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Pinakiolite

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Formula:
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
Mn
3+
 
(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
System:MonoclinicColour:Black; deep reddish ...
Hardness:6
Member of:Pinakiolite Group
Name:From the Greek πινάκιον, a small tablet, and λίθος, stone, in allusion to the thin tabular shape of the crystals.
Dimorph of:Orthopinakiolite


The monoclinic dimorph of Orthopinakiolite.

Classification of Pinakiolite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:5/G.03-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:6.AB.35

6 : BORATES
A : Monoborates
B : BO3, with additional anions; 1(D) + OH, etc.
Dana 8th edition ID:24.2.4.1

24 : ANHYDROUS BORATES
2 : A2BO2[XO3]
Hey's CIM Ref.:9.7.1

9 : Borates
7 : Borates of Mn
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Type Occurrence of Pinakiolite

Type Locality:Långban, Filipstad, Värmland, Sweden
General Appearance of Type Material:Bands in matrix.
Year of Discovery:1890
Geological Setting of type material:Bands in granular dolomite.
Associated Minerals at type locality:
TephroiteHendricksiteHausmanniteDolomiteBerzeliite

Physical Properties of Pinakiolite

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Black; deep reddish brown in transmitted light
Streak:Brown-gray
Hardness (Mohs):6
Tenacity:Very brittle
Cleavage:Distinct/Good
On {010}.
Density (measured):3.88 g/cm3

Crystallography of Pinakiolite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:a = 5.36Å, b = 5.98Å, c = 12.73Å
β = 120.57°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.896 : 1 : 2.129
Unit Cell Volume:V 351.32 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Thin rectangular tablets {010}. Short prismatic [001], rare. Crystals often bent or broken.
Twinning:On {011} common as contact and/or cruciform interpenetrant twins.

Optical Data of Pinakiolite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.908 nβ = 2.050 nγ = 2.650
2V:Measured: 31° to 33°, Calculated: 64°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.742

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Dispersion:r < v
Pleochroism:Visible
Comments:X = Deep reddish brown
Y = Nearly opaque
Z = Reddish yellow

Chemical Properties of Pinakiolite

Formula:
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
Mn
3+
 
(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:(Mg,Mn2+)2Mn3+(BO3)O2
Essential elements:B, Mg, Mn, O
All elements listed in formula:B, Mg, Mn, O

Relationship of Pinakiolite to other Species

Member of:Pinakiolite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Aluminomagnesiohulsite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
(Al,Mg,Sn)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
Hulsite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
2
(Fe
3+
 
,Sn)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
Magnesiohulsite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
(Fe
3+
 
,Sn,Mg)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
6.AB.05Hambergite
Be
 
2
(BO
 
3
)(OH)
6.AB.10Berborite
Be
 
2
(BO
 
3
)(OH,F) · H
 
2
O
6.AB.15Jeremejevite
Al
 
6
(BO
 
3
)
 
5
(F,OH)
 
3
6.AB.20Warwickite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
Ti(BO
 
3
)
 
2
O
 
2
6.AB.20Yuanfuliite
Mg(Fe
3+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Al,Ti,Mg)(BO
 
3
)O
6.AB.25Karlite
Mg
 
7
(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH,Cl)
 
5
6.AB.30Azoproite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
(Fe
3+
 
,Ti,Mg)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
6.AB.30Bonaccordite
Ni
 
2
Fe
3+
 
(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
6.AB.30Fredrikssonite
Mg
 
2
(Mn
3+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
6.AB.30Ludwigite
Mg
 
2
Fe
3+
 
(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
6.AB.30Vonsenite
Fe
2+
2
Fe
3+
 
(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
6.AB.40Blatterite
(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
2
(Mn
3+
 
,Sb
3+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
6.AB.40Chestermanite
Mg
 
2
(Fe
3+
 
,Mn
3+
 
,Al,Sb
3+
 
)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
6.AB.40Orthopinakiolite
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
Mn
3+
 
(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
6.AB.40Takéuchiite
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
(Mn
3+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
6.AB.45Hulsite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
2
(Fe
3+
 
,Sn)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
6.AB.45Magnesiohulsite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
(Fe
3+
 
,Sn,Mg)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
6.AB.45Aluminomagnesiohulsite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
(Al,Mg,Sn)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
6.AB.50Fluoborite
Mg
 
3
(BO
 
3
)(F,OH)
 
3
6.AB.50Hydroxylborite
Mg
 
3
(BO
 
3
)(OH)
 
3
6.AB.55Shabynite
Mg
 
5
(BO
 
3
)(OH)
 
5
(Cl,OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
6.AB.55Wightmanite
Mg
 
5
(BO
 
3
)O(OH)
 
5
· 2H
 
2
O
6.AB.60Gaudefroyite
Ca
 
4
Mn
3+
2-3
(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(CO
 
3
)(O,OH)
 
3
6.AB.65Sakhaite
Ca
 
12
Mg
 
4
(BO
 
3
)
 
7
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
Cl
6.AB.70Harkerite
Ca
 
12
Mg
 
4
Al(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
5
· H
 
2
O
6.AB.75Pertsevite-(F)
Mg
 
2
(BO
 
3
)(F,OH)
6.AB.75Pertsevite-(OH)
Mg
 
2
(BO
 
3
)(OH)
6.AB.80Jacquesdietrichite
Cu
 
2
(H
 
2
BO
 
3
)(OH)
 
3
6.AB.85Painite
CaZrAl
 
9
(BO
 
3
)O
 
15
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
9.7.2Orthopinakiolite
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
Mn
3+
 
(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
9.7.3Jimboite
(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
3
[BO
 
3
]
 
2
9.7.4Sussexite
Mn
2+
 
BO
 
2
(OH)
9.7.5Wiserite
(Mn,Mg)
 
14
[Cl|(OH)
 
8
|(Si,Mg)(O,OH)
 
4
|(B
 
2
O
 
5
)
 
4
]
9.7.6Kurchatovite
Ca(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)[B
 
2
O
 
5
]
9.7.7Clinokurchatovite
Ca(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)[B
 
2
O
 
5
]
9.7.8Takéuchiite
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
(Mn
3+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
9.7.9Blatterite
(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
2
(Mn
3+
 
,Sb
3+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
9.7.10Tusionite
Mn
2+
 
Sn
4+
 
[BO
 
3
]
 
2

Other Names for Pinakiolite

Synonyms:
Pinakiolith
Other Languages:
German:Pinakiolit
Russian:Пинакиолит
Spanish:Pinakiolita

Other Information

Other Information:Soluble in concentrated HCl with the evolution of elemental chlorine.
Health Warning:Emits poisonous chlorine gas when contacted by concentrated HCl.

References for Pinakiolite

Reference List:

- +
Flink (1890) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 18: 361 (as Pinakiolith).

Bäckström (1895) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 17: 257.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 120.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 324-325.

American Mineralogist (1974): 59: 985-1004.

American Mineralogist (1986): 71: 227.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 191: 105-116.

Acta Crystallographica: 3: 98-107.

Grew, E.S., and Anovitz, L.M. (1996) BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).

Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183.

Internet Links for Pinakiolite

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
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  • Look for Pinakiolite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Pinakiolite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Pinakiolite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Canada
     
    • Nova Scotia
      • Lunenburg Co.
        • New Ross
    D.G. Bishop and J.D. Wright, "Geology and Trace Element Studies of Manganese Occurrences in Nova Scotia", N.S. Dept. of Mines, Economic Geology Series 74-1, 1974.
    Romania
     
    • Caraş-Severin Co.
      • Banat Mts
        • Ocna de Fier-Dognecea District
    http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
    Sweden
     
    • Värmland
      • Filipstad
    Zeits.Krist.Min.(1890) 18, 361-365; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 325; Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183.
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