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Polydymite

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Formula:
Ni
2+
 
Ni
3+
2
S
 
4
System:IsometricColour:Violet gray, copper red, ...
Lustre:MetallicHardness:4½ - 5½
Member of:Linnaeite Group > Thiospinel Group
Name:From the Greek πολνς, many, and διδνμος, twin, because it was observed in twinned forms.

Classification of Polydymite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:2/D.01-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:2.DA.05

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
D : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 3 :4 and 2:3
A : M:S = 3:4
Dana 8th edition ID:2.10.1.7

2 : SULFIDES
10 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:4
Hey's CIM Ref.:3.11.4

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
11 : Sulphides etc. of Ni
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Type Occurrence of Polydymite

Type Locality:Grüneau Mine (Grüne Au Mine; Grünau Mine), Schutzbach, Betzdorf, Siegerland, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany
Year of Discovery:1876

Physical Properties of Polydymite

Lustre:Metallic
Colour:Violet gray, copper red, light gray, or steel gray
Streak:Black gray
Hardness (Mohs):4½ - 5½

Crystallography of Polydymite

Crystal System:Isometric
Cell Parameters:a = 9.48Å
Unit Cell Volume:V 851.97 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Polydymite

Type:Isotropic

Chemical Properties of Polydymite

Formula:
Ni
2+
 
Ni
3+
2
S
 
4
Simplified for copy/paste:Ni2+Ni3+2S4
Essential elements:Ni, S
All elements listed in formula:Ni, S
Common Impurities:Fe,Co

Relationship of Polydymite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Linnaeite (see here)
Forms a series with Violarite (see here)
Member of:Linnaeite Group > Thiospinel Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Bornhardtite
Co
2+
 
Co
3+
2
Se
 
4
Cadmoindite
CdIn
 
2
S
 
4
Carrollite
Cu(Co,Ni)
 
2
S
 
4
Cuproiridsite
(Cu,Fe)Ir
 
2
S
 
4
Cuprokalininite
CuCr
 
2
S
 
4
Cuprorhodsite
(Cu,Fe)Rh
 
2
S
 
4
Daubréelite
Fe
2+
 
Cr
3+
2
S
 
4
Ferrorhodsite
(Fe,Cu)(Rh,Ir,Pt)
 
2
S
 
4
Fletcherite
Cu(Ni,Co)
 
2
S
 
4
Florensovite
(Cu,Zn)Cr
 
1.5
Sb
 
0.5
S
 
4
Greigite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
S
 
4
Indite
FeIn
 
2
S
 
4
Kalininite
ZnCr
 
2
S
 
4
Linnaeite
Co
2+
 
Co
3+
2
S
 
4
Malanite
Cu(Pt
3+
 
,Ir
3+
 
)
 
2
S
 
4
Siegenite
CoNi
 
2
S
 
4
-NiCo
 
2
S
 
4
Trüstedtite
Ni
 
3
Se
 
4
Tyrrellite
Cu(Co
3+
 
,Ni
3+
 
)
 
2
Se
 
4
Violarite
Fe
2+
 
Ni
3+
2
S
 
4
Xingzhongite
(Pb,Cu,Fe)(Ir,Pt,Rh)
 
2
S
 
4
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
2.DA.05Bornhardtite
Co
2+
 
Co
3+
2
Se
 
4
2.DA.05Carrollite
Cu(Co,Ni)
 
2
S
 
4
2.DA.05Cuproiridsite
(Cu,Fe)Ir
 
2
S
 
4
2.DA.05Cuprorhodsite
(Cu,Fe)Rh
 
2
S
 
4
2.DA.05Daubréelite
Fe
2+
 
Cr
3+
2
S
 
4
2.DA.05Fletcherite
Cu(Ni,Co)
 
2
S
 
4
2.DA.05Florensovite
(Cu,Zn)Cr
 
1.5
Sb
 
0.5
S
 
4
2.DA.05Greigite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
S
 
4
2.DA.05Indite
FeIn
 
2
S
 
4
2.DA.05Kalininite
ZnCr
 
2
S
 
4
2.DA.05Linnaeite
Co
2+
 
Co
3+
2
S
 
4
2.DA.05Malanite
Cu(Pt
3+
 
,Ir
3+
 
)
 
2
S
 
4
2.DA.05Siegenite
CoNi
 
2
S
 
4
-NiCo
 
2
S
 
4
2.DA.05Trüstedtite
Ni
 
3
Se
 
4
2.DA.05Tyrrellite
Cu(Co
3+
 
,Ni
3+
 
)
 
2
Se
 
4
2.DA.05Violarite
Fe
2+
 
Ni
3+
2
S
 
4
2.DA.05Xingzhongite
(Pb,Cu,Fe)(Ir,Pt,Rh)
 
2
S
 
4
2.DA.05Ferrorhodsite
(Fe,Cu)(Rh,Ir,Pt)
 
2
S
 
4
2.DA.05Cadmoindite
CdIn
 
2
S
 
4
2.DA.05Cuprokalininite
CuCr
 
2
S
 
4
2.DA.10Rhodostannite
Cu
 
2
FeSn
 
3
S
 
8
2.DA.10Toyohaite
Ag
 
2
FeSn
 
3
S
 
8
2.DA.15Brezinaite
Cr
 
3
S
 
4
2.DA.15Heideite
(Fe,Cr)
 
1.15
(Ti,Fe)
 
2
S
 
4
2.DA.20Inaglyite
Cu
 
3
Pb(Ir,Pt)
 
8
S
 
16
2.DA.20Konderite
Cu
 
3
Pb(Rh,Pt,Ir)
 
8
S
 
16
2.DA.25Kingstonite
(Rh,Ir,Pt)
 
3
S
 
4
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
3.11.1Heazlewoodite
Ni
 
3
S
 
2
3.11.2Godlevskite
(Ni,Fe)
 
9
S
 
8
3.11.3Millerite
NiS
3.11.5Vaesite
NiS
 
2
3.11.6Shandite
Ni
 
3
Pb
 
2
S
 
2
3.11.7Donharrisite
Ni
 
8
Hg
 
3
S
 
9
3.11.8Violarite
Fe
2+
 
Ni
3+
2
S
 
4
3.11.9Pentlandite
(Fe,Ni)
 
9
S
 
8
3.11.10Bravoite
(Fe,Ni)S
 
2
3.11.11Siegenite
CoNi
 
2
S
 
4
-NiCo
 
2
S
 
4
3.11.12Fletcherite
Cu(Ni,Co)
 
2
S
 
4
3.11.13Villamaninite
(Cu,Ni,Co,Fe)S
 
2
3.11.14Mäkinenite
γ-NiSe
3.11.15Sederholmite
beta-NiSe
3.11.16Trüstedtite
Ni
 
3
Se
 
4
3.11.17Wilkmanite
Ni
 
3
Se
 
4
3.11.18Kullerudite
NiSe
 
2
3.11.19Penroseite
(Ni,Co,Cu)Se
 
2
3.11.20Tyrrellite
Cu(Co
3+
 
,Ni
3+
 
)
 
2
Se
 
4
3.11.21Imgreite
NiTe (?)
3.11.22Melonite
NiTe
 
2
3.11.23Kitkaite
NiTeSe
3.11.24Dienerite
3.11.25Orcelite
Ni
 
5-x
As
 
2
3.11.26Maucherite
Ni
 
11
As
 
8
3.11.27Nickeline
NiAs
3.11.28Rammelsbergite
NiAs
 
2
3.11.29Pararammelsbergite
NiAs
 
2
3.11.30Nickelskutterudite
NiAs
 
2-3
3.11.31Oregonite
Ni
 
2
FeAs
 
2
3.11.32Westerveldite
(Fe,Ni,Co)As
3.11.33Langisite
(Co,Ni)As
3.11.34Gersdorffite
NiAsS
3.11.35Jolliffeite
NiAsSe
3.11.36Breithauptite
NiSb
3.11.38Ullmannite
NiSbS
3.11.39Willyamite
(Co,Ni)SbS

Other Names for Polydymite

Synonyms:
GrünauiteNickel Linnaeite
Other Languages:
German:Polydymit
Saynit
Russian:Полидимит
Simplified Chinese:辉镍矿
硫镍矿
辉铁镍矿
Spanish:Polydymita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Polydymite

Reference List:

- +
Zambonini (1916): Riv. min.: 47.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 262-265.

Mineralogical Magazine (1980): 43: 733-739.

American Mineralogist (1985): 70: 1036-1043.

Internet Links for Polydymite

Search Engines:
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  • Look for Polydymite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Polydymite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Polydymite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Fabre Minerals - search for Polydymite specimens
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  • Top quality minerals from Kristalle of California
  • Localities for Polydymite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • Tasmania
      • Heazlewood district
    Anderson, P., Bottrill, R. & Davidson, P. (2002): Famous mineral localities: The Lord Brassey mine, Tasmania. Mineralogical Record 33, 321-332 .
    • Victoria
      • Campaspe Shire
        • Cornella
    A. R. Seymon, 2006, Nickel Propectivity in Victoria, Geological Survey of Victoria Technical Record 2006/3
    • Western Australia
      • Coolgardie Shire
        • Kambalda
          • Kambalda Nickel mines
    Ostwald, J.(1978): Linnaeite Series Minerals from the kalgoorlie District western Australia, Mineralogical Magazine (Mar 1978):42:93-98
            • Otter Juan mine
    In the collection of Brent Thorne
      • East Pilbara Shire
        • Nullagine
    Nickel, E. H.; Hallbert, J. A.; Halligan, R. (1979): Unusual nickel mineralization at Nullagine, Western Australia. Journal of the Geological Society of Australia 26, 61-71. ; Am Min 73:11-12 p 1496
      • Kalgoorlie-Boulder Shire
        • Broad Arrow
    Nickel Mineralisation in Western Australia by R.J. Marston 1984.
    Ostwald, J.(1978): Linnaeite series Minerals from the Kalgoorlie District Western Australia, Mineralogical magazine (Mar 1978):42: 93-98
    J. Just and C.E. Feather, Am. Min., June 1978, Vol. 42, p. 278.
      • Kondinin Shire
    Nickel Mineralisation in Western Australia by R.J. Marston 1984.
      • Leonora Shire
        • Ten Mile Outcamp
    Economic Geology; October 1981; v. 76; no. 6; p. 1686-1697
      • Wiluna Shire
        • Lake Way Station
    Nickel Mineralisation in Western Australia by R.J. Marston 1984.
        • Mount Keith
    Grguric, B.A. (2003) Minerals of the MKD5 nickel deposit, Mount Keith, Western Australia. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 9, No. 2 , pg. 55-71.
    Austria
     
    • Salzburg
      • Saalfelden
        • Leogang
          • Hütten
            • Schwarzleograben
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
              • Schwarzleo District
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
              • Vogel Alp
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
    Bulgaria
     
    • Haskovo Oblast (Khaskovo Oblast)
      • Rhodope Mts
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
    Canada
     
    • Northwest Territories
      • Mackenzie District
        • Great Bear Lake
    Rod Tyson, The Port Radium District, Northwest Territories, Canada Mineralogical Record (1989) vol.20. #3, pp 201-208 .; Lang,A.H (1952) Canadian Deposits of Uranium and Thorium. Geological Survey of Canada. Economic Geology Series No.16, p.53
    Lang,A.H (1952) Canadian Deposits of Uranium and Thorium. Geological Survey of Canada. Economic Geology Series No.16, p.53
    Kidd & Haycock (1935).
    Lang,A.H (1952) Canadian Deposits of Uranium and Thorium. Geological Survey of Canada. Economic Geology Series No.16
    • Nova Scotia
      • Victoria Co.
    Nova Scotia Mineral Occurrence Database and the primary references therein.
    • Ontario
      • Sudbury District
        • Denison Township
    Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787; SHORT, M.N. & SHANNON, E.V. (1930): Violarite and other nickel sulphides. American Mineralogist 15, 1-22.
        • Drury Township
    Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
        • Levack Township
    Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
        • McKim Township
    Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
        • Norman Township
    Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., (2003), Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
      • Thunder Bay District
        • Hagey Township
    R.J. Traill 1983; Jas. E. Thomson and S. A. Ferguson, W. G. Q. Johnston, E. G. Pye, W. S. Savage, and Robert Thomson (1957) Metal Resources Circular No. 2 OF THE ONTARIO DEPARTMENT OF MINES Copper, Nickel, Lead, and Zinc Deposits in Ontario (Revised to February, 1957)
    • Québec
      • Chaudière-Appalaches
        • Montmagny RCM
          • St-Fabien-de-Panet
    Econ Geology (1993)88:123-138
    • Yukon Territory
      • Watson Lake Mining District
    Yukon Geological Survey
        • St Cyr Range
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Canadian Mineralogist (1984): 22: 561-564.
    China
     
    • Gansu Province
      • Gannan Autonomous Prefecture
        • Luqu Co.
    Jiajun Liu, Minghua Zheng, Jianming Liu, and Wenchao Su (2000): Ore Geology Reviews 17, 91-111.
    • Guizhou Province
      • Zunyi Prefecture
        • Zunyi Co.
          • Zunyi Ni-Mo-PGE-Au ore field
    Coveney, R.M., Grauch, R.I., and Murowchick, J.B. (1993), In: Reddy, R.G., and Weizenbach, R.N. (eds): The minerals, metals and materials society, Proceedings of the Paul E. Queneau International Symposium "Extractive Metallurgy of Copper, Nickel and Cobalt", 369–375.
    Nansheng Chen (1996), In: Tu Guangzhi (ed.): "Geochemistry of Strata-Bound Deposits in China", Science Press (Beijing), 528-548
    • Hebei Province
      • Chengde Prefecture
        • Fengning Co.
    Yu Zuxiang (1982): Bull. Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, 4, 78–81.
      • Handan Prefecture
        • Wu'an Co.
    Jianmin Zheng, Jingwen Mao, Maohong Chen, Guangdong Li, and Changyong Ban (2007): Geological Bulletin of China 26(2), 150-154
    • Hunan Province
      • Zhangjiajie Prefecture
        • Cili Co.
    Youyu Li, Shuzhen Cheng, Yuchen Zhai, Mingxun Dai, and Guishen Xu (1994): Geology and Prospecting 30(3), 15-19
    • Shaanxi Province
      • Baoji Prefecture
        • Taibai Co.
    Jingwen Mao, Yumin Qiu, Goldfarb, R.J., Zhaochong Zhang, Garwin, S., and Ren Fengshou (2002): Mineralium Deposita 37(3/4), 352-377; Zuoheng Zhang, Jingwen Mao, and Xiaofeng Li (2004): Mineral Deposits 23(2), 241-252
      • Hanzhong Prefecture
        • Lüeyang Co.
          • Tongchang ore field
    Runsheng Han, Shichang Jin, Congqiang Liu, Yuan Li, and Deyun Ma (2000): Geology and Prospecting 36(4), 11-15, 40
        • Mian Co.
    Zhang Benren, Chen Dexing, and Hu Yikeng (1986): Journal of China University of Geoscience 11(4), 351-365; Ruiting Wang, Ying He, Zhongli Tang, Dongsheng Wang, and Minwu Liu (2002): Mineral Deposits 21(suppl.), 1041-1044
    • Shandong Province
      • Linyi Prefecture
        • Yimeng Mts (Yimeng Shan)
          • Mengyin Co.
            • Mengyin Kimberlite field
              • Changma Kimberlite belt
                • Wangcun deposit
    Gorshkov, A.I., Titkov, S.V., Yan Nan Bao, Ryabchikov, I.D., and Magazina, L.O. (2006): Geology of Ore Deposits 48(4), 326-334.
    • Sichuan Province
      • Liangshan Autonomous Prefecture
        • Yanyuan Co.
    Lizhu Li, Zhigang Zhao, Jinliang He, and Zexiang Yang (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(3), 269-280
      • Ngawa Autonomous Prefecture (Aba Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Zoigê Co. (Ruo'ergai Co.)
    Li Chaoyang (1996), In: Tu Guangzhi (ed.): "Geochemistry of Strata-Bound Deposits in China", Science Press (Beijing), 508-527.
    Jiajun Liu, Minghua Zheng, Jianming Liu, and Wenchao Su (2000): Ore Geology Reviews 17, 91-111.
          • Zoigê Uranium ore field
    Chengjiang Zhang and Youliang Chen (2010): Geology and Prospecting 46(3), 434-441
    • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
      • Hami Prefecture (Kumul Prefecture; Qumul Prefecture)
        • Hami Co. (Kumul Co.; Qumul Co.)
          • Huangshan-Jing'erquan ore belt
    Zhuangzhi Qian, Tao Sun, Zhongli Tang, Changyi Jiang, Ke He, Mingzhe Xia, and Jianzhong Wang (2009): Geological Review 55(6), 873-884
    Yuechen Li, Guochun Zhao, Wenjun Qu, Chenze Pan, Qigui Mao, and Andao Du (2006): Acta Petrologica Sinica 22(1), 245-251; Yan Sun, Yuanfu Xiao, Wei Feng, Fahui Xiong, and Zhiqiang Zhao (2009): Geology in China 36(4), 871-877
    • Yunnan Province
      • Qujing Prefecture
        • Zhanyi Co.
    Nansheng Chen (1996), In: Tu Guangzhi (ed.): "Geochemistry of Strata-Bound Deposits in China", Science Press (Beijing), 528-548
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Ústí Region
        • Šluknov (Schluckenau)
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
    Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
     
    • Katanga (Shaba)
      • Katanga Copper Crescent
        • Shinkolobwe
    MinRec 20:287-288
    Ethiopia
     
    • Benshangul-Gumaz Province
      • Asosa region (Assosa region)
    Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (2013)
    Finland
     
    • Lapland Region
      • Portimo complex
    Iljina, M. 1994. The Portimo Layered Igneous Complex - with emphasis on diverse sulphide and platinum-group element deposits. Acta Univ. Oul. A258, 1994
    • Northern Finland Region
    Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
    Häkli, T. A., Vuorelainen, Y. and Sahama, Th. G. (1965): Kitkaite (NiTeSe), a new mineral from Kuusamo, northeast Finland. American Mineralogist. 50: 581-586
      • Taivalkoski
    Jupperi Aarre 1997. The magnetite gabbro and related Mustavaara vanadium ore deposits in the Porttivaara layered intrusion north-eastern Finland. Geological Survey of Finland Bulletin 288
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Black Forest
        • Wolfach
          • Oberwolfach
            • Rankach valley
    Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German)
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Sauerland
        • Meschede
    Schnorrer-Köhler, G., (1990): Ramsbeck - Neue Minerale aus dem ehemaligen Blei-Zink-Erzrevier des Sauerlandes, Der Aufschluss, Vol. 41 (4), 211-218
      • Siegerland
        • Eiserfeld
          • Kohlenbach Valley
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
        • Müsen
    Der Aufschluss 2000(2), 71-123
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Siegerland
        • Betzdorf
          • Schutzbach
    Min Mag 43 (1980), 733; Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
        • Gebhardshain
          • Kausen
    Wittern: "Mineralfundstellen in Deutschland", 2001
        • Niederfischbach
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
        • Wissen
          • Voßwinkel
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
      • Westerwald
        • Wied Iron Spar District
          • Altenkirchen
            • Bürdenbach
    No reference listed
    Greenland
     
    • Sermersooq
      • Nuuk (Godthåb)
    Petersen, O. V. & Secher, K. (1993): The Minerals of Greenland. Mineralogical Record 24 (2): 1-67
    Italy
     
    • Lombardy
      • Sondrio Province
        • Valtellina
          • Malenco Valley
            • Lanterna Valley
              • Lanzada
                • Mt. Motta
    Bedognè, F. (2011). Microminerali della Valmalenco. Nuove segnalazioni e aggiornamenti. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 1/2011, 40-45
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Kanto Region
        • Saitama Prefecture
          • Chichibu City
            • Urayama
    K. Nishikubo, T. Yamada, A. Harada, M. Takizawa, K. Tange, Y. Kosuge, R. Miyawaki, and S. Matsubara (2005) "Rambergite from the Hirogawara mine, Urayama, Chichibu City, Saitama Prefecture, Japan"
      • Kinki region
        • Mie Prefecture
          • Toba City
    • Kyushu Region
      • Fukuoka prefecture
        • Sannotake mine
    Econ.Geol.: 83; 395-404
    Namibia
     
    • Kunene Region
    Drüppel, K., Wagner, T., Boyce, A.J. (2006) Evolution of sulfide mineralization in ferrocarbonatite, Swartbooissdrif, NW Namibia: constraints from mineral chemistry and sulfur isotopes. Can. Mineral., 44, 877-894.
        • Orotumba
    von Seckendorff, V., Drüppel, K., Okrusch, M., Cook, N.J., and Littmann, S. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 430-450.
    Poland
     
    • Podkarpackie
      • Tarnobrzeg
    Karwowski, L. & Burek, W. (2003): Sulphides association conected (sic !) with hauerite occurences in Badenian Claystones near Tarnobrzeg. Polskie Towarystwo Mineralogiczne- Pracwe Specjalne [Mineralogical Society of Polen- Special Papers]. 22, 105-107
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Taymyrskiy Autonomous Okrug
        • Taimyr Peninsula
          • Putoran Plateau
    Spiridonov, E.M., Gritsenko, Y.D., and Ponomarenko, A.I. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 755-762.
      • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
        • Chitinskaya Oblast'
          • Udokan
    Cox, D.P., Lindsey, D.A., Singer, D.A., Moring, B.C., and Diggles, M.F. (2003): USGS Open-File Report 03-107
    • Northern Region
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
          • Monche-Tundra
    Yury L. Voytekhovsky, Yury N. Neradovsky (2008) The Cu-Ni-PGE and Cr deposits of the Monchegorsk area, the Kola Peninsula, Russia. 33 IGC excursion No 48, August 15 – 21, 2008
    Slovakia
     
    • Košice Region
      • Rožňava Co.
        • Rochovce (Rachensdorf)
    Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
      • Spišská Nová Ves Co.
    Ďuďa R., Peterec D., 1995 : Die Mineralien der siderit - baryt lagersttäte von Rudňany ( Kotterbach ) in der Slowakei. Mineralien Welt /Haltern/, 1, s.20 - 31
    South Africa
     
    • Limpopo Province
      • Vhembe District
    Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, 231 pp.
    South Korea
     
    • Gyeonggi-do (Kyonggi-do)
      • Gwancheon city (Kwancheon)
    Song, Y., Moon, H. S., & Chon, H. T. (1995). New occurrence and characterization of Niserpentines in the Kwangcheon area, Korea. Clay Minerals, 30(3), 211-224.
    Song, Y., Moon, H. S., & Chon, H. T. (1995). New occurrence and characterization of Niserpentines in the Kwangcheon area, Korea. Clay Minerals, 30(3), 211-224.
    Spain
     
    • Andalusia
      • Málaga
        • Sierra Alpujata
    I. S. Oen, C. Kieft, E.A.J. Burke, A.B. Westerhof : "Orcelite and associated minerals in the Ni-Fe-As-S system in chromitites and orthopyroxenites of Nebral, Malaga, Spain", Bull. Minéral., 1980, 103, 198-208
    • Aragón
      • Teruel
        • Lanzuela
    LAN1
    • Catalonia
      • Tarragona
        • Priorat
          • Bellmunt del Priorat
    Joan Abella i Creus (2008): Minerals I Mines De La Conca De Bellmunt Del Priorat.
    USA
     
    • Colorado
      • Boulder Co.
        • Gold Hill District
          • Gold Hill
    "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; Rocks & Min.: 16:413; 22:205.; American Mineralogist 28:257-271
    • Illinois
      • Hancock Co.
    Handbook of Mineralogy
    Mineralogical Record (1971) 2:53-56
        • Plymouth
    Min Rec 36:5 pp 421-431
    • Massachusetts
      • Middlesex Co.
        • Dracut
    Fairbanks, Ernest E. (1923). Notes on Massachusetts Minerals (American Mineralogist 8:130)
    • Missouri
      • Crawford Co.
    R&M 73:2 pp 98-117
      • Iron Co.
        • Viburnum Trend District
          • Bixby
    Lapis 17(1), 15-23 (1992); U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    Rocks & Min. Mar. 1998
    Min News 5:3 p6
      • Reynolds Co.
        • Viburnum Trend District
          • Centerville
    Lapis 17(1), 15-23 (1992)
          • Ellington
    Rocks & Min.: 64:22&26.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • Washington Co.
        • Viburnum Trend District
    Lapis 17(1), 15-23 (1992)
    • Nevada
      • Clark Co.
        • Bunkerville District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
          • Whitney Pocket Basin
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada; NBMG Open File Report 79-3
    • Pennsylvania
      • Chester Co.
        • State Line Chromite District
    Smith and Barnes (2011) Pennsylvania Geology v. 41, no. 3-4
      • Lancaster Co.
        • State Line Chromite District
    Smith and Barnes (2011) Pennsylvania Geology Fall/Winter 2011; Smith and Barnes (2011) Pennsylvania Geology v. 41, no. 3/4.
    Zimbabwe
     
    • Mashonaland Central
      • Bindura District
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
      • Shamva District
    Handbook of Mineralogy
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