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Picropharmacolite

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Formula:
Ca
 
4
Mg(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 11H
 
2
O
System:TriclinicColour:White; colorless in ...
Hardness:1 - 2
Name:Named by Friedrich Stromeyer in 1819 from the Greek πικροζ = bitter in allusion to its composition, containing magnesia, and φάρμακον ("pharmakon"), a substance with potent properties (a poison, but may also mean a drug or medicine; cf. pharmacy, pharmaceutical etc.) Picropharmacolite is not structurally related to pharmacolite despite its name as well as the chemical and physical similarity.


Usually found as small to microscopic pearly white botryoids with a radiating structure internally, also commonly as silky fibrous aggregates or small acicular crystals.

Classification of Picropharmacolite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:7/C.24-90
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:8.CH.15

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
C : Phosphates without additional anions, with H2O
H : With large and medium-sized cations, RO4:H2O < 1:1
Dana 7th edition ID:39.2.4.1
Dana 8th edition ID:39.2.4.1

39 : HYDRATED ACID PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
2 : (AB)5[HXO4]2[XO4]2.xH2O
Hey's CIM Ref.:20.2.21

20 : Arsenates (also arsenates with phosphate, but without other anions)
2 : Arsenates of Be, Mg, Ca or Ba
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Type Occurrence of Picropharmacolite

Type Locality:Ore dumps, Richelsdorf Smelter, Süss, Richelsdorf District, Hesse, Germany
Year of Discovery:1819
Geological Setting of type material:Surface weathering of arsenic-bearing ores on a mineral mine dump

Occurrences of Picropharmacolite

Geological Setting:A secondary mineral found in the oxidized zones of metal ore deposits rich in arsenic; usually post-mine.

Physical Properties of Picropharmacolite

Lustre:Sub-Vitreous, Silky, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:White; colorless in transmitted light.
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):1 - 2
Hardness Data:Measured
Comment:Hardness may be higher
Tenacity:Fragile
Cleavage:Perfect
On {100} and {010}, perfect.
Fracture:Fibrous, Micaceous
Density (measured):2.55 - 2.64 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.58 g/cm3
Comment:Measured value on Joplin, Missouri, material.

Crystallography of Picropharmacolite

Crystal System:Triclinic
Class (H-M):1 - Pinacoidal
Space Group:P1
Space Group Setting:P1
Cell Parameters:a = 13.547Å, b = 13.500Å, c = 6.710Å
α = 99.85°, β = 96.41°, γ = 91.60°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.003 : 1 : 0.497
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,200.12 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Crystals are most commonly acicular and in radial to divergent clusters, rarely as rectangular prisms elongated on [001]; more typically open spherical clusters to botryoidal with a radiating foliated internal structure, or as fibrous aggregates.
Twinning:None reported.
Comment:Am Min (1981) 66:385 structure.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
13.50(100)
9.20(60)
4.84(40)
4.44(40)
3.78(60)
3.18(80)
3.066(70)
2.92(50)
Comments:ICDD 14-222

Optical Data of Picropharmacolite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.556 - 1.566 nβ = 1.566 - 1.571 nγ = 1.577 - 1.585
2V:Measured: 50°
Birefringence:0.020
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.021

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low
Dispersion:r < v strong
Optical Extinction:Z ^ c = 8°-15°, X=b
Pleochroism:Non-pleochroic
Comments:Earlier reports of higher refractive indices probably made erroneously on another species.

Chemical Properties of Picropharmacolite

Formula:
Ca
 
4
Mg(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 11H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:Ca4Mg(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2·11H2O
Essential elements:As, Ca, H, Mg, O
All elements listed in formula:As, Ca, H, Mg, O

Relationship of Picropharmacolite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
8.CH.05Walentaite
H(Ca,Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)Fe
3+
3
(AsO
 
4
,PO
 
4
)
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
8.CH.10Anapaite
Ca
 
2
Fe
2+
 
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.CH.20Dittmarite
(NH
 
4
)Mg(PO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
8.CH.20Niahite
(NH
 
4
)(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)(PO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
8.CH.25Francoanellite
K
 
3
Al
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(HPO
 
4
)
 
3
· 12H
 
2
O
8.CH.25Taranakite
(K,NH
 
4
)Al
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH) · 9H
 
2
O
8.CH.30Schertelite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
MgH
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.CH.35Hannayite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Mg
 
3
H
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CH.40Struvite
(NH
 
4
)Mg(PO
 
4
) · 6H
 
2
O
8.CH.40Struvite-(K)
KMg(PO
 
4
)·6H
 
2
O
8.CH.40Hazenite
KNaMg
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 14H
 
2
O
8.CH.45Rimkorolgite
(Mg,Mn)
 
5
(Ba,Sr,Ca)(PO
 
4
)
 
4
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CH.50Bakhchisaraitsevite
Na
 
2
Mg
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
8.CH.55Fahleite
Zn
 
5
CaFe
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
6
· 14H
 
2
O
8.CH.55Smolyaninovite
(Co,Ni,Mg,Ca)
 
3
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
· 11H
 
2
O
8.CH.60Barahonaite-(Al)
(Ca,Cu,Na,Fe
3+
 
,Al)
 
12
Al
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
8
(OH,Cl)
 
x
· nH
 
2
O
8.CH.60Barahonaite-(Fe)
(Ca,Cu,Na,Fe
3+
 
,Al)
 
12
Fe
3+
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
8
(OH,Cl)
 
x
· nH
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
20.2.1Bearsite
Be
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)(OH) · 4H
 
2
O
20.2.2Brassite
Mg(HAsO
 
4
) · 4H
 
2
O
20.2.3Rösslerite
Mg(HAsO
 
4
) · 7H
 
2
O
20.2.4Hörnesite
Mg
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
20.2.5Weilite
Ca(HAsO
 
4
)
20.2.6Johnbaumite
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
OH
20.2.7Haidingerite
CaHAsO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
20.2.8Pharmacolite
Ca(HAsO
 
4
) · 2H
 
2
O
20.2.9Sainfeldite
CaCa
 
2
Ca
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
20.2.10Vladimirite
Ca
 
4
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(AsO
 
3
OH) · 4H
 
2
O
20.2.11Guérinite
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 9H
 
2
O
20.2.12Ferrarisite
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 9H
 
2
O
20.2.13Rauenthalite
Ca
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
20.2.14Phaunouxite
Ca
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 11H
 
2
O
20.2.15Mcnearite
NaCa
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)(HAsO
 
4
)
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
20.2.16Bergslagite
CaBeAsO
 
4
(OH)
20.2.17Adelite
CaMg(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
20.2.18Talmessite
Ca
 
2
Mg(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
20.2.19Irhtemite
Ca
 
4
Mg(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
20.2.20Camgasite
CaMg(AsO
 
4
)(OH) · 5H
 
2
O
20.2.22Bariopharmacosiderite
Ba
 
0.5
Fe
3+
4
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O

Other Names for Picropharmacolite

Other Languages:
German:Pikropharmakolith
Picropharmacolit
Pikropharmakolit
Russian:Пикрофармаколит
Simplified Chinese:镁毒石
Spanish:Picrofarmacolita

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Not fluorescent.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Picropharmacolite

Reference List:

- +
Stromeyer (1819) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 61: 185.

Frenzel (1873) Jb. Min.: 786.

Genth (1890) American Journal of Science: 40: 204.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 120.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 740-741.

Bulletin Mineralogie (1961): 84:391.

Bulletin Mineralogie (1964): 87:169.

American Mineralogist (1976): 61:326.

American Mineralogist (1981): 66: 385-391, structure.

Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig, and Vandall T. King (1997), Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana: 741.

Internet Links for Picropharmacolite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Picropharmacolite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Specimens:The following Picropharmacolite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Picropharmacolite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Austria
     
    • Carinthia
      • Friesach - Hüttenberg area
        • Hüttenberg
          • Lölling
            • Stelzing
    C.Auer (2013)
    G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
    Nat. Hist. Mus. Vienna collection
    • Styria
      • Birkfeld
        • Gasen
    peter neschen collection
    Canada
     
    • British Columbia
      • Kamloops Mining Division
        • Savona
    Maggie Wilson
    • Ontario
      • Timiskaming District
        • Cobalt-Gowganda region
          • Cobalt area
            • Coleman Township
    Reiner Mielke 2012
              • Nipissing Mine
    Reiner Mielke
    Chile
     
    • Atacama Region
      • Copiapó Province
        • Tierra Amarilla
          • Pampa Larga district
    maurizio dini collection - quantitative analysis
    China
     
    • Guizhou Province
      • Qianxi'nan Autonomous Prefecture
        • Xingren Co.
    Zhang Baogui et al. (1996): Geochemistry of thallium in the gold ore belt, Guizhou Province, southwestern China. In: Tu Guangzhi (ed.): Low-Temperature Geochemistry. Science Press (Beijing), pp. 8-14.
    • Hunan Province
      • Changde Prefecture
        • Shimen Co.
          • Shimen As-(Au) deposit (Huangchang As-(Au) deposit)
    http://www.smartminerals.com/cina2004/art_hunan.htm
    • Yunnan Province
      • Chuxiong Autonomous Prefecture
        • Nanhua Co.
    Xianxiao Xiong (1999): Geology of Chemical Minerals 21(2), 76-80
    Zhang Zhong, Zhang Baogui, Hu Jing, Yao Linbo, and Tian Yifu (2007): Science in China, Series D (Earth Sciences), 50(3), 359-370.
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Central Bohemia Region
        • Příbram
          • Háje
    Ondruš, P. & Hyršl, J. (1989): New finds and revision of secondary minerals from Příbram district. Acta Universitatis Carolinae, Geologica 1989, 521-533.
      • Karlovy Vary Region
        • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
          • Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal)
    Lapis 2002(7/8), 63-65
      • Plzeň Region
        • Planá u Mariánských Lázní (Plan)
    Tvrdý, J., Řídkošil, T.: Sekundární minerály z lokality Svatá Anna v Plané u Mariánských Lázní. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 1983, roč. 28, č. 3, s. 316.; http://www.mineralos.cz/lokality/plana/plana.htm
      • Ústí Region
        • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
          • Klášterec nad Ohří
    No reference listed
    - Hyrsl, J. & Korbel, P. (2009): Tschechien & Slowakei, Mineralien und Fundstellen. Page 60-75.
        • Teplice (Teplitz)
    Řídkošil, T., Slavíček, P.: Mineralizace Rennerovy štoly nedaleko Mikulova v Krušných horách. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 1985, roč. 30, č. 4, s. 433.
    • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
      • Olomouc Region
        • Javorník (Jauernig)
    Sejkora, J.: Uranové ložisko Zálesí v Rychlebských horách. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1994, roč. 2, s. 105-110.
    France
     
    • Alsace
      • Haut-Rhin
        • Ste Marie-aux-Mines (Markirch)
    Wittern, Journée: "Mineralien finden in den Vogesen", 1997
          • Neuenberg
    Wittern, Journée: "Mineralien finden in den Vogesen", von Loga (Cologne), 1997
    Paul De Bondt
    Pierre et Terre 1982
    Wittern, Journée: "Mineralien finden in den Vogesen", von Loga (Cologne), 1997
        • Thur valley (Thann valley)
          • Kruth
    Wittern, Journée: "Mineralien finden in den Vogesen", von Loga (Cologne), 1997; U. Kolitsch (1997): Neufunde von Mineralien aus einigen Vorkommen der Vogesen, Frankreich: Giromagny, Auxelles-Haut und Kruth 1. Aufschluss 48 (4), 243-256.
    • Corsica
      • Haute-Corse
        • Corte
          • Moïta
            • Matra
    Van King
    • Languedoc-Roussillon
      • Aude
        • Carcassonne
          • Mas-Cabardès
            • Salsigne
    Rocks & Min.: 60:242.
    Pelison P., Descouens D. (1987), Présence de minéraux de néoformation dans les scories de l'ancienne usine de Villagnère (Aude), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°2, pp: 6-10
    • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
      • Alpes-Maritimes
        • Duranus
    No reference listed
    Cuchet S. (2000), Mystérieuse irhtémite à Lucéram, Alpes-Maritimes, Le Règne Minéral, n°36, pp: 38-42
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Black Forest
        • Alpirsbach
    No reference listed
    Erzgräber 1987(2), 54
        • Hornberg
    Gröbner, J. & Schrenk, D. (2005): Die Mineralien des Tunnels bei Hornberg. Der Erzgräber 19, 17-25. (in German)
        • Schenkenzell
          • Wittichen
            • Böckelsbach valley
    S. Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
            • Burgfelsen
    No reference listed
            • Heubach Valley
    No reference listed
        • Schiltach
          • Stammelbach valley
    [Lapis 1992, 11, p.13-20]
    • Hesse
      • Richelsdorf District
        • Bauhaus
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
        • Süss
          • Richelsdorf Smelter
    S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1992
      • Spessart
        • Gelnhausen
          • Bieber
    No reference listed
    • Lower Saxony
      • Harz
        • St Andreasberg District
          • St Andreasberg
    No reference listed
    • Saxony-Anhalt
      • Harz
        • Wernigerode
          • Hasserode
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    • Saxony
      • Erzgebirge
    Lapis 17(12), 24-33
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
          • Langenrinne
    Frenzel, A. (1874): Mineralogisches Lexicon für das Königreich Sachsen, Leipzig.
        • Marienberg District
          • Lauta
    Hajek, W. (2010): Kristallwelten Marienberg. Weise Verlag, München.
        • Schlema-Hartenstein District
          • Alberoda
    Vollstädt,H. & Weiß,St. (1991): Mineralfundstellen Sächsisches Erzgebirge, München, S.26ff.
    T. Witzke (1992) Mineralien-Welt 3(6), 16-18
        • Schneeberg District
          • Neustädtel
    Lapis 30(7/8):41-70 (2005)
        • Schwarzenberg District
          • Langenberg
            • Graul
              • Gottes Geschick Vereinigt Feld Mine
    http://www.dergraul.de
    • Thuringia
      • Gera
        • Ronneburg U deposit
    T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
    Greece
     
    • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
      • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
        • Lavrion District Mines
          • Agios Konstantinos [St Constantine] (Kamariza)
    No reference listed
    Elbin, K. & Wendel, W. (1996): Lavendulan aus Lavrion. Lapis, 21 (11), 42-43; 62; Hanke, H. (1998): Laurion - ein Rückblick auf die Funde der letzten drei Jahre. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (2), 37-45.
          • Plaka
            • Plaka Mines
    Blaß, G., Fabritz, K. H., Mühlbauer, W. and Prachar, I. (1998): … Immer wieder Neues aus Lavrion (2). Mineralien-Welt 9 (6), 48-55 (in German); Kolitsch, U., Rieck, B., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fabritz, K. H., Blaß, G. & Gröbner, J. (2014): Neufunde aus dem altem Bergbau und den Schlacken von Lavrion (I). Mineralien-Welt 25 (1), 60-75 (in German).
    No reference listed
    Italy
     
    • Liguria
      • Savona Province
    - Balestra, C., Kolitsch, U., Blass, G., Callegari, A.M., Boiocchi, M., Armellino, G., Ciriotti, M.E., Ambrino, P. Bracco, R. (2009): Mineralogia ligure 2007-2008: novità caratterizzate dal Servizio UK dell’AMI. Micro, 1-2009, 78-99.
    • Lombardy
      • Sondrio Province
        • Valtellina
          • Sondalo
    - Gramaccioli, C.M., Scaini, G., Gentile, P., De Michele, V., Mannucci, G. (1992): Natura in Lombardia. I Minerali. Regione Lombardia, Ed., Milano, 223 pp.
    • Piedmont
      • Torino Province
        • Canavese District
          • Léssolo
            • Cálea
    • Sardinia
      • Medio Campidano Province
        • Gonnosfanadiga
    Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Tanca, G.A. (1996): Iglesiente e Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Edito a cura dell'EMSA e "varie associazioni mineralogiche", Volume 2°, 192 pp.
    Japan
     
    • Kyushu Region
      • Oita prefecture
        • Saiki City
    Specimens on sale at Tokyo show, june 2010.
    Ryoji Tanaka collection
    Masayuki Ohnishi, Norimasa Shimobayashi, Shigetomo Kishi, Mitsuo Tanabe, Shoichi Kobayashi (2013) Talmessite from the Uriya deposit at the Kiura mining area, Oita Prefecture, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 108, No. 2 (April), 116-120.
    Morocco
     
    • Souss-Massa-Draâ Region
      • Ouarzazate Province
        • Tazenakht
          • Bou Azer District (Bou Azzer District)
            • Aghbar
    Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
            • Agoudal
    Font Philippe specimen
            • Bou Azer
    Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
    Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
    Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
            • Ightem
    Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
            • Méchoui
    Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
    Republic of Macedonia
     
    • Roszdan
    [Rieck, B. (1993) - Famous mineral localities: Allchar, Macedonia, Mineralogical Record, 24 (6), 437-449]
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Tuva Republic
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    • Northern Caucasus Region
      • Adygea Republic (Adygeya)
    Pekov I.V. et al. (2010) Mineralogy of Belorechenskoe deposit (Northern Caucasus, Russia). Mineralogical Almanakh, 15(2).
    • Western-Siberian Region
      • Altaiskii Krai
        • Gornyi Altai
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    Slovakia
     
    • Banská Bystrica Region
    Ďuďa R.,Kotuľak P., Káňa R., 1993: Bergbau und Mineralien von Banská Štiavnica (Schemnitz), Slowakei. Emser Hefte, 14, 3, 1-70, Haltern
    • Košice Region
      • Rožňava Co.
    Koděra et all.,1990: Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, I-III, 1590p
      • Spišská Nová Ves Co.
    Ďuďa R., Peterec D., 1995 : Die Mineralien der siderit - baryt lagersttäte von Rudňany ( Kotterbach ) in der Slowakei. Mineralien Welt /Haltern/, 1, s.20 - 31
    • Trenčín Region
      • Bánovce nad Bebravou Co.
        • Čierna Lehota
    Martin Števko, unpublished-PXRD confirmed
    South Africa
     
    • Mpumalanga Province
      • Nkangala District
        • Middelburg
          • Farm Kruisrivier 74 JS
    Min Rec 27:6 pp417-428
    Switzerland
     
    • Wallis (Valais)
      • Anniviers Valley
        • Ayer
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 304-305.; Ansermet, S. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais - II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. With contributions by N. Meisser, Ed. Porte-plumes (Ayer)
        • Saint-Luc
    Ansermet, S. with contributions of Meisser, N. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais. II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. Musée de la Nature (Sion), Musée Cantonal de Géologie (Lausanne), and Editions Porte-Plumes (Ayer), 374 pp.
    Taiwan
     
    • Taiwan Province
      • New Taipei City
        • Ruifang District
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cumbria
        • North and Western Region (Cumberland)
          • Threlkeld District
            • St John's in the Vale
    BMS Database
    • Scotland
      • Central Region (Clackmannanshire)
        • Alva
          • Silver Glen
    USA
     
    • Michigan
      • Keweenaw Co.
        • Mohawk
    [Mineralogical Record - Vol 23 No. 2]
    • Missouri
      • Jasper Co.
    Rocks & Min., March 1998.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 741.
    • Nevada
      • Humboldt Co.
        • Osgood Mts
          • Potosi District
            • Adam Peak
    MinRecord 16:15-23
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • New Jersey
      • Sussex Co.
        • Franklin Mining District
          • Ogdensburg
            • Sterling Hill
    Dunn, P.J.: Min.Rec.:10:160-165 (1979); Dunn(1995):Pt5:677.
    • Utah
      • Tooele Co.
        • Deep Creek Mts
          • Gold Hill District (Clifton District)
            • Gold Hill
        • Oquirrh Mts
          • Mercur District (Camp Floyd District)
    Mineral News: 19(12): 1, 3.
            • South Mercur Pit
    In the collection of Brent Thorne.
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