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Polyhalite

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Formula:
K
 
2
Ca
 
2
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
System:TriclinicColour:Colourless, white, pink, ...
Hardness:2½ - 3½
Name:Named from the Greek words meaning "many" and "salt".
This page provides mineralogical data about Polyhalite.

Classification of Polyhalite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/C.20-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.CC.65

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
C : With medium-sized and large cations
Dana 8th edition ID:29.4.5.1

29 : HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
4 : AmBn(XO4)p·xH2O, with (m+n):p < 3:2 and > 1:1
Hey's CIM Ref.:25.4.10

25 : Sulphates
4 : Sulphates of Ca, Sr and Ba
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Type Occurrence of Polyhalite

Type Locality:Ischler Salzberg, Perneck, Bad Ischl, Gmunden, Upper Austria, Austria
Year of Discovery:1818

Occurrences of Polyhalite

Geological Setting:Oceanic salt deposits; rarely as a volcanic product.

Physical Properties of Polyhalite

Lustre:Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:Colourless, white, pink, red, grey; colourless in transmitted light.
Comment:salmon-pink to brick-red due to iron oxide inclusions.
Hardness (Mohs):2½ - 3½
Cleavage:Perfect
{10_1}, perfect
Parting:On {010} (foliated varities).
Density (measured):2.78 g/cm3

Crystallography of Polyhalite

Crystal System:Triclinic
Class (H-M):1 - Pinacoidal
Cell Parameters:a = 6.95Å, b = 8.88Å, c = 6.95Å
α = 104.06°, β = 113.94°, γ = 101.15°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.783 : 1 : 0.783
Unit Cell Volume:V 359.07 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Crystals small and rare; tabular {010} or elongated [001] and exhibiting numerous forms. Commonly massive, fibrous to foliated.
Twinning:On {010} and {100}, very common and often polysynthetic.
Structure
  Reference
Bindi L (2005) Reinvestigation of the crystal structure of polyhalite, K2Ca2Mg(SO4)4*2H2O. Acta Crystallographica, Section E 61:i135-i136.

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More Crystal Structures
Click here to view more crystal structures at the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database

Optical Data of Polyhalite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.546 - 1.548 nβ = 1.558 - 1.562 nγ = 1.567
2V:Measured: 60° to 62°, Calculated: 60° to 80°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.021

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low
Dispersion:none

Chemical Properties of Polyhalite

Formula:
K
 
2
Ca
 
2
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:K2Ca2Mg(SO4)4·2H2O
Essential elements:Ca, H, K, Mg, O, S
All elements listed in formula:Ca, H, K, Mg, O, S

Relationship of Polyhalite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.CC.05Krausite
KFe(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
7.CC.10Tamarugite
NaAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CC.15Kalinite
KAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 11H
 
2
O Not confirmed
7.CC.15Mendozite
NaAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 11H
 
2
O
7.CC.20Lonecreekite
(NH
 
4
)Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
7.CC.20Alum-(K)
KAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
7.CC.20Alum-(Na)
NaAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
7.CC.20Tschermigite
(NH
 
4
)Al(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
7.CC.20Lanmuchangite
Tl
+
 
Al(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
7.CC.25Voltaite
K
 
2
Fe
2+
5
Fe
3+
3
Al(SO
 
4
)
 
12
· 18H
 
2
O
7.CC.25Zincovoltaite
K
 
2
Zn
 
5
Fe
3+
3
Al(SO
 
4
)
 
12
· 18H
 
2
O
7.CC.25Pertlikite
K
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
2
Mg
 
4
Fe
3+
2
Al(SO
 
4
)
 
12
· 18H
 
2
O
7.CC.25Ammoniomagnesiovoltaite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Mg
2+
5
Fe
3+
3
Al(SO
 
4
)
 
12
· 18H
 
2
O
7.CC.30Kröhnkite
Na
 
2
Cu(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
7.CC.35Ferrinatrite
Na
 
3
Fe(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 3H
 
2
O
7.CC.40Goldichite
KFe(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CC.45Löweite
Na
 
12
Mg
 
7
(SO
 
4
)
 
13
· 15H
 
2
O
7.CC.50Blödite
Na
 
2
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CC.50Nickelblödite
Na
 
2
(Ni,Mg)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CC.50Changoite
Na
 
2
Zn(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CC.50Zincblödite
7.CC.55Leonite
K
 
2
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CC.55Mereiterite
K
 
2
Fe(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CC.60Boussingaultite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CC.60Cyanochroite
K
 
2
Cu(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CC.60Mohrite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Fe(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CC.60Nickelboussingaultite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Ni(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CC.60Picromerite
K
 
2
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CC.70Leightonite
K
 
2
Ca
 
2
Cu(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
7.CC.75Amarillite
NaFe(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CC.80Konyaite
Na
 
2
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 5H
 
2
O
7.CC.85Wattevilleite
Na
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O (?)
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
25.4.1Anhydrite
CaSO
 
4
25.4.2Bassanite
CaSO
 
4
· 0.5H
 
2
O
25.4.3Gypsum
CaSO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
25.4.4Glauberite
Na
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
25.4.5Cesanite
Na
 
3
Ca
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
25.4.6Eugsterite
Na
 
4
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 2H
 
2
O
25.4.7Hydroglauberite
Na
 
10
Ca
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
8
· 6H
 
2
O
25.4.8Syngenite
K
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
25.4.9Görgeyite
K
 
2
Ca
 
5
(SO
 
4
)
 
6
· H
 
2
O
25.4.11Koktaite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
25.4.12Ye'elimite
Ca
 
4
Al
 
6
(SO
 
4
)O
 
12
25.4.13Ettringite
Ca
 
6
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
12
· 26H
 
2
O
25.4.14Bentorite
Ca
 
6
(Cr
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
12
· 26H
 
2
O
25.4.15Celestine
SrSO
 
4
25.4.16Kalistrontite
K
 
2
Sr(SO
 
4
)
 
2
25.4.17Baryte
BaSO
 
4

Other Names for Polyhalite

Synonyms:
IschelitePolygalitePolyhallite
Other Languages:
Catalan:Polihalita
German:Polyhalit
Ischelit
Mamanit
Mamanite
Polygalit
Polyhallit
Russian:Полигалит
Simplified Chinese:杂卤石
Spanish:Ischelita
Mamanita
Polygalita
Polyhalita
Polyhallita
Ukrainian:Полігаліт

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:Most common potassium mineral in Carlsbad, New Mexico deposits.

References for Polyhalite

Reference List:

- +
Stromeyer, F. (1818) Kön. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen, Gel. Anz., Teil 3, 2081.

Stromeyer (1820) Journal für Chemie und Physik, Nuremberg: 29: 389.

Goebel (1866) Bulletin of the Academy of St. Petersburg: 9: 1 (as Mamanite).

van't Hoff and Voerman (1904) Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin (Sitzungsberichte der), Ber.: 984 (re: Mamanite = Polyhalite).

Görgey (1910) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 29: 209.

Görgey (1915) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 33: 48.

Hintze, Carl (1930) Handbuch der Mineralogie: 1[3]: 4485.

Schaller and Henderson (1932) USGS Bull. 833: 73.

Larsen, E.P. and Berman (1934): 159.

Ramsdell (1935) American Mineralogist: 20: 569.

Peacock (1938) American Mineralogist: 23: 38.

Lepeshkov and Bodaleva (1940) Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Comptes rendus: 27: 978.

Ladame (1942) Schweizerische mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Frauenfeld: 22: 242.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume II: 458-460.

Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry: 10 (2000): 1-112.

Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen: 14: 75-86.

Periodico di Mineralogia: 54: 35.

Schorn, A., Neubauer, F., Bernroider, M. (2013): Polyhalite microfabrics in an Alpine evaporite mélange: Hallstatt, Eastern Alps. Journal of Structural Geology 46, 57-75.

Internet Links for Polyhalite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Polyhalite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Polyhalite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Austria
     
    • Salzburg
      • Abtenau
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
        • Webing
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
      • Hallein
        • Dürrnberg
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
    • Styria
      • Bad Aussee
        • Altaussee
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    • Tyrol
      • North Tyrol
        • Inn valley
          • Innsbruck
            • Hall
              • Hall valley
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    • Upper Austria
      • Gmunden
        • Bad Ischl
          • Perneck
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
        • Hallstatt
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993); Schorn, A., Neubauer, F., Bernroider, M. (2013): Polyhalite microfabrics in an Alpine evaporite mélange: Hallstatt, Eastern Alps. Journal of Structural Geology 46, 57-75.
    Bolivia
     
    • Cochabamba Department
      • Chapare Province
        • Alto Chapare District
          • Cristalmayu subdistrict
            • Chocolatal (Rocko Rancho)
              • Minasmayu valley
    (unpublished thesis)
    Canada
     
    • Nova Scotia
      • Cumberland Co.
        • Pugwash
    R.C. Boehner, "Salt and Potash Resources in Nova Scotia", N.S. Dept. Mines and Energy, Bulletin 5, 1986.
    Chile
     
    • Antofagasta Region
      • Tocopilla Province
        • Pedro de Valdivia
    Pueyo, J. J., Chong, G. & Vega, M. (1998): Mineralogy and parental brine evolution in the Pedro de Valdivia nitrate deposit, Antofagasta, Chile. Revista Geologica de Chile 25, 3-15. (in Spanish)
        • Tocopilla District
    Arturo Molina collection
    China
     
    • Hubei Province
      • Qianjiang Co.
    Mili Wang (1982): Geological Review 47(1), 28-37
    • Qinghai Province
      • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
        • Dulan Co.
          • Qarhan salt lake (Chaerhan salt lake)
    Botao Li, Yuanyi Zhao, Zuohua Qian, Pengcheng Jiao, Chenglin Liu, and Shijun Wang (2010): Mineral Deposits 29(4), 669-683; Yuanyi Zhao, Botao Li, Pengcheng Jiao, Zuohua Qian, and Weishi Chen (2010): Mineral Deposits 29(4), 684-696
    • Shandong Province
      • Tai'an Prefecture
        • Daiyue District
          • Dawenkou depression
    Zhongde Zhu (1988): Mineral Deposits 7(1), 87-96
    • Sichuan Province
      • Dazhou Prefecture
        • Qu Co.
    Xuanzhen Huan (2004): Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology [Shuiwen Dizhi Gongcheng Dizhi] 31(4), 111-114.
      • Guang'an Prefecture
        • Linshui Co.
    Yaoting Lin and Jinquan He (2004): Geology of Chemical Minerals 26(3), 145-149
    • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
      • Bayin'gholin Autonomous Prefecture (Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture; Bayinguoleng Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Ruoqiang Co. (Qakilik Co.; Chaqiliq Co.)
          • Lop Nur (Lop Nuur; Lop lake; Luobu lake; Luobubo)
    Lichun Ma, Baoguo Li, Pingan Jiang, Junping Zhong, Jiandong Sheng, Honglie Qiu, and Hongqi Wu (2010): Mineral Deposits 29(4), 616-624
    Chenglin Liu, Mili Wang, Pengcheng Jiao, Weidong Fan, Yongzhi Chen, Zhichen Yang, and Jingguo Wang (2008): Mineral Deposits 27(6)
    France
     
    • Lorraine
      • Meurthe-et-Moselle
        • Nancy
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 460.
    Germany
     
    • Bavaria
      • Upper Bavaria
        • Bad Reichenhall
          • Berchtesgaden
            • Berchtesgadener Salzberg
    • Hesse
      • Fulda
        • Neuhof
          • Giesel
    S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    Krah, O., (1988): Beobachtungen beim Durchbruch eines Basaltganges durch das Kalilager vom Werk Neuhof-Ellers, Der Aufschluss Vol. 39 (2), 103-113
      • Werra valley
        • Heringen
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
        • Phillippsthal
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Lower Saxony
      • Celle
        • Hänigsen
    Bode "Mineralien und Fundstellen BRD" from 1989 ISBN 3-925094-24-5 Pg.9
        • Wathlingen
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Lüneburg
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
      • Nordhorn
        • Frenswegen
    Füchtbauer, H., and Goldschmidt, H. (1956): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 5(3), 187-203.
    • Saxony-Anhalt
      • Börde
        • Morsleben
    http://www.mineralienatlas.de/lexikon/index.php/Deutschland/Sachsen-Anhalt/B%C3%B6rde/Morsleben/Schacht%20Marie
      • Stassfurt Potash deposit
        • Egeln
          • Tarthun
    No reference listed
        • Stassfurt
    C. Zinken (1865) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, 310
    • Thuringia
    Effmert, G.; Wurth, L. (2007): Bleicherode, Thüringen: Ein Feuerwerk von Gips-Kristallen, Mineralien-Welt 6/2007, p.42-47.
    Effmert, G. & Wurth, L. (2007). Bleicherode, Thüringen: Ein Feuerwerk von Gips-Kristallen. Min.-Welt, Jg.18, Nr.6, S.42-47.
      • Gera
        • Ronneburg U deposit
    T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
      • Harz
        • Nordhausen
          • Niedersachswerfen
    Junker, R. & V. Lüders (2013). Weltklasse-Borate aus dem Anhydrit-Steinbruch Kohnstein, Südharzrand. Mineralien-Welt, vol.24, p.4, S.52-69.
      • Thuringian Forest
        • Merkers-Kieselbach
    W.I. Borrisenkow (1968) Zeitschr. für angewandte Geologie 14, 7-10
    Greece
     
    • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
      • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
        • Lavrion District Mines
          • Plaka
            • Plaka Mines
    No reference listed
    Iran
     
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 460.
    Italy
     
    • Campania
      • Naples Province
        • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
    Russo, M., Punzo, I. (2004): I minerali del Somma-Vesuvio, AMI
    • Sicily
      • Catania Province
        • Etna Volcanic Complex
          • Mt Etna
    www.cse.speleo.it
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Atyrau Province (Atyrau Oblysy; Atyrau Oblast')
      • Atyrau (Gur'yev)
    Pekov, I. V. & Abramov, D. V. (1993): Boron deposit of the Inder and its minerals. World of Stones, 1, 23-30.
    • Western Kazakhstan Province (Batys Qazaqstan Oblysy; Zapadno-Kazakhstanskaya Oblast')
      • Oral Rayon (Uralsk Rayon)
    Handbook of Mineralogy; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    Mexico
     
    • Baja California Sur (BC Sur)
    American Mineralogist (1966): 51: 99-110.
    Netherlands
     
    • Gelderland
      • Twente
    T.G. Nijland, J.C. Zwaan, D. Visser, J. Leloux - De mineralen van Nederland - 2007
      • Winterswijk
        • Ratum
    T.G. Nijland, J.C. Zwaan, D. Visser, J. Leloux - De mineralen van Nederland - 2007
    • Groningen
      • Zuidwending
    http://nlog.nitg.tno.nl/resources/zout/0310300%20Zuidwending%20openbaar%20scan.pdf
    Poland
     
    • Wielkopolskie
    Jirásek, J.: Solný důl Kłodawa (Polsko). Minerál, 2004, roč. 12, č. 2, s. 98-102. ISSN 1213-0710 (excerpted from unpublished thesis Hanczke, T.: Mineralogia i petrografia soli czechstyńskich kopalni "Kłodawa". Doktroská práce, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Instytut nauk geologicznych, 1967.)
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
        • Irkutskaya Oblast'
          • Zheleznogorsk
    Mazurov, M.P., Grishina, S.N., Istomin, V.E., and Titov, A.T. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(4), 271-284.; Mazurov et al (2007) Geology of Ore Deposits, 49, 271–284.
      • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
        • Aldan Shield
          • Aldan
            • Inagli Massif
    Naumov, VB and Kamenetsky, VS and Thomas, R and Kononkova, NN and Ryzhenko, BN (2008): Inclusions of silicate and sulfate melts in chrome diopside from the Inagli deposit, Yakutia, Russia. Geochemistry International, 46, 554-564. [http://eprints.utas.edu.au/7673/1/GeochemInt2008-Inagli.pdf]
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Orenburgskaya Oblast'
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 432.
    Spain
     
    • La Rioja
    No reference listed
    • Madrid
      • Chinchón
    García del Cura, M.A. (1979). Las sales sódicas, calcosódicas y magnésicas de la cuenca del Tajo. Fundación Juan March. 39 páginas
    Turkey
     
    • Central Anatolia Region
    Irion, G., Müller, G. (1968): Huntite, Dolomite, Magnesite and Polyhalite of Recent Age from Tuz Gölü, Turkey. Nature, 220, 1309-1310.; Helvaci, C., Mordogan, H., Çolak, M., & Gündogan, I. (2004). Presence and distribution of lithium in borate deposits and some recent lake waters of west-central Turkey. International Geology Review, 46(2), 177-190.
    Turkmenistan
     
    • Balkan Province
    Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
    UK
     
    • England
      • Humberside
        • Offshore
          • Block 47/3
      • North Yorkshire
        • Eskdale
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 460.
    Mineralogical Magazine 1951 29 : 667-689.
    Mineralogical Magazine 1951 29 : 667-689.
        • Loftus
    http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/polyhalite.pdf.
        • Scarborough
    Peter G. Embrey (1978) Fourth Supplementary List of British Minerals. Mineralogical Magazine 42:169-177
    Ukraine
     
    • L'viv Oblast' (Lviv Oblast'; Lwiw Oblast')
      • Drohobych
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 460.
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Apache & Navajo Cos.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 333; Peirce, H.W. (1969), Salines, in Mineral and water resources of AZ, AZ Bur. of Mines Bull. 180: 417-424.
    • Michigan
      • Newaygo Co.
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
      • Wayne Co.
        • Detroit
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    • Nevada
      • Esmeralda Co.
        • Alum District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • New Mexico
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
      • Eddy and Lea Counties
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 385; Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd. rev. ed. (1996)
      • Eddy Co.
        • Carlsbad Potash District
    SIMMONS, P.S. (2013)The Carlsbad Potash Basin, Carlsbad, New Mexico. Mineralogical Record, 44 (1), 13-49.
    Van King
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Utah
      • Grand Co.
        • Interriver District
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
        • Thompsons District (S. E. Thomsons)
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • San Juan Co.
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • Tooele Co.
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    Uzbekistan
     
    • Karakalpakstan Respublikasi (Qaraqalpog'iston)
      • Lower Amu Darya River (Amydar'ya)
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
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