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Petalite

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Formula:
LiAl(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)
System:MonoclinicColour:Colourless, white, grey, ...
Lustre:VitreousHardness:
Name:From the Greek "petalon" for leaf, in allusion to the perfect basal cleavage.


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Classification of Petalite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/J.03-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.EF.05

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
F : Single nets with 6-membered rings, connected by M[4], M[8], etc.
Dana 8th edition ID:72.6.1.1

72 : PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
6 : Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with tetrahedral Al cross-linking
Hey's CIM Ref.:16.1.1

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
1 : Aluminosilicates of Li
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Type Occurrence of Petalite

Type Locality:Utö Mines, Utö, Södermanland, Sweden
Year of Discovery:1800

Occurrences of Petalite

Geological Setting:Lithium-rich pegmatites.

Physical Properties of Petalite

Lustre:Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Comment:Pearly on cleavage {001}
Colour:Colourless, white, grey, pink
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
Perfect on {001}
poor on {201}
Fracture:Conchoidal
Density (measured):2.412 - 2.422 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.4 g/cm3

Crystallography of Petalite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:P2/b {P1 1 2/b} {P2/c} {P1 2/c 1}{P2/a}
Cell Parameters:a = 11.737Å, b = 5.171Å, c = 7.63Å
β = 112.54°
Ratio:a:b:c = 2.27 : 1 : 1.476
Unit Cell Volume:V 427.71 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Tabular or elongated
Twinning:Common on {001}, lamellar

Optical Data of Petalite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.504 nβ = 1.510 nγ = 1.516
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.012

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low
Dispersion:r > v weak

Chemical Properties of Petalite

Formula:
LiAl(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)
Simplified for copy/paste:LiAl(Si4O10)
Essential elements:Al, Li, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Al, Li, O, Si
Common Impurities:Mg,Fe,Na,Ca,K,H2O

Relationship of Petalite to other Species

Common Associates:
TourmalineTopazSpodumeneQuartzPolylithionite-Trilithionite Series
PolluciteMicroclineAlbite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.EF.10Sanbornite
Ba
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)
9.EF.15Searlesite
Na(H
 
2
BSi
 
2
O
 
7
)
9.EF.20Silinaite
NaLiSi
 
2
O
 
5
· 2H
 
2
O
9.EF.25Kanemite
NaHSi
 
2
O
 
5
· 2H
 
2
O
9.EF.30Yakovenchukite-(Y)
K
 
3
NaCaY
 
2
[Si
 
12
O
 
30
] · 4H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
16.1.2Spodumene
LiAlSi
 
2
O
 
6
16.1.3Eucryptite
LiAlSiO
 
4
16.1.4Virgilite
LiAlSi
 
2
O
 
6
16.1.5Cookeite
(Al
 
2
Li)Al
 
2
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
16.1.6Bikitaite
LiAlSi
 
2
O
 
6
· H
 
2
O
16.1.7Lunijianlaite
Li
 
0.7
Al
 
6.2
(AlSi
 
7
O
 
20
)(OH,O)
 
10
16.1.8Swinefordite
Li(Al,Li,Mg)
 
4
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)
 
2
(OH,F)
 
4
· nH
 
2
O
16.1.9Holmquistite
☐{Li
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
16.1.13Clino-holmquistite Group
☐{Li
 
2
}{Z
2+
3
Z
3+
2
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH,F,Cl)
 
2
16.1.14Magnesioholmquistite
16.1.15Bityite
LiCaAl
 
2
(AlBeSi
 
2
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
16.1.16Sogdianite
K(□,Na)
 
2
Li
 
3
(Zr,Fe,Ti)
 
2
[Si
 
12
O
 
30
]
16.1.17Sugilite
K(Na,□)
 
2
Li
 
3
(Fe,Mn,Al,Zr)
 
2
[Si
 
12
O
 
30
]

Other Names for Petalite

Synonyms:
Arfvedsonite (of Beudant)Berzeliite (of Clarke)Berzelite (of Clark)Berzelite (of Clarke)Castorite
Lithite
Other Languages:
Dutch:Petaliet
German:Petalit
Castorit
Lithit
Italian:Petalite
Latin:Castor
Low Saxon:Petalit
Polish:Petalit
Portuguese:Petalita
Russian:Петалит
Simplified Chinese:透锂长石
Spanish:Castorita
Lithita
Petalita
Ukrainian:Петаліт

Other Information

Thermal Behaviour:Thermoluminescent
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:Lithium ore

References for Petalite

Reference List:

- +
Dana, E.S. (1892) Dana's system of mineralogy, (6th edition), 311-312.

Deer, W.A., R.A. Howie, and J. Zussman (1963) Rock-forming minerals, vol. 4, framework silicates: 271-275.

Tagai, T., H. Ried, W. Joswig, and M. Korekawa (1982) Kristallgraphische Untersuchungen eines Petalits mittels Neutronenbeugung und Transmissionelektronenmikroskopie. Zeits. Krist., 160, 159-170 (in German with English abstract).

Černý, P. and D. London (1983) Crystal chemistry and stablity of petalite. Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen: 31: 81-96.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie (1991): 197: 27-40.

Internet Links for Petalite

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
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  • Look for Petalite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Petalite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Petalite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Search for Petalite on Well-Arranged Molecules
  • Find Petalite on www.crystalclassics.co.uk
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  • Buy from McDougall Minerals
  • Specimens:The following Petalite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Petalite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Afghanistan
     
    • Laghman Province (Lagman Province; Nuristan)
      • Alingar District (Alinghar District)
    Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110.
      • Mihtarlam District
    Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110.
    • Nuristan Province (Nurestan Province; Nooristan Province; Nuristan)
      • Du Ab District
        • Nilaw-Kolum pegmatite field
    Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
      • Kamdesh District
    Lyckberg, P. (2011): Edelstein-Pegmatite in Afghanistan: Paprok. Mineralien-Welt. 22 (3): 46-57
    Angola
     
    • Namibe Province
      • Giraul pegmatite field
    Antonio Olimpio Gonçalves, Joan Carles Melgarejo, Pura Alfonso Abella (2009) SEQUENCE OF CRYSTALLISATION OF PEGMATITES: THE ANGOLA CASE. Estudos Geológicos v. 19 (2), pp 35-39
    Argentina
     
    • Salta
      • Nevados de Palermo
        • El Quemado District
    Galliski, M. A., & Černý, P. (2006). Geochemistry and structural state of columbite-group minerals in granitic pegmatites of the Pampean Ranges, Argentina. The Canadian Mineralogist, 44(3), 645-666.
    Australia
     
    • Western Australia
      • Coolgardie Shire
    Jacobson, M., Calderwood, M., Grguric, B.(2007): Pegmatites of Western Australia
    Jacobson, M., Calderwood, M., Grguric, B.(2007): Pegmatites of Western Australia
      • Dundas Shire
        • Norseman
    M. Jacobson, M. Calderwood, B. Grguric; Pegmaites of Western Australia; (Perth 2007)
    Brazil
     
    • Bahia
      • Brumado (Bom Jesus dos Meiras)
        • Serra das Éguas
    Rob Lavinsky, Martins da Piedra, Rafael Hernandes Correa-Silva, and John Sobolewski specimens
    • Minas Gerais
      • Doce valley
        • São José da Safira
    CanMin 38: 1399-1408 (2000)
      • Jequitinhonha Valley
    Rob Lavinsky
        • Itinga
          • Monte Belo
    [MinRec 12:74]; Quéméneur, J., & Lagache, M. (1999). Comparative study of two pegmatitic fields from Minas Gerais, Brazil, using rubidium and cesium content of the micas and feldspars. Brazilian Journal of Geology, 29(1), 27-32.
          • Taquaral
            • Piauí valley
    Quéméneur, J., & Lagache, M. (1999). Comparative study of two pegmatitic fields from Minas Gerais, Brazil, using rubidium and cesium content of the micas and feldspars. Brazilian Journal of Geology, 29(1), 27-32.
    Quéméneur, J., & Lagache, M. (1999). Comparative study of two pegmatitic fields from Minas Gerais, Brazil, using rubidium and cesium content of the micas and feldspars. Brazilian Journal of Geology, 29(1), 27-32.
    • Rio Grande do Norte
      • Borborema mineral province
        • Equador
    http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/parabariomicrolite.pdf.; Canadian Mineralogist (1986): 24: 655-663.
    Burma (Myanmar)
     
    • Shan State
      • Kyaukme District
        • Momeik Township
    Themelis, Ted, 2008, Gems and Mines of Mogok.
            • Khetchel village (Cache village; Khat Che village)
    Andreas Ertl, John M. Hughes, Stefan Prowatke, Thomas Ludwig, Franz Brandstätter, Wilfried Körner, and M. Darby Dyar (2007): Tetrahedrally coordinated boron in Li-bearing olenite from “mushroom” tourmaline from Momeik, Myanmar. Can. Mineral. 45, 891-899.
    Canada
     
    • Manitoba
    Canadian Mineralogist: 40: 1339-1345.
      • Lac-du-Bonnet area
        • Bernic Lake
    Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 369-384.; Econ Geol (1995) 90:658-675
    Phillips, K. A. (1978) Minerals of Manitoba: Vol 1 Nonmetallic and pegmatic. Manitoba Mineral Resources Division Educational Series 78/1.
    Econ Geol (1995) 90:658-675
    MinRec 32:416; Tschernich, R. (1992): Zeolites of the World, p.51; Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 16, pp, 625-640 (1978)
    CAMACHO, A., BAADSGAARD, H., DAVIS, D.W., ČERNY, P. (2012) Radiogenic isotope systematics of the Tanco and Siverleaf granitic pegmatites; Winnipeg River pegmatite district, Manitoba, Canadian Mineralogist 50, 1775-1792.
      • Red Cross Lake
    Xianjue Wang, Xiaolin Xiong, and Cerny, P. (2002): Geochimica 5, 481-486.; Černý, O., Teertstra, D.K., Chapman, R., Selway, J.B., Hawthorne, F.C., Ferreira, K., Chackowsky, L.E., Wang, X.J. & and Meintzer, R.E. (2012); Černý, P., Teertstra, D. K., Chapman, R., Selway, J. B., Hawthorne, F. C., Ferreira, K., ... & Meintzer, R. E. (2012). Extreme Fractionation And Deformation Of The Leucogranite–Pegmatite Suite At Red Cross Lake, Manitoba, Canada. Iv. Mineralogy. The Canadian Mineralogist, 50(6), 1839-1875.
    • Ontario
      • Kenora District
        • Lake of the Woods
    Traill, R. J. (1980) Catalog of Canadian Minerals: Revised 1980. Geological Survey of Canada Paper 80-18.
        • Pakeagama Lake Area
    Andrew G. Tindle, Fred W. Breaks and Julie B. Selway (2002) Tourmaline in petalite-subtype granitic pegmatites; evidence of fractionation and contamination from the Paleagama Lake and Separation Lake areas of northwestern Ontario, Canada. The Canadian Mineralogist 40:753-78; Ontario MDI Number: MDI53C11SW00003
        • Paterson Lake Area
    Pedersen, J. C. P.Geo., and Bubar, D. S.,(2002) Mineralogy and Zonation of the Big Whopper Pegmatite, Separation Rapids area, Kenora, Ontario Proceedings Volume of the Institute on Lake Superior Geology Vol 48 pp 34-35
    Tindle, A.G. & Breaks, F.W. (1998) Oxide minerals of the Separation Rapids rare-element granitic pegmatite group, northwestern Ontario. Canadian Mineralogist, 36, 609-635. Tindle, A.G., Breaks, F.W. and Webb, P.C. (1998) Wodginite-group minerals from the Separation Rapids Rare-Element Granitic Pegmatite Group, northwestern Ontario. Canadian Mineralogist, 36, 637-658. Kenora District Monthly Activity Summary, March 2001; http://www.mndm.gov.on.ca/MNDM/MINES/resgeol/kenora/reports/2001/march.htm
        • Root Lake pegmatite group
          • Root Lake Area
    Tindle, A. G., Selway, J. B. & Breaks, F. W. (2005): Liddicoatite and associated species from the McCombe spodumene-subtype rare-element granitic pegmatite, northwestern Ontario, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist 43, 769-793.
    [AmMin 84:992]; Tindle, A.G., Breaks, F.W., and Selway, J.B. (2002) Tourmaline in petalite-subtype gramitic pegmatites: evidence of fractionation and contamination from Pakeagama Lake and Separation Lake areas of northwestern Ontario, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist, 40, 753-788.
        • Treelined Lake Area
    Ontario Ministry of Northern Development and Mines Number: MDI52L08SW00025
    • Québec
      • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
        • Abitibi RCM
          • La Corne
    Sabina, A.P. (2003): Rocks & Minerals for the collector; Kirkland Lake - Rouyn-Noranda - Val d'Or, Ontario & Quebec. GSC Misc. Report 77, 169p.
    China
     
    • Hubei Province
      • Xianning Prefecture
        • Tongcheng Co.
    Yuyu Zhang and Rubo Zhang (2008): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 29(3), 37-40
    • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
      • Yili Hasake Autonomous Prefecture (Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Aletai Prefecture (Altay Prefecture)
          • Fuyun Co. (Koktokay Co.)
            • Koktokay pegmatite field (Keketuohai pegmatite field)
              • Altay Mine
    Tianren Zou, Xiangchen Zhang, Fuyi Jia, Rucong Wang, Huizhi Cao, and Boqing Wu (1986): Mineral Deposits 5(4), 34-48; Huanzhang Lu, Zhonggang Wang, and Yuansheng Li (1997): Chinese Journal of Geochemistry 16(1), 43-52
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • South Bohemia Region
        • Český Krumlov
    Welser, P. et al.: Lithný pegmatit Nová Ves. Minerál, Special volume, 2007, roč. 15.
          • Rožmberk nad Vltavou
    Vrána, S.: Otázka dohledání lokality petalit-spodumenového pegmatitu u Rožmberka nad Vltavou. Minerál, 2013, roč. 21, č. 5, s. 429-430.
    • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
      • Vysočina Region
        • Jihlava (Iglau)
    Staněk, J.: Příspěvky k mineralogii některých západomoravských pegmatitů. Časopis Moravského musea v Brně, 1952, roč. 37, s. 112-125.;
    Egypt
     
    • Red Sea Governorate
      • Eastern Desert
    Gehad M. Saleh (2007) Rare-Metal Pegmatites from the Southeastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, Geochemistry, and Petrogenesis. International Geology Review Vol. 49:824-843.
    Ethiopia
     
    • Sidamo-Borana Province
      • Kenticha pegmatite field
    Küster, D. et al. (2009): Mineralium Deposita 44, 723-750.
    Finland
     
    • Southern Finland Region
      • Heinola
    Mattila, E:, 1983 Rakokivenmäen Sn-Li-pitoisen pegmatiittijuonen kairaus. Rautaruukki oy. Raportti OU/83
      • Tammela
    Vesasalo, A. (1959): On the petalite occurrences of Tammela, SW-Finland. C. R. Soc. Géol. Finlande. 31, 59-74
    • Southwestern Finland Region
      • Somero
    Wilke, H.-J. (1976): Mineral-Fundstellen Band 4: Skandinavien. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, (p.295)
    France
     
    • Limousin
      • Haute-Vienne
        • Ambazac
    Guide geologique de la Haute Vienne, musee municipal de Limoges, Limoges, 1967
        • Saint-Sylvestre
    http://perso.wanadoo.fr/jeldemine/liste%20mineraux%20sud.html
    Italy
     
    • Tuscany
      • Livorno Province
        • Elba Island
          • Campo nell'Elba
    Mineralogical Record, 16 (5), 353-363.
    Alessandro Genazzani collection
    Barsotti, G., & Nannoni, R. (2006). Rocce, minerali e miniere delle isole dell'Arcipelago Toscano. Pacini editore, 152 pp.
                • Podere Liborio
    F.Pezzotta, M.Lorenzoni (2008) "Bismuto Nativo: prima segnalazione nelle pegmatiti elbane " Rivista Mineralogica Italiana N.2, 2008
    A. Beithaupt (1846) - Neue Mineralien: Kastor und Pollux - Poggend. An., 69: 436-439.
    F. Pezzotta, F.C. Hawthorne, M.A. Cooper, D.K. Teerstra (1996) - Fibrous foitite from S. Piero in Campo, Elba, Italy. - Canad. Min., 34: 741-744.
            • Sant'Ilario in Campo
    Barsotti, G., & Nannoni, R. (2006). Rocce, minerali e miniere delle isole dell'Arcipelago Toscano. Pacini editore, 152 pp.
                • Fosso Marcianella Pegmatite
    Field Trip Excursion Programm IMA, May 29, 2005 (M.E. Ciriotti).
    Japan
     
    • Kyushu Region
      • Fukuoka Prefecture
    www.petrovrareminerals.com/articles02.html; Yohei Shirose, Seiichiro Uehara (2013) Li tourmaline from Nagatare, Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences Vol. 108 (2013) No. 4 August p. 238-243
    Mozambique
     
    • Zambezia Province
      • Alto Ligonha District
    Thomas, R., Davidson, P. (2010): Hambergite-rich melt inclusions in morganite crystals from the Muiane pegmatite, Mozambique and some remarks on the paragenesis of hambergite. - Mineralogy and Petrology, 100, 3-4, 227-23
    Dias, M. Bettencourt and Wilson, W. E., 2000, Mineralogical Record, 31:459-497.
    Namibia
     
    • Erongo Region
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 826.
        • Karlsbrunn Farm 42
    Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. 675 (in English).
        • Okatjimukuju Farm 55 (Friedrichsfelde Farm)
    P. Keller and O. von Knorring, Eur. J. Mineral. , 1989, 1, pp. 567-593.
        • Okongava Ost Farm 72
    Mining Ann. Review(1985):423.
    Keller, P. (1991): The occurrence of Li-Fe-Mn phosphate minerals in granitic pegmatites of Namibia. Communs. Geol. Surv. Namibia, 7, 21-34.
        • Usakos
    Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. 409 (in English).
      • Swakopmund District
        • Cape Cross area
    Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. 675 (in English).
    http://www.mineral.tu-freiberg.de/econgeology/lehre/namibia/snlipegm/snlipegm_2_4.html
    • Kunene Region
      • Damaraland District
    Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2007): Namibia. Mineralien und Fundstellen. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag, Haltern: 417 (in English).
    Portugal
     
    • Guarda District
      • Guarda
    João Farinha Ramos (2007) Locality no. 5: Seixo Amarelo-Gonçalo Rare Element Aplite-Pegmatite Field. in ALEXANDRE LIMA & ENCARNACIÓN RODA ROBLES ed (2007) GRANITIC PEGMATITES: THE STATE OF THE ART - FIELD TRIP GUIDEBOOK. MEMÓRIAS N. º 9, UNIV. DO PORTO, FACULDADE DE CIÊNCIAS, DEPARTAMENTO DE GEOLOGIA pp 73-86.
    João Farinha Ramos (2007) Locality no. 5: Seixo Amarelo-Gonçalo Rare Element Aplite-Pegmatite Field. in ALEXANDRE LIMA & ENCARNACIÓN RODA ROBLES ed (2007) GRANITIC PEGMATITES: THE STATE OF THE ART - FIELD TRIP GUIDEBOOK. MEMÓRIAS N. º 9, UNIV. DO PORTO, FACULDADE DE CIÊNCIAS, DEPARTAMENTO DE GEOLOGIA pp 73-86.
      • Vila Nova de Foz Côa
        • Almendra
    Romeu Vieira, Alexandre Lima (2007) Locality no. 2, Bajoca mine, Almendra, Portugal. in ALEXANDRE LIMA & ENCARNACIÓN RODA ROBLES ed (2007) GRANITIC PEGMATITES: THE STATE OF THE ART - FIELD TRIP GUIDEBOOK. MEMÓRIAS N. º 9, UNIV. DO PORTO, FACULDADE DE CIÊNCIAS, DEPARTAMENTO DE GEOLOGIA pp 49-54
    • Vila Real District
    Martins, T., Lima, A., Simmons, W.B. Falster, A.U. & Noronha, F. (2011): Geochemical fractionation of Nb-Ta oxides in Li-bearing pegmatites from the Barroso-Alvão pegmatite field, Northern Portugal. Canadian Mineralogist. 49, 777-791
    Novák, M. et al. (2009): Ferronigerite with dominant substitution TiSn-1 in muscovite+chlorite aggregate from massive quartz nodule associated with a petalite-rich aplite-pegmatite of the Barroso-Alvão pegmatite field, Northern Portugal. N. Jb. Mineral. Abh. 186, 67-78.
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
        • Irkutskaya Oblast'
    Makagon, V. (2007) Evolution of Nb, Ta-oxide mineralization in rare-metal pegmatites of the East Sayan belt, Siberia, Russia. in Granitic Pegmatites: The State of the Art – International Symposium. 06th – 12th May 2007, Porto, Portugal. pp 46-47; Seltmann, R., Soloviev, S., Shatov, V., Pirajno, F., Naumov, E., & Cherkasov, S. (2010). Metallogeny of Siberia: tectonic, geologic and metallogenic settings of selected significant deposits*. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57(6), 655-706
      • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
        • Chitinskaya Oblast'
          • Krasnyi Chikoy
            • Malkhan pegmatite field (Malchan; "Malechansk")
    [MinRec 32:44]
    International Geological Congress (2008) MRD-06 The Sosedka gem tourmaline-rich mine: Emplacement of extremely chemically heterogeneous pegmatite-forming medium
    P.M. Kartashov data
    Spain
     
    • Castile and Leon
      • Salamanca
        • La Fregeneda
    Encarnación Roda-Robles, Alfonso Pesquera (2007) Locality no. 3: Lepidolite-spodumene-rich and cassiterite-rich pegmatites from the Feli open-pit, (La Fregeneda, Salamanca, Spain) in ALEXANDRE LIMA & ENCARNACIÓN RODA ROBLES ed (2007) GRANITIC PEGMATITES: THE STATE OF THE ART - FIELD TRIP GUIDEBOOK. MEMÓRIAS N. º 9, UNIV. DO PORTO, FACULDADE DE CIÊNCIAS, DEPARTAMENTO DE GEOLOGIA pp 55-64
    Sweden
     
    • Lappland
    No reference listed
    • Medelpad
      • Sundsvall
    Romer, R.L & Smeds, S-A. (1997): U-Pb columbite chronology of post-kinematic Palaeoproterozoic pegmatites in Sweden. Precambrian Research. 82, 85–99
    No reference listed
    • Södermanland
      • Utö
    d’Andrada, J. B. (1800): Der eigenschaften und kennzeichen einiger neuen fossilien aus Schweden und Norwegen nebst einigen chemischen bemerkungen ueber dieselben. Allgemeines Journal der Chemie 4, 28-39; Tschermaks MPM (1983), 31, 81-96
    Selway, J. B.; Smeds, S.-A.; Černý, P.; Hawthorne, F. C. (2002): Compositional evolution of tourmaline in the petalite-subtype Nykopingsgruvan pegmatites, Utö, Stockholm Archipelago, Sweden. GFF 124, 93-102
    • Västerbotten
      • Skellefteå
    Grensman, F & Langhof, J.(1991):Åkerberget. Guldgruva med litiumpegmatite. STEIN 18(2),20-22
    Quensel, P. (1945): Minerals of the Varuträsk Pegmatite. XXXV. Stibiomicrolite. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar. 67, 15-27
    UK
     
    • England
      • Devon
        • Okehampton area (Northern Dartmoor)
    McLintock, W.F.P. (1923): Mineralogical Magazine 20, 140-150
    USA
     
    • California
      • San Diego Co.
        • Pala District
          • Pala
            • Hiriart Mountain (Hariat Mtn; Harriot Mtn; Heriart Mtn; Heriot Mtn; Hiriat Hill)
    Ref.: Weber, F. H. 1963. Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: p. 98.
    Jahns, Richard Henry & Wright, Lauren A. (1951), Gem and lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala district, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines Special Report 7-A: p. 31.
        • Rincon District
          • Rincon
            • Rincon Mountain
    Hanley, J. B. 1951. Economic Geology of the Rincon Pegmatites, San Diego County, California. Department of Natural Resources, California Division of Mines, Special Report 7B: p. 20-23, maps; Murdoch, Joseph (1946), Progress on revision of Bulletin 113 “Minerals of California,” with notes on some new mineral occurrences: California Division Mines Report 42: 198; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 79, 215, 286, 346; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 367.
    • Connecticut
      • Middlesex Co.
        • Portland
          • Collins Hill
            • Strickland pegmatite (Strickland-Cramer Quarry; Strickland-Cramer Mine; Strickland-Cramer Feldspar-Mica Quarries)
    Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of Connecticut and Southeastern New York State (Taylor Assoc./Mineralogical Press)
    • Maine
      • Oxford Co.
        • Buckfield
    Rocks & Min.: 62:403-404.
        • Greenwood
    King, V. and Foord, E.E., 1994 Mineralogy of Maine, Vol. 1, Maine Geologic Survey, Augusta.
    Mineralogical Record 24: 382-383 ; Mineral News (1993) 9:2 p. 8
    King, V. T., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, Descriptive Mineralogy, v. 1
        • Newry
    King, V. T., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, Descriptive Mineralogy, v. 1
        • Norway
    King & Foord, 1994. Mineralogy of Maine, V. 1.
        • Paris
    King, V. and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, vol. 1.
    King, V. T. and Foord, E. E., 2000, Mineralogy of Maine, v.2, Maine Geological Survey, Augusta, Maine, pp. 524 + 25 plates.; -Guidebook 1 to Mineral Collecting in the Maine Pegmatite Belt pg. 8
        • Peru
    King, V. T. and Foord, E. E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, Vol. 1.
    • Massachusetts
      • Worcester Co.
        • Bolton
    Emerson, B.K. Geology of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, 1917. (USGS Bulletin 597; Yale Peabody Museum specimen # 6887.
    Shepard, C. U., 1832, Treatise on Mineralogy
    • New Hampshire
      • Cheshire Co.
    Morrill, 1960. NH Mines and Mineral Localities
      • Strafford Co.
        • Strafford
          • Parker Mountain
    Rocks & Min.:64:504.; Rocks & Minerals 80:4 pp234-241
    • New Mexico
      • Taos Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
    • North Carolina
      • Cleveland Co.
        • Kings Mountain District
    Wilson,W.F and McKenzie,B.J.,1980,Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina,pp#50
      • Mitchell Co.
        • Spruce Pine District
    • South Dakota
      • Pennington Co.
        • Keystone District
          • Keystone
    Rocks & Minerals: 67(6): 380-388.; USGS Bull 380D; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Wyoming
    Rocks&Min 76:23-241
        • Bridger Mts (Bridger Range)
    Rocks & Minerals 76:386
    Meeves, H., et al (1966), Reconnaissance of beryllium-bearing pegmatite deposits in six western states, US Bur. Mines Info. Circ. 8298: 34 (Table A-1).
    USGS Prof. Paper 227
    Zimbabwe
     
    • Harare District
    Mineralogical Magazine 1959 32 : 87-89
    • Masvingo
      • Bikita Area
    http://geology.csupomona.edu/drjessey/class/GSC433/Pegmatites.htm; Cerny, P., Anderson, A. J., Tomascak, P. B., & Chapman, R. (2003). Geochemical and morphological features of beryl from the Bikita granitic pegmatite, Zimbabwe. The Canadian Mineralogist, 41(4), 1003-1011.
    • Matabeleland North
      • Hwange District
        • Dete (Dett)
    Rijks, H. R. P., & Van Der Veen, A. H. (1972). The geology of the tin-bearing pegmatites in the eastern part of the Kamativi district, Rhodesia. Mineralium Deposita, 7(4), 383-395.
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