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Polyhalite

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Formula:
K2Ca2Mg(SO4)4 · 2H2O
System:
Triclinic
Colour:
Colourless, white, pink, ...
Hardness:
2½ - 3½
Name:
Named from the Greek words meaning "many" and "salt".
This page provides mineralogical data about Polyhalite.

Classification of Polyhalite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
7.CC.65

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
C : With medium-sized and large cations
29.4.5.1

29 : HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
4 : AmBn(XO4)p·xH2O, with (m+n):p < 3:2 and > 1:1
25.4.10

25 : Sulphates
4 : Sulphates of Ca, Sr and Ba
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First Recorded Occurrence of Polyhalite

Year of Discovery:
1818

Occurrences of Polyhalite

Geological Setting:
Oceanic salt deposits; rarely as a volcanic product.

Physical Properties of Polyhalite

Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent
Colour:
Colourless, white, pink, red, grey; colourless in transmitted light.
Comment:
salmon-pink to brick-red due to iron oxide inclusions.
Hardness (Mohs):
2½ - 3½
Cleavage:
Perfect
{10_1}, perfect
Parting:
On {010} (foliated varities).
Density:
2.78 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Crystallography of Polyhalite

Crystal System:
Triclinic
Class (H-M):
1 - Pinacoidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.95Å, b = 8.88Å, c = 6.95Å
α = 104.06°, β = 113.94°, γ = 101.15°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.783 : 1 : 0.783
Morphology:
Crystals small and rare; tabular {010} or elongated [001] and exhibiting numerous forms. Commonly massive, fibrous to foliated.
Twinning:
On {010} and {100}, very common and often polysynthetic.

Crystal Structure

Structure
Reference
Bindi L (2005) Reinvestigation of the crystal structure of polyhalite, K2Ca2Mg(SO4)4*2H2O. Acta Crystallographica, Section E 61:i135-i136.

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More Crystal Structures
Click here to view more crystal structures at the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database

Optical Data of Polyhalite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.546 - 1.548 nβ = 1.558 - 1.562 nγ = 1.567
2V:
Measured: 60° to 62°, Calculated: 60° to 80°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.021
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
none

Chemical Properties of Polyhalite

Formula:
K2Ca2Mg(SO4)4 · 2H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Polyhalite to other Species

7.CC.05KrausiteKFe(SO4)2 · H2O
7.CC.10TamarugiteNaAl(SO4)2 · 6H2O
7.CC.15KaliniteKAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O Not confirmed
7.CC.15MendoziteNaAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
7.CC.20Lonecreekite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 12H2O
7.CC.20Alum-(K)KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
7.CC.20Alum-(Na)NaAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
7.CC.20Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
7.CC.20LanmuchangiteTl+Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
7.CC.25VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
7.CC.25ZincovoltaiteK2Zn5Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
7.CC.25PertlikiteK2(Fe2+,Mg)2Mg4Fe23+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
7.CC.25Ammoniomagnesiovoltaite(NH4)2Mg52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
7.CC.30KröhnkiteNa2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2O
7.CC.35FerrinatriteNa3Fe(SO4)3 · 3H2O
7.CC.40GoldichiteKFe(SO4)2 · 4H2O
7.CC.45LöweiteNa12Mg7(SO4)13 · 15H2O
7.CC.50BlöditeNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O
7.CC.50NickelblöditeNa2(Ni,Mg)(SO4)2 · 4H2O
7.CC.50ChangoiteNa2Zn(SO4)2 · 4H2O
7.CC.50Zincblödite
7.CC.55LeoniteK2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O
7.CC.55MereiteriteK2Fe(SO4)2 · 4H2O
7.CC.60Boussingaultite(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
7.CC.60CyanochroiteK2Cu(SO4)2 · 6H2O
7.CC.60Mohrite(NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 · 6H2O
7.CC.60Nickelboussingaultite(NH4)2Ni(SO4)2 · 6H2O
7.CC.60PicromeriteK2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
7.CC.70LeightoniteK2Ca2Cu(SO4)4 · 2H2O
7.CC.75AmarilliteNaFe(SO4)2 · 6H2O
7.CC.80KonyaiteNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 5H2O
7.CC.85WattevilleiteNa2Ca(SO4)2 · 4H2O (?)
25.4.1AnhydriteCaSO4
25.4.2BassaniteCaSO4 · 0.5H2O
25.4.3GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
25.4.4GlauberiteNa2Ca(SO4)2
25.4.5CesaniteNa3Ca2(SO4)3(OH)
25.4.6EugsteriteNa4Ca(SO4)3 · 2H2O
25.4.7HydroglauberiteNa10Ca3(SO4)8 · 6H2O
25.4.8SyngeniteK2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
25.4.9GörgeyiteK2Ca5(SO4)6 · H2O
25.4.11Koktaite(NH4)2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
25.4.12Ye'elimiteCa4Al6(SO4)O12
25.4.13EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
25.4.14BentoriteCa6(Cr3+,Al)2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
25.4.15CelestineSrSO4
25.4.16KalistrontiteK2Sr(SO4)2
25.4.17BaryteBaSO4

Other Names for Polyhalite

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Most common potassium mineral in Carlsbad, New Mexico deposits.

References for Polyhalite

Reference List:
Stromeyer, F. (1818) Kön. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen, Gel. Anz., Teil 3, 2081.

Stromeyer (1820) Journal für Chemie und Physik, Nuremberg: 29: 389.

Goebel (1866) Bulletin of the Academy of St. Petersburg: 9: 1 (as Mamanite).

van't Hoff and Voerman (1904) Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin (Sitzungsberichte der), Ber.: 984 (re: Mamanite = Polyhalite).

Görgey (1910) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 29: 209.

Görgey (1915) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 33: 48.

Hintze, Carl (1930) Handbuch der Mineralogie: 1[3]: 4485.

Schaller and Henderson (1932) USGS Bull. 833: 73.

Larsen, E.P. and Berman (1934): 159.

Ramsdell (1935) American Mineralogist: 20: 569.

Peacock (1938) American Mineralogist: 23: 38.

Lepeshkov and Bodaleva (1940) Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Comptes rendus: 27: 978.

Ladame (1942) Schweizerische mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Frauenfeld: 22: 242.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume II: 458-460.

Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry: 10 (2000): 1-112.

Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen: 14: 75-86.

Periodico di Mineralogia: 54: 35.

Schorn, A., Neubauer, F., Bernroider, M. (2013): Polyhalite microfabrics in an Alpine evaporite mélange: Hallstatt, Eastern Alps. Journal of Structural Geology 46, 57-75.

Internet Links for Polyhalite

Localities for Polyhalite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Austria
 
  • Salzburg
    • Abtenau
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
      • Webing
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
    • Hallein
      • Dürrnberg
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
  • Styria
    • Bad Aussee
      • Altaussee
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Inn valley
        • Innsbruck
          • Hall
            • Hall valley
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
  • Upper Austria
    • Gmunden
      • Bad Ischl
        • Perneck
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
      • Hallstatt
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993); Schorn, A., Neubauer, F., Bernroider, M. (2013): Polyhalite microfabrics in an Alpine evaporite mélange: Hallstatt, Eastern Alps. Journal of Structural Geology 46, 57-75.
Bolivia
 
  • Cochabamba Department
    • Chapare Province
      • Alto Chapare District
        • Cristalmayu subdistrict
          • Chocolatal (Rocko Rancho)
            • Minasmayu valley
(unpublished thesis)
Canada
 
  • Nova Scotia
    • Cumberland Co.
      • Pugwash
R.C. Boehner, "Salt and Potash Resources in Nova Scotia", N.S. Dept. Mines and Energy, Bulletin 5, 1986.
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta Region
    • Tocopilla Province
      • Pedro de Valdivia
Pueyo, J. J., Chong, G. & Vega, M. (1998): Mineralogy and parental brine evolution in the Pedro de Valdivia nitrate deposit, Antofagasta, Chile. Revista Geologica de Chile 25, 3-15. (in Spanish)
      • Tocopilla District
Arturo Molina collection
China
 
  • Hubei Province
    • Qianjiang Co.
Mili Wang (1982): Geological Review 47(1), 28-37
  • Qinghai Province
    • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
      • Golmud Co. (Ge'ermu Co.)
Dongsheng Hu (1990): Scientia Geologica Sinica 3(7), 259-268; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Botao Li, Yuanyi Zhao, Zuohua Qian, Pengcheng Jiao, Chenglin Liu, and Shijun Wang (2010): Mineral Deposits 29(4), 669-683; Yuanyi Zhao, Botao Li, Pengcheng Jiao, Zuohua Qian, and Weishi Chen (2010): Mineral Deposits 29(4), 684-696
      • Mangnai Co. (Mangya Co.)
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
  • Shandong Province
    • Tai'an Prefecture
      • Daiyue District
        • Dawenkou depression
Zhongde Zhu (1988): Mineral Deposits 7(1), 87-96
  • Sichuan Province
    • Dazhou Prefecture
      • Qu Co.
Xuanzhen Huan (2004): Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology [Shuiwen Dizhi Gongcheng Dizhi] 31(4), 111-114.
    • Guang'an Prefecture
      • Linshui Co.
Yaoting Lin and Jinquan He (2004): Geology of Chemical Minerals 26(3), 145-149
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Bayin'gholin Autonomous Prefecture (Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture; Bayinguoleng Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Ruoqiang Co. (Qakilik Co.; Chaqiliq Co.)
Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55
Lichun Ma, Baoguo Li, Pingan Jiang, Junping Zhong, Jiandong Sheng, Honglie Qiu, and Hongqi Wu (2010): Mineral Deposits 29(4), 616-624
Chenglin Liu, Mili Wang, Pengcheng Jiao, Weidong Fan, Yongzhi Chen, Zhichen Yang, and Jingguo Wang (2008): Mineral Deposits 27(6)
    • Tulufan Prefecture (Turfan Prefecture; Turpan Prefecture)
      • Tulufan Co. (Turfan Co.; Turpan Co.)
        • Turfan basin (Turpan basin)
Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55
France
 
  • Lorraine
    • Meurthe-et-Moselle
      • Nancy
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 460.
Germany
 
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Bavaria
      • Bad Reichenhall
        • Berchtesgaden
          • Berchtesgadener Salzberg
  • Hesse
    • Fulda
      • Neuhof
        • Giesel
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Krah, O., (1988): Beobachtungen beim Durchbruch eines Basaltganges durch das Kalilager vom Werk Neuhof-Ellers, Der Aufschluss Vol. 39 (2), 103-113
    • Werra valley
      • Heringen
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Phillippsthal
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Lower Saxony
    • Celle
      • Hänigsen
Bode "Mineralien und Fundstellen BRD" from 1989 ISBN 3-925094-24-5 Pg.9
      • Wathlingen
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Lüneburg
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    • Nordhorn
      • Frenswegen
Füchtbauer, H., and Goldschmidt, H. (1956): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 5(3), 187-203.
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Börde
      • Morsleben
http://www.mineralienatlas.de/lexikon/index.php/Deutschland/Sachsen-Anhalt/B%C3%B6rde/Morsleben/Schacht%20Marie
    • Stassfurt Potash deposit
      • Egeln
        • Tarthun
No reference listed
      • Stassfurt
C. Zinken (1865) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, 310
  • Thuringia
Effmert, G.; Wurth, L. (2007): Bleicherode, Thüringen: Ein Feuerwerk von Gips-Kristallen, Mineralien-Welt 6/2007, p.42-47.
Effmert, G. & Wurth, L. (2007). Bleicherode, Thüringen: Ein Feuerwerk von Gips-Kristallen. Min.-Welt, Jg.18, Nr.6, S.42-47.
    • Gera
      • Ronneburg U deposit
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
    • Harz
      • Nordhausen
        • Niedersachswerfen
Junker, R. & V. Lüders (2013). Weltklasse-Borate aus dem Anhydrit-Steinbruch Kohnstein, Südharzrand. Mineralien-Welt, vol.24, p.4, S.52-69.
    • Thuringian Forest
      • Merkers-Kieselbach
W.I. Borrisenkow (1968) Zeitschr. für angewandte Geologie 14, 7-10
Greece
 
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
      • Lavrion District Mines
        • Plaka
          • Plaka Mines
No reference listed
Iran
 
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 460.
Italy
 
  • Campania
    • Naples Province
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
Russo, M., Punzo, I. (2004): I minerali del Somma-Vesuvio, AMI
  • Sicily
    • Catania Province
      • Etna Volcanic Complex
        • Mt Etna
www.cse.speleo.it
Kazakhstan
 
  • Atyrau Province (Atyrau Oblysy; Atyrau Oblast')
    • Atyrau (Gur'yev)
Pekov, I. V. & Abramov, D. V. (1993): Boron deposit of the Inder and its minerals. World of Stones, 1, 23-30.
  • Western Kazakhstan Province (Batys Qazaqstan Oblysy; Zapadno-Kazakhstanskaya Oblast')
    • Oral Rayon (Uralsk Rayon)
Handbook of Mineralogy; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Mexico
 
  • Baja California Sur (BC Sur)
American Mineralogist (1966): 51: 99-110.
Netherlands
 
  • Gelderland
    • Twente
T.G. Nijland, J.C. Zwaan, D. Visser, J. Leloux - De mineralen van Nederland - 2007
    • Winterswijk
      • Ratum
T.G. Nijland, J.C. Zwaan, D. Visser, J. Leloux - De mineralen van Nederland - 2007
  • Groningen
    • Zuidwending
http://nlog.nitg.tno.nl/resources/zout/0310300%20Zuidwending%20openbaar%20scan.pdf
Poland
 
  • Wielkopolskie
Jirásek, J.: Solný důl Kłodawa (Polsko). Minerál, 2004, roč. 12, č. 2, s. 98-102. ISSN 1213-0710 (excerpted from unpublished thesis Hanczke, T.: Mineralogia i petrografia soli czechstyńskich kopalni "Kłodawa". Doktroská práce, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Instytut nauk geologicznych, 1967.)
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Irkutskaya Oblast'
        • Zheleznogorsk
Mazurov, M.P., Grishina, S.N., Istomin, V.E., and Titov, A.T. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(4), 271-284.; Mazurov et al (2007) Geology of Ore Deposits, 49, 271–284.
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
      • Aldan Shield
        • Aldan
          • Inagli Massif
Naumov, VB and Kamenetsky, VS and Thomas, R and Kononkova, NN and Ryzhenko, BN (2008): Inclusions of silicate and sulfate melts in chrome diopside from the Inagli deposit, Yakutia, Russia. Geochemistry International, 46, 554-564. [http://eprints.utas.edu.au/7673/1/GeochemInt2008-Inagli.pdf]
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Orenburgskaya Oblast'
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 432.
Spain
 
  • La Rioja
No reference listed
  • Madrid
    • Chinchón
García del Cura, M.A. (1979). Las sales sódicas, calcosódicas y magnésicas de la cuenca del Tajo. Fundación Juan March. 39 páginas
Turkey
 
  • Central Anatolia Region
Irion, G., Müller, G. (1968): Huntite, Dolomite, Magnesite and Polyhalite of Recent Age from Tuz Gölü, Turkey. Nature, 220, 1309-1310.; Helvaci, C., Mordogan, H., Çolak, M., & Gündogan, I. (2004). Presence and distribution of lithium in borate deposits and some recent lake waters of west-central Turkey. International Geology Review, 46(2), 177-190.
Turkmenistan
 
  • Balkan Province
Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
UK
 
  • England
    • Humberside
      • Offshore
        • Block 47/3
    • North Yorkshire
      • Eskdale
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 460.
Mineralogical Magazine 1951 29 : 667-689.
Mineralogical Magazine 1951 29 : 667-689.
      • Loftus
http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/polyhalite.pdf.
      • Scarborough
Peter G. Embrey (1978) Fourth Supplementary List of British Minerals. Mineralogical Magazine 42:169-177
Ukraine
 
  • L'viv Oblast' (Lviv Oblast'; Lwiw Oblast')
    • Drohobych
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 460.
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Apache & Navajo Cos.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 333; Peirce, H.W. (1969), Salines, in Mineral and water resources of AZ, AZ Bur. of Mines Bull. 180: 417-424.
  • Michigan
    • Newaygo Co.
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    • Wayne Co.
      • Detroit
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
  • Nevada
    • Esmeralda Co.
      • Alum District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Mexico
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Eddy and Lea Counties
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 385; Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd. rev. ed. (1996)
    • Eddy Co.
      • Carlsbad Potash District
SIMMONS, P.S. (2013)The Carlsbad Potash Basin, Carlsbad, New Mexico. Mineralogical Record, 44 (1), 13-49.
Van King
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
  • Utah
    • Grand Co.
      • Interriver District
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • Thompsons District (S. E. Thomsons)
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    • San Juan Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    • Tooele Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
Uzbekistan
 
  • Karakalpakstan Respublikasi (Qaraqalpog'iston)
    • Lower Amu Darya River (Amydar'ya)
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Mineral and/or Locality  
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