaperovskite).

Holmquist (1893), Geol. För. Forh.: 15: 588 (as Knopite).

Holmquist (1894), Geol. För. Forh.: 16: 73.

Holmquist (1897), Bull. Geol. Inst. Upsala: 3: 181.

Bowman (1908), Mineralogical Magazine: 15: 156.

Meigen and Hügel (1913), Zs. anorg. Chem.: 82: 242.

Goldschmidt (1918): 5: 32.

Goldschmidt (1920): 6: 131.

Fersmann (1922), Comptes rendus de académie des sciences Russie: 59.

Barth (1925), Norsk Geol. Tidsskr.: 8: 201.

Levi and Natta (1925), Acc. Linc., Att.: 2(6): 39.

Ellsworth and Walker (1926), Geological Survey of Canada, Summary report 230A.

Hevesy, Alexander, and Würstlin (1929), Zs. anorg. Chem.: 181: 95.

Zedlitz (1939), Jb. Min., Beil.-Bd.: 75: 245.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 730-735.

Turi B. (1968) - Note sull'analisi chimica della perovskite. Periodico di mineralogia – Roma, pp. 567-575.

Acta Crystallographica: 10: 219-226.

Kristallografiya: 42: 54-63.

Acta Crystallographica (1983): C39: 1323.

Caracas, R., Wentzcovitch, R., Price, G.D., and Brodholt, J. (2005), CaSiO3 perovskite at lower mantle pressures. Geophysical Research Letters: 32: L06306, DOI: 10.1029/2004GL022144.

Schmidt, L. J., 2011, Tracking Down the Truth of Perovski, 38th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium Program and Abstracts, p. 31-32.

Internet Links for Perovskite

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    Localities for Perovskite

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