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Phosgenite

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Formula:
Pb2CO3Cl2
System:
Tetragonal
Colour:
Colourless, white, ...
Lustre:
Adamantine
Hardness:
2 - 3
Name:
From phosgen, a name for carbonyl dichloride, COCl2, because the mineral contains carbon, oxygen, and chlorine.
Phosgenite is formed in the oxidation zone of lead ore deposits, especially where sea water is present or other sources of chlorine.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Phosgenite.

Classification of Phosgenite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
5.BE.20

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
B : Carbonates with additional anions, without H2O
E : With Pb, Bi
16a.3.4.1

16a : ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
3 : (AB)2(XO3)Zq
12.1.23

12 : Carbonates with other anions
1 : Carbonates with halides
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Occurrences of Phosgenite

Geological Setting:
Surface conditions in lead-bearing ore bodies.

Physical Properties of Phosgenite

Adamantine
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Colourless, white, yellow, brown, greenish or pink; colourless in transmitted light.
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
2 - 3
Hardness Data:
Measured
Comment:
The hardness on {110} is less parallel to [001] than perpendicular to it.
Tenacity:
Sectile
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
Distincton {001} and {110}; less distinct on {010}
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Translation gliding:
Translation gliding with T{110}, t[001].
Comment:
The crystals can easily be flexed about directions perpendicular to [001].
Density:
6.12 - 6.15 g/cm3 (Measured)    6.124 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Phosgenite

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
P4/mbm
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.16Å, c = 8.883(6) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 1.089
Unit Cell Volume:
V 591.48 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals short prismatic to prismatic [001]; thick tabular rare {001}; thin tabular very rare. Normally terminated by large {001}, with {111} dominant at times. Massive, granular.

Crystallographic forms of Phosgenite

Crystal Atlas:
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Phosgenite no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Phosgenite no.8 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Phosgenite no.12 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Phosgenite - {110}, {001}, modified
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

Epitaxial Relationships of Phosgenite

Epitaxial Minerals:
Epitaxy Comments:
Cerussite on phosgenite, with cerussite {100} [010] parallel to phosgenite {001}[120].
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Phosgenite

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 2.118 nε = 2.145
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.027
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
Very weakly pleochroic with O - reddish and E - greenish in thick sections.
Comments:
Weakly biaxial at times, noticeable after mechanical deformation.

Chemical Properties of Phosgenite

Formula:
Pb2CO3Cl2
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Phosgenite to other Species

Common Associates:
5.BE.05ShannonitePb2OCO3
5.BE.10HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
5.BE.15PlumbonacritePb5O(OH)2(CO3)3
5.BE.25Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
5.BE.30KettneriteCaBiCO3OF
5.BE.35BeyeriteCa(BiO)2(CO3)2
12.1.1NorthupiteNa3Mg(CO3)2Cl
12.1.2BarentsiteNa7Al(HCO3)2(CO3)2F4
12.1.3RouvilleiteNa3(Ca,Mn,Fe)2(CO3)3F
12.1.4ChlormagaluminiteMg4Al2(OH)12Cl2 · 3H2O
12.1.5DeferniteCa6(CO3)2-x(SiO4)x(OH)7(Cl,OH)1-2x (x<0.5)
12.1.6BrenkiteCa2(CO3)F2
12.1.7Stenonite(Sr,Ba,Na)2Al(CO3)F5
12.1.8Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)F
12.1.9Bastnäsite-(La)La(CO3)F
12.1.10Bastnäsite-(Y)Y(CO3)F
12.1.11Parisite-(Ce)CaCe2(CO3)3F2
12.1.12Parisite-(Nd)Ca(Nd,Ce,La)2(CO3)3F2
12.1.13Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2F
12.1.14Synchysite-(Y)CaY(CO3)2F
12.1.15Synchysite-(Nd)CaNd(CO3)2F
12.1.16Röntgenite-(Ce)Ca2(Ce,La)3(CO3)5F3
12.1.17Cordylite-(Ce)NaBaCe2(CO3)4F
12.1.19Huanghoite-(Ce)BaCe(CO3)2F
12.1.20Zhonghuacerite-(Ce)Ba2Ce(CO3)3F
12.1.21Cebaite-(Ce)Ba3Ce2(CO3)5F2
12.1.22ThorbastnäsiteThCa(CO3)2F2 · 3H2O
12.1.24BarstowitePb4Cl6(CO3) · H2O
12.1.25AlbrechtschraufiteCa4Mg(UO2)2(CO3)6F2 · 17-18H2O
12.1.26KettneriteCaBiCO3OF

Other Names for Phosgenite

Other Information

Fluoresces yellow (LW & SW UV), X-rays and cathode rays.
Other Information:
Soluble in dilute HNO3 with effervescence. Decomposed slowly in cold water, which extracts lead chloride.

Readily alters to, and is replaced by, Cerussite.
Health Risks:
Contains lead. Wash hands after handling. Do not lick or ingest; do not inhale dust when breaking. Do not grind dry.

References for Phosgenite

Reference List:
Karsten, D.L.G. (1800) Mineralogische Tabellen, Berlin. First edition: 78 (as "Hornblei").

Klaproth, M.H. (1802) Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, vol. 3: 141 (as "Salzsaures Bleierz").

Jameson, R. (1804) A System of Mineralogy. First edition, 2 volumes, Edinburgh (as Corneous Lead).

Beudant, F.S. (1832), Trailé élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 502 (as Kerasine).

Breithaupt, A. (1832) Vollständige Characteristik etc., 2nd. Ed.: 61 ( as Phosgen-spath).

Breithaupt, A. (1841) Vollständige Handbuch der Mineralogie, Vol. 2: 183.

Glocker, E.F. (1847) Generum et specierum mineralien secundum ordines naturals digestorum synopsis. Halle: 248 (as Galenoceratite, Bleikerat).

Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the Mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. 483pp., London: 421 (as Cromfordite).

Dana, J.D. (1868) System of Mineralogy, 5th. Edition, New York: 703.

Goldschmidt, V. (1893) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 21: 321.

Sohncke (1896) Akademie der Wissenschaften, Munich: 26: 97.

de Schulten (1897) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 20: 191.

Pilipenko (1906) Nachr. Tomsk. Univ.: 14.

Lacroix (1909): 3: 779.

Pilipenko (1909) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: II: 368.

Smith (1909) Mineralogical Magazine: 12: 107.

Lacroix (1910) Comptes rendu de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 151: 276.

Tarrico (1910) Reale accademia nazionale dei Lincei, Rome, Att.: 19: 278.

Tacconi (1911) 1st. Lombardo, Rend.: 44: 991.

Mügge (1914) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: I: 43.

Goldschmidt, V. (1920) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 6: 150.

Anders (1921) Akademie der Wissenschaften, Leipzig: 73: 117.

Mélon analysis in: Buttgenbach (1925) Livre jubil., Soc. géol. Belgique.

Rodolico (1928) Reale accademia nazionale dei Lincei, Rome, Att.: 8: 171.

Koch (1929) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Beil.-Bd., Stuttgart: 59: 97.

Onorato E. – (1934) La struttura della fosgenite. Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma pp. 37-61.

Oftedal (1945) Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, Oslo: 24: 79.

Sillén and Petersson (1945) Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, Oslo: 24: 79.

Sillén and Petersson (1945) Arkiv för Kemi, Mineralogi och Geologi, Stockholm: 21: 1.

Angelelli and Valvano (1946) Rev. soc. geol. Argentina: 1: 257.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 256-259.

Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen (1974): 21: 101-109.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 543.

Ladislav Bohatý, Petra Becker, Hanjo Rhee, André Kaltenbach, Hans J. Eichler, Hitoki Yoneda, Akira Shirakawa, Ken-ichi Ueda, and Alexander A. Kaminskii (2013): Phosgenite, PbCO2CO3Cl2 - a novel SRS-active crystal. physica status solidi (RRL) - Rapid Research Letters 7, 429-433.

Internet Links for Phosgenite

Specimens:
The following Phosgenite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Phosgenite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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