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Pharmacosiderite

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Formula:
KFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
System:
Isometric
Colour:
Pale green, Green, ...
Hardness:
Name:
Named in 1813 by Johann Friedrich Ludwig Hausmann from the Greek φάρμăκου for "poison or drug" in allusion to the arsenic content, and σίδηρος "sideros" for "iron" in its composition.
Pharmacosiderite Group.

A secondary mineral occurring in the oxidized zones of iron-bearing sulfide deposits or in hydrothermal deposits.

Classification of Pharmacosiderite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
8.DK.10

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
D : Phosphates, etc. with additional anions, with H2O
K : With large and medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 > 1:1 and < 2:1
42.8.1a.1

42 : HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
8 : (AB)5(XO4)3Zq·xH2O
20.9.9

20 : Arsenates (also arsenates with phosphate, but without other anions)
9 : Arsenates of Fe
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Type Occurrence of Pharmacosiderite

Occurrences of Pharmacosiderite

Geological Setting:
Oxidation zones of arsenic-bearing sulfide deposits; also in hydrothermal deposits.

Physical Properties of Pharmacosiderite

Adamantine, Sub-Adamantine, Sub-Vitreous, Greasy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Pale green, Green, emerald-green, dark brown, honey-yellow to yellow-brown, brownish red, hyacinth-red; green, yellow, light brown in transmitted light (biaxially sectored).
Streak:
white
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Imperfect/Fair
Imperfect to good on {001}.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Comment:
Described as "somewhat sectile"
Density:
2.797 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.90 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Pharmacosiderite

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
4 3m - Hextetrahedral
Space Group:
P4 3m
Space Group Setting:
P4 3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.96(2) Å
Unit Cell Volume:
V 504.36 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
1
Morphology:
Cubic crystals, striated diagonally or replaced by a vicinal trapezohedron near {1.1.40}; and exhibiting minor {111}, {111}, {011}, and {122}; also tetrahedral. Granular, earthy.
Twinning:
Lamellar, rarely as twinned tetrahedra.

Crystallographic forms of Pharmacosiderite

Crystal Atlas:
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Pharmacosiderite no.8 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Pharmacosiderite no.12 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
8.0 (90)
4.61 (100)
3.259 (70)
2.822 (65)
2.408 (80)
1.7844 (65)
1.5959 (60)
Comments:
ICDD 34-155

Optical Data of Pharmacosiderite

Type:
Isotropic
RI values:
nα = 1.660 - 1.697 nβ = 1.661 - 1.700 nγ = 1.663 - 1.704 n = 1.687 - 1.704
2V:
Measured: 80° to 90°
Birefringence:
0.005
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.003 - 0.007 - Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:
High
Optical Extinction:
May have biaxial sectors
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic
Comments:
Virtually always anomalously biaxial + or - of tensional origin, with weak birefringence, possibly exhibiting six biaxial sectors based on the faces of {001}. Measured 2V = large.

Chemical Properties of Pharmacosiderite

Formula:
KFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
P

Relationship of Pharmacosiderite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
BariopharmacosideriteBa0.5Fe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 5H2O
CaesiumpharmacosideriteCsFe4[(AsO4)3(OH)4]·4H2O
Hydroniumpharmacosiderite(H3O)Fe4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 4H2O
Natropharmacosiderite(Na,K)Fe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
StrontiopharmacosideriteSr0.5Fe4[(AsO4)3(OH)4]·4H2O
ThalliumpharmacosideriteTlFe4[(AsO4)3(OH)4]·4H2O
8.DK.RichelsdorfiteCa2Cu5Sb(AsO4)4(OH)6Cl · 6H2O
8.DK.10BariopharmacosideriteBa0.5Fe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 5H2O
8.DK.10Natropharmacosiderite(Na,K)Fe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
8.DK.10Hydroniumpharmacosiderite(H3O)Fe4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 4H2O
8.DK.12PharmacoalumiteKAl4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6.5H2O
8.DK.12NatropharmacoalumiteNaAl4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 4H2O
8.DK.12BariopharmacoalumiteBa0.5Al4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 4H2O
8.DK.15BurangaiteNaFe2+Al5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
8.DK.15DufréniteCa0.5Fe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
8.DK.15NatrodufréniteNaFe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
8.DK.15MatioliiteNaMgAl5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
8.DK.15GayiteNaMn2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
8.DK.20KidwelliteNaFe3+9+x(PO4)6(OH)11 · 3H2O, x = 0.33
8.DK.25Bleasdaleite(Ca,Fe3+)2Cu5(Bi,Cu)(PO4)4(H2O,OH,Cl)13
8.DK.30Matulaite(Fe3+,Al)Al7(PO4)4(PO3OH)2(OH)8(H2O)8 · 8H2O
8.DK.35KrasnoviteBa(Al,Mg)(PO4,CO3)(OH)2 · H2O
20.9.1AngelelliteFe43+(AsO4)2O3
20.9.2ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
20.9.3KaňkiteFeAsO4 · 3.5H2O
20.9.4FerrisymplesiteFe33+(AsO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
20.9.5KaatialaiteFe(H2AsO4)3 · 5H2O
20.9.6SymplesiteFe32+(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
20.9.7ParasymplesiteFe32+(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
20.9.8Natropharmacosiderite(Na,K)Fe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
20.9.10KolfaniteCa2Fe33+O2(AsO4)3 · 2H2O
20.9.11ArseniosideriteCa2Fe33+(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
20.9.12YukoniteCa3Fe3+(AsO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
20.9.13DussertiteBaFe33+(AsO4)(AsO3OH)(OH)6
20.9.14Liskeardite[(Al,Fe)32(AsO4)18(OH)42(H2O)22] · 52H2O
20.9.15MapimiteZn2Fe33+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 10H2O
20.9.16OgdensburgiteCa2Fe43+(Zn,Mn2+)(AsO4)4(OH)6 · 6H2O
20.9.17WalentaiteH(Ca,Mn2+,Fe2+)Fe33+(AsO4,PO4)4 · 7H2O

Other Names for Pharmacosiderite

Other Information

Not fluorescent in UV
Electrical:
Weakly piezoelectric and pyroelectric.
Other Information:
Soluble in HCl. Crystals immersed in ammonia turn red and revert to the original green colour when reimmersed in dilute HCl.

Alters to Limonite and Wad. Forms pseudomorphs after Siderite.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Pharmacosiderite

Reference List:
Klaproth (1786) Schriften der Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde in Berlin, Schr.: 1: 161 (as Arseniksaures Eisen im Würfeln kryst.).
Lenz, D. G. (1794) Versuch einer vollständigen Anleitung zur Kenntniss der Mineralien. 2 volumes, Leipzig: 2: 18, 151 (as Würfelerz).
Kirwan, R. (1796) Elements of Mineralogy. second edition: 2: 189 (as Arsenicated Iron Ore).

Klaproth
(1802) Beitr.: 3: 194 (as Arseniksaures Eisen im Würfeln kryst.).
Karsten, D. L. G. (1808) Mineralogische Tabellen, Berlin. second edition: 66: 1808 (as Würfelerz).
Hausmann, J. F. L. (1813) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen: 1065 (as Pharmakosiderit).
Brauns, R. A. (1891): 349.
Hartley (1899) Mineralogical Magazine: 12: 152.
Gaubert (1907) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 30: 108.
Lacroix, A. (1910) Minéralogie de la France et des ses colonies, Paris. 5 volumes: vol. 4: 520.
Goldschmidt, V. (1920) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 6: 137.
Larsen, E. S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 118.
Heide (1928) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 67: 60.
Hocart (1934) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 57: 5.
Hägele and Machatschki (1937) Forschritte der Mineralogie, Kristallographie und Petrographie, Jena: 21: 77.
Zemann, J. (1948): Formula and structural type of pharmacosiderite. Mineralog. u. petrog. Mitt. 1, 1-13.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 995-997.
Zemann, J. (1959): Isotypes between pharmacosiderite and zeolitic germanates. Acta Cryst. 12, 252. (in German.)
Buerger, M.J., W.A. Dollase, and I. Garaycochea-Wittke (1967) The structure and composition of the mineral pharmacosiderite. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 125: 92-108.
Greis, O., G. Mutter, and W. Eysel (1981) Pulverröntgenographische Untersuchungen an A[Fe4(OH)4(AsO4)3]•(5−7)H2O. Zeits. Krist., 156, 48–49 (in German).
Mutter, G., Greis, O., and Eysel, W. (1982): Strukturvarianten und Eigenschaften von Pharmakosideriten. Fortschr. Mineral., 60, Beiheft 1, 151-152.
Mutter, G., W. Eysel, O. Greis, and K. Schmetzer (1984) Crystal chemistry of natural and ion-exchanged pharmacosiderites. Neues Jahrb. Mineral., Monatsh., 183–192.
Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2000) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume IV. Arsenates, Phosphates, Vanadates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 680pp.: 452.
Mills, S. J., Hager, S. L., Leverett, P., Williams, P. A. & Raudsepp, M. (2010) The crystal structure of H3O+-exchanged pharmacosiderite. Mineralogical Magazine, 74(3), 487–492.

Internet Links for Pharmacosiderite

Specimens:
The following Pharmacosiderite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Pharmacosiderite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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