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Phlogopite

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Formula:
KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Brown, gray, green, ...
Lustre:
Vitreous, Pearly
Hardness:
2 - 3
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1841 by Johann Friedrich August Breithaupt from the Greek φλογωποζ "phlogopos" for "resembling fire", in allusion to the red tint of the original specimens.
Mica Group. Biotite-Phlogopite Series.
The hydroxyl analogue of Fluorophlogopite and the magnesium analogue of Hendricksite. Also, generally the micas on the Phlogopite end (magnesium end) of the Biotite-Phlogopite Series, including Phlogopite, Fluorophlogopite, Eastonite, and Hendricksite.

A wide-spread member of the mica group occurring especially in crystalline, dolomitic marbles associated with spinel, diopside and members of the chondrodite group. Redefined as the OH end-member by the IMA Mica Subcommittee in 1998.

Classification of Phlogopite

Approved 1998
9.EC.20

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
C : Phyllosilicates with mica sheets, composed of tetrahedral and octahedral nets
71.2.2b.1

71 : PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
2 : Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
16.8.6

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
8 : Aluminosilicates of Mg and alkalis
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Occurrences of Phlogopite

Geological Setting:
Contact and regional metamorphic limestones and dolomites, ultramafic rocks

Physical Properties of Phlogopite

Vitreous, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Comment:
sub-metallic on cleavage
Colour:
Brown, gray, green, yellow, or reddish brown
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
2 - 3
Tenacity:
Flexible
Cleavage:
Perfect
on {0001}
Fracture:
Micaceous
Density:
2.78 - 2.85 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.79 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Phlogopite

Polytype:
Formula:
Crystal System:
Class (H-M)
Space Group:
Space Group Setting:
Cell Parameters:
Ratio:
Unit Cell Volume (calc):
Z:
Phlogopite-1MPhlogopite-2M1Phlogopite-3T
   
   
   
   



   
   
   

Crystallographic forms of Phlogopite

Crystal Atlas:
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Phlogopite no.100 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Phlogopite no.127 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Phlogopite no.128 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Phlogopite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.530 - 1.573 nβ = 1.557 - 1.617 nγ = 1.558 - 1.618
2V:
Calculated: 16° to 20°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.028 - 0.045
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
r < v distinct
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X= yellow
Y=Z= brownish red, green, yellow

Chemical Properties of Phlogopite

Formula:
KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Mn,Ba,Cr,Na,Ti,Ni,Zn,Ca,Li,Rb,H2O

Relationship of Phlogopite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Annite (see here)
Member of:
Other Members of Group:
AluminoceladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Al(Si4O10)(OH)2
Anandite(Ba,K)(Fe2+,Mg)3((Si,Al,Fe)4O10)(S,OH)2
AnniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Annite-Phlogopite Series
AspidoliteNaMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
BalestraiteKLi2V5+Si4O12
Biotite
BityiteLiCaAl2(AlBeSi2O10)(OH)2
BoromuscoviteKAl2(BSi3O10)(OH)2
Brammallite(Na,H3O)(Al,Mg,Fe)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2
CeladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Fe3+(Si4O10)(OH)2
Chernykhite(Ba,Na)(V3+,Al,Mg)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2
ChromceladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)(Cr,Al)(Si4O10)(OH)2
ChromphylliteK(Cr,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2
ClintoniteCa(Mg,Al)3(Al3SiO10)(OH)2
EastoniteKMg2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
EphesiteLiNaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
FerroaluminoceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Al,Fe3+)(Si4O10)(OH)2
FerroceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Fe3+,Al)(Si4O10)(OH)2
Ferrokinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Fe2+,Mg)3(Al2Si2O10)(OH,F)2
FluoranniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
FluorophlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
Ganterite(Ba,Na,K)(Al,Mg)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al,Fe3+)4O10)(OH)2
HendricksiteK(Zn,Mg,Mn2+)3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
IlliteK0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Kinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Mg,Mn2+,Al)3(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Lepidolite
LuanshiweiiteKLiAl1.5□0.5(Si3.5Al0.5)O10(OH,F)2
MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Masutomilite(K,Rb)(Li,Mn3+,Al)3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
Montdorite(K,Na)2(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)5(Si4O10)2(OH,F)4
MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Muscovite-Celadonite Series
NanpingiteCsAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2
Natro-glauconite(Na,K)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2
NorrishiteKLiMn23+(Si4O10)O2
Oxykinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Mg,Ti,Fe3+,Fe2+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(O,OH,F)2
OxyphlogopiteK(Mg,Ti,Fe)3[(Si,Al)4O10](O,F)2
ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phengite
PolylithioniteKLi2Al(Si4O10)(F,OH)2
PreiswerkiteNaMg2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
RoscoeliteK(V3+,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
ShirokshiniteKNaMg2(Si4O10)F2
ShirozuliteK(Mn2+,Mg)3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiderophylliteKFe22+Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
SokolovaiteCsLi2Al(Si4O10)F2
Suhailite(NH4)Fe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
TainioliteKLiMg2(Si4O10)F2
TetraferrianniteKFe32+((Fe3+,Al)Si3O10)(OH)2
TetraferriphlogopiteKMg3(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH,F)2
Tobelite(NH4,K)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
TrilithioniteK(Li1.5Al1.5)(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
VoloshiniteRb(LiAl1.51.5)(Al0.5Si3.5)O10F2
Wonesite(Na,K)(Mg,Fe,Al)6((Al,Si)4O10)2(OH,F)4
YangzhumingiteKMg2.5(Si4O10)F2
ZinnwalditeKLiFe2+Al(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.05Minnesotaite(Fe,Mg)3(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.05TalcMg3(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.05Willemseite(Ni,Mg)3(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.10FerripyrophylliteFe23+(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.10PyrophylliteAl2(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15BoromuscoviteKAl2(BSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15CeladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Fe3+(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15Chernykhite(Ba,Na)(V3+,Al,Mg)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15Montdorite(K,Na)2(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)5(Si4O10)2(OH,F)4
9.EC.15MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15NanpingiteCsAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2
9.EC.15ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15RoscoeliteK(V3+,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15Tobelite(NH4,K)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15AluminoceladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Al(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15ChromphylliteK(Cr,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2
9.EC.15FerroaluminoceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Al,Fe3+)(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15FerroceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Fe3+,Al)(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15ChromceladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)(Cr,Al)(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15TainioliteKLiMg2(Si4O10)F2
9.EC.15Ganterite(Ba,Na,K)(Al,Mg)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20AnniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20EphesiteLiNaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20HendricksiteK(Zn,Mg,Mn2+)3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20Masutomilite(K,Rb)(Li,Mn3+,Al)3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.20NorrishiteKLiMn23+(Si4O10)O2
9.EC.20PolylithioniteKLi2Al(Si4O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.20PreiswerkiteNaMg2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20SiderophylliteKFe22+Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20TetraferriphlogopiteKMg3(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH,F)2
9.EC.20FluorotetraferriphlogopiteKMg3(Fe3+Si3O10)F2
9.EC.20Wonesite(Na,K)(Mg,Fe,Al)6((Al,Si)4O10)2(OH,F)4
9.EC.20EastoniteKMg2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20TetraferrianniteKFe32+((Fe3+,Al)Si3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20TrilithioniteK(Li1.5Al1.5)(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.20FluoranniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.20ShirokshiniteKNaMg2(Si4O10)F2
9.EC.20ShirozuliteK(Mn2+,Mg)3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20SokolovaiteCsLi2Al(Si4O10)F2
9.EC.20AspidoliteNaMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20FluorophlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.20UM2004-49-SiO:AlCsFHKLi(Cs,K)(Al,Li)2.6((Si,Al)4O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.20Suhailite(NH4)Fe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20YangzhumingiteKMg2.5(Si4O10)F2
9.EC.20OrloviteKLi2Ti(Si4O10)OF
9.EC.20OxyphlogopiteK(Mg,Ti,Fe)3[(Si,Al)4O10](O,F)2
9.EC.25Brammallite(Na,H3O)(Al,Mg,Fe)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.30MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
9.EC.35Anandite(Ba,K)(Fe2+,Mg)3((Si,Al,Fe)4O10)(S,OH)2
9.EC.35BityiteLiCaAl2(AlBeSi2O10)(OH)2
9.EC.35ClintoniteCa(Mg,Al)3(Al3SiO10)(OH)2
9.EC.35Kinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Mg,Mn2+,Al)3(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
9.EC.35Ferrokinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Fe2+,Mg)3(Al2Si2O10)(OH,F)2
9.EC.35Oxykinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Mg,Ti,Fe3+,Fe2+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(O,OH,F)2
9.EC.35FluorokinoshitaliteBaMg3(Al2Si2O10)F2
9.EC.40Beidellite(Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
9.EC.40Kurumsakite(Zn,Ni,Cu)8Al8V25+Si5O35 · 27H2O (?)
9.EC.40Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
9.EC.40NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
9.EC.40VolkonskoiteCa0.3(Cr,Mg,Fe)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
9.EC.40Yakhontovite(Ca,Na)0.5(Cu,Fe,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 3H2O
9.EC.45HectoriteNa0.3(Mg,Li)3(Si4O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.45SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
9.EC.45SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
9.EC.45SpadaiteMgSiO2(OH)2 · H2O (?)
9.EC.45Stevensite(Ca,Na)xMg3-x(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.45SwineforditeLi(Al,Li,Mg)4((Si,Al)4O10)2(OH,F)4 · nH2O
9.EC.45ZincsiliteZn3(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
9.EC.45FerrosaponiteCa0.3(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
9.EC.50Vermiculite(Mg,Fe,Al)3((Al,Si)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
9.EC.55Baileychlore(Zn,Fe,Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg)5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55Clinochlore(Mg,Fe2+)5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55FranklinfurnaceiteCa2Fe3+Mn32+Mn3+(Zn2Si2O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55Gonyerite(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55Nimite(Ni,Mg,Al)6((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55Orthochamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH,O)8
9.EC.55PennantiteMn52+Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55Sudoite(Mg,Fe2+)2Al3(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55DonbassiteAl4.33(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55GlagoleviteNa(Mg,Al)6(AlSi3O10)(OH,O)8
9.EC.55BorocookeiteLi1+3xAl4-x(BSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.60AliettiteCa0.2Mg6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 4H2O
9.EC.60Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2O
9.EC.60DozyiteMg7Al2(Al2Si4O15)(OH)12
9.EC.60HydrobiotiteK(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2O
9.EC.60Karpinskite(Ni,Mg)2Si2O5(OH)2 (?)
9.EC.60KulkeiteMg8Al(AlSi7O20)(OH)10
9.EC.60LunijianlaiteLi0.7Al6.2(AlSi7O20)(OH,O)10
9.EC.60Rectorite(Na,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2O
9.EC.60Saliotite(Li,Na)Al3(AlSi3O10)(OH)5
9.EC.60TosuditeNa0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2O
9.EC.60BrinrobertsiteNa0.3Al4(Si4O10)2(OH)4 · 3.5 H2O
9.EC.65Macaulayite(Fe,Al)24Si4O43(OH)2
9.EC.70BurckhardtitePb2(Fe3+Te6+)[AlSi3O8]O6
9.EC.75Ferrisurite(Pb,Ca)2.4Fe23+(Si4O10)(CO3)1.7(OH)3 · nH2O
9.EC.75Surite(Pb,Ca)3(Al,Fe2+,Mg)2((Si,Al)4O10)(CO3)2(OH)2
9.EC.75Niksergievite(Ba,Ca)2Al3(AlSi3O10)(CO3)(OH)6 · nH2O
9.EC.80KegelitePb8Al4(Si8O20)(SO4)2(CO3)4(OH)8
16.8.1PreiswerkiteNaMg2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
16.8.3NybøiteNaNa2(Mg3Al2)(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
16.8.4Ferrierite
16.8.5Yagiite(Na,K)3Mg4(Al,Mg)6(Si,Al)24O60

Other Names for Phlogopite

Name in Other Languages:
Basque:Flogopita
Catalan:Flogopita
Dutch:Flogopiet
Galician:Flogopita
Japanese:金雲母
Polish:Flogopit
Portuguese:Flogopita
Simplified Chinese:金云母
Spanish:Flogopita

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Phlogopite

Reference List:
Chaussidon, J. (1970): Stretching frequencies of structural hydroxyls of hectorite and K-depleted phlogopite as influenced by interlayer cation and hydration. Clays and Clay Minerals, 18, 139-149.

Hazen, R.M., & C.W. Burnham (1973): The crystal structure of one-layer phlogopite and annite. American Mineralogist, 58, 889-900.

Yoshii, M., Togashi, Y., and Maeda, K. (1973b) On the intensity changes of basal reflections with relation to barium content in manganoan phlogopite and kinoshitalite. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Japan: 24: 543-550.

Robert, J.-L. (1976), Phlogopite solid solutions in the system K2O-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O: Chemical Geology: 17: 195-212.

Hazen, R.M. and Finger, L.W. (1978) The crystal structures and compressibilities of layer minerals at high pressure. II. Phlogopite and chlorite. American Mineralogist: 63: 293-296.

Gaspar, J.C. and Wyllie, P.J. (1982) Barium phlogopite from the Jacupiranga carbonitite, Brazil. American Mineralogist: 67: 997-1000.

Guggenheim, S. and Kato, T. (1984) Kinoshitalite and Mn phlogopites: trial refinements in subgroup symmetry and further refinement in ideal symmetry. Mineralogical Journal: 12: 1-5.

American Mineralogist (1992): 77: 1099.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (1995) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume II. Silica, Silicates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 904pp., 2 sub-volumes: 646.

Canadian Mineralogist (1998): 36: 905-912.

Comodi, P., Fumagalli, P., Montagnoli, M., and Zanazzi, P.F. (2004) A single-crystal study on the pressure behavior of phlogopite and petrological implications. American Mineralogist: 89: 647-653.

Internet Links for Phlogopite

Specimens:
The following Phlogopite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Phlogopite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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