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Polarite

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Formula:
Pd(Bi,Pb)
System:
Orthorhombic
Hardness:
3½ - 4
Name:
From the type locality in the Polar Urals.
Compositional similarity to, e.g., urvantsevite and 'UM1981-02-Bi:AsPbPd'.


Classification of Polarite

Approved
2/C.20-100
2.AC.40

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
A : Alloys
C : Alloys of metalloids with PGE
2.8.6.1

2 : SULFIDES
8 : AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
3.12.42

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
12 : Sulphides etc. of the platinum metals

Type Occurrence of Polarite

Physical Properties of Polarite

Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Hardness (Mohs):
3½ - 4
Hardness (Vickers):
VHN100=217

Crystallography of Polarite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mm2 - Pyramidal
Space Group:
Cmc21
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.19Å, b = 8.69Å, c = 10.68Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.827 : 1 : 1.229
Unit Cell Volume:
V 667.30 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Comment:
Ccm21
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
2.65 (10)
2.25 (5)
2.16 (9)
1.638 (5)

Optical Data of Polarite

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
slight color effects from gray to pale brown
Bireflectance:
none
Colour in reflected light:
white with yellowish tint

Chemical Properties of Polarite

Formula:
Pd(Bi,Pb)
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Pt,Te

Relationship of Polarite to other Species

2.AC.05aAtheneitePd2As0.75Hg0.25
2.AC.05bVincentitePd3As
2.AC.10cArsenopalladinitePd8(As,Sb)3
2.AC.10bMertieite-IIPd8(Sb,As)3
2.AC.10aStillwateritePd8As3
2.AC.15aIsomertieitePd11Sb2As2
2.AC.15bMertieite-IPd11(Sb,As)4
2.AC.15aMiessiitePd11Te2Se2
2.AC.20bPalarstanidePd5(Sn,As)2
2.AC.20aStibiopalladinitePd5Sb2
2.AC.20cMenshikovitePd3Ni2As3
2.AC.25eMajakitePdNiAs
2.AC.25aPalladoarsenidePd2As
2.AC.25fPalladobismutharsenidePd2(As,Bi)
2.AC.25cPalladodymite(Pd,Rh)2As
2.AC.25bRhodarsenide(Rh,Pd)2As
2.AC.25dNaldrettitePd2Sb
2.AC.30UM1999-02-As:NiRh(Rh,Ni)7As4
2.AC.30PolkanoviteRh12As7
2.AC.35aGenkinite(Pt,Pd,Rh)4Sb3
2.AC.35bUngavaitePd4Sb3
2.AC.45cBorishanskiitePd1+x(As,Pb)2 , x = 0-0.2
2.AC.45aFrooditeα-PdBi2
2.AC.45bIridarsenite(Ir,Ru)As2
3.12.1Seinäjokite(Fe,Ni)(Sb,As)2
3.12.2LauriteRuS2
3.12.3Ruthenarsenite(Ru,Ni)As
3.12.4Anduoite(Ru,Os)As2
3.12.5Ruarsite(Ru,Os)AsS
3.12.6Xingzhongite(Pb,Cu,Fe)(Ir,Pt,Rh)2S4
3.12.7RhodplumsiteRh3Pb2S2
3.12.8Cuprorhodsite(Cu,Fe)Rh2S4
3.12.9KonderiteCu3Pb(Rh,Pt,Ir)8S16
3.12.10Bowieite(Rh,Ir,Pt)2S3
3.12.11CherepanoviteRhAs
3.12.12Hollingworthite(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsS
3.12.13Vysotskite(Pd,Ni)S
3.12.14Vasilite(Pd,Cu)16(S,Te)7
3.12.15PalladseitePd17Se15
3.12.16Oosterboschite(Pd,Cu)7Se5
3.12.17TelluropalladinitePd9Te4
3.12.18TemagamitePd3HgTe3
3.12.19SopcheiteAg4Pd3Te4
3.12.20MicheneritePdBiTe
3.12.21KotulskitePd(Te,Bi)
3.12.22Telargpalite(Pd,Ag)3(Te,Bi)
3.12.23Merenskyite(Pd,Pt)(Te,Bi)2
3.12.24PalladoarsenidePd2As
3.12.25StillwateritePd8As3
3.12.26AtheneitePd2As0.75Hg0.25
3.12.27MajakitePdNiAs
3.12.28PalarstanidePd5(Sn,As)2
3.12.29ArsenopalladinitePd8(As,Sb)3
3.12.30VincentitePd3As
3.12.31PalladobismutharsenidePd2(As,Bi)
3.12.32StibiopalladinitePd5Sb2
3.12.33Hexatestibiopanickelite(Pd,Ni)(Sb,Te)
3.12.34Sudburyite(Pd,Ni)Sb
3.12.35TestibiopalladitePdTe(Sb,Te)
3.12.36BorovskitePd3SbTe4
3.12.37IsomertieitePd11Sb2As2
3.12.38Mertieite-IPd11(Sb,As)4
3.12.39Mertieite-IIPd8(Sb,As)3
3.12.40SobolevskitePd(Bi,Te)
3.12.41Frooditeα-PdBi2
3.12.43UrvantsevitePd(Bi,Pb)2
3.12.44CooperitePtS
3.12.45Braggite(Pt,Pd,Ni)S
3.12.46Kharaelakhite(Cu,Pt,Pb,Fe,Ni)9S8
3.12.47MalaniteCu(Pt3+,Ir3+)2S4
3.12.48Moncheite(Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)2
3.12.49MaslovitePtBiTe
3.12.50SperrylitePtAs2
3.12.51PlatarsitePtAsS
3.12.52GeversitePtSb2
3.12.53DaomaniteCuPtAsS2
3.12.54Genkinite(Pt,Pd,Rh)4Sb3
3.12.55StumpflitePt(Sb,Bi)
3.12.56InsizwaitePt(Bi,Sb)2
3.12.57ErlichmaniteOsS2
3.12.58Omeiite(Os,Ru)As2
3.12.59Osarsite(Os,Ru)AsS
3.12.60Kashinite(Ir,Rh)2S3
3.12.61InaglyiteCu3Pb(Ir,Pt)8S16
3.12.62Cuproiridsite(Cu,Fe)Ir2S4
3.12.63Iridarsenite(Ir,Ru)As2
3.12.64Irarsite(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
3.12.65TolovkiteIrSbS

Other Names for Polarite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Polarit
Spanish:Polarita

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Polarite

Reference List:
Cabri, L.J. and Traill, R.J. (1966) New palladium minerals from Noril'sk, western Siberia. Canadian Mineralogist: 8: 541-550.

Fleischer M, Nickel E H (1970) New mineral names. American Mineralogist 55, 1810-1818

Genkin, A.D., Evstigneeva, T.L., Troneva, N.V., and Vyal'sov, L.N. (1969) Polarite, Pd(Pb,Bi) a new mineral from copper-nickel sulfide ores. Zapiski Vserossiyskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva: 98: 708-715.

Mayer, H. (1979) Journal of Less Common Metals: 66: 1-9.

Cabri, L.J., Editor (1981) Platinum group elements: mineralogy, geology, recovery. Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy: 130-131.

Bayliss P (1990) Revised unit cell dimensions, space group, and chemical formula of some metallic minerals. The Canadian Mineralogist 28, 751-755

Internet Links for Polarite

mindat.org URL:
http://www.mindat.org/min-3251.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Localities for Polarite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Canada
 
  • Ontario
    • Sudbury District
      • McKim Township
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
China
 
  • Hebei Province
    • Chengde Prefecture
      • Fengning Co.
        • Boluonuo
Keqiao Chen, Huifang Yang, Letian Ma, and Zhizhong Peng (1981): Dizhi Pinglun 27, 107-115
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Taymyrskiy Autonomous Okrug
      • Taimyr Peninsula
        • Putoran Plateau
          • Noril'sk
The Canadian Mineralogist; February 2009; v. 47; no. 1; p. 53-62
ZVMO,(1969) 98, 708-715; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
2014 Ultramafic-mafic intrusions, volcanic rocks and PGE-Cu-Ni sulfide deposits of the Noril’sk Province, Polar Siberia . 12th International Platinum Symposium
  • Northern Region
    • Karelia Republic
      • Lake Onega
        • Zaonezhie peninsula
          • Velikaya Guba uran-vanadium deposit
American Mineralogist, Volume 83, pages 1118, 1998
USA
 
  • Alaska
    • Bethel Borough
      • Goodnews Bay
        • Salmon River - Red Mountain District
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Zimbabwe
 
  • Midlands
    • Shurugwi District (Selukwe District)
Allan H. Wilson and Martin D. Prendergast (2001) Platinum-Group Element Mineralisation in the Great Dyke, Zimbabwe, and its Relationship to Magma Evolution and Magma Chamber Structure. South African Journal of Geology, 104:319-342
Mineral and/or Locality  
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