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Portlandite

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Formula:
Ca(OH)
 
2
System:TrigonalColour:Colourless, light yellow
Hardness:2½ - 3
Member of:Brucite Group
Name:In allusion to the occurrence of Ca(OH)2 as a product of hydration of portland cement.


Rare in nature, but an important phase in cement materials and concrete. Indicative of a very high pH value.

Classification of Portlandite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/F.03-100
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.FE.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
F : Hydroxides (without V or U)
E : Hydroxides with OH, without H2O; sheets of edge-sharing octahedra
Dana 8th edition ID:6.2.1.4

6 : HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
2 : X(OH)2
Hey's CIM Ref.:7.4.12

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
4 : Oxides of Be, Mg and the alkaline earths
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Type Occurrence of Portlandite

Type Locality:Scawt Hill, Larne, Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland, UK
Year of Discovery:1933

Physical Properties of Portlandite

Lustre:Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:Colourless, light yellow
Hardness (Mohs):2½ - 3
Tenacity:Sectile
Cleavage:Perfect
{0001}
Density (measured):2.227 - 2.233 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.24 g/cm3

Crystallography of Portlandite

Crystal System:Trigonal
Class (H-M):3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Cell Parameters:a = 3.59Å, c = 4.9Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 1.365
Unit Cell Volume:V 54.69 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Minute hexagonal plates. Tabular {0001}, with {101¯0} as linear faces (artificial material).

Optical Data of Portlandite

Type:Uniaxial (-)
RI values: nω = 1.574 nε = 1.547
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.027

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low

Chemical Properties of Portlandite

Formula:
Ca(OH)
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:Ca(OH)2
Essential elements:Ca, H, O
All elements listed in formula:Ca, H, O

Relationship of Portlandite to other Species

Member of:Brucite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Brucite
Mg(OH)
 
2
Pyrochroite
Mn(OH)
 
2
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.FE.05Amakinite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)(OH)
 
2
4.FE.05Brucite
Mg(OH)
 
2
4.FE.05Pyrochroite
Mn(OH)
 
2
4.FE.05Theophrastite
Ni(OH)
 
2
4.FE.10Bayerite
Al(OH)
 
3
4.FE.10Doyleite
Al(OH)
 
3
4.FE.10Gibbsite
Al(OH)
 
3
4.FE.10Nordstrandite
Al(OH)
 
3
4.FE.15Böhmite
AlO(OH)
4.FE.15Lepidocrocite
γ-Fe
3+
 
O(OH)
4.FE.20Grimaldiite
CrO(OH)
4.FE.20Heterogenite
CoO(OH)
4.FE.25Feitknechtite
Mn
3+
 
O(OH)
4.FE.25Lithiophorite
(Al,Li)MnO
 
2
(OH)
 
2
4.FE.30Quenselite
PbMnO
 
2
(OH)
4.FE.35Ferrihydrite
Fe
3+
5
O
 
3
(OH)
 
9
4.FE.40Feroxyhyte
Fe
3+
 
O(OH)
4.FE.40Vernadite
(Mn
4+
 
,Fe
3+
 
,Ca,Na)(O,OH)
 
2
· nH
 
2
O
4.FE.45Quetzalcoatlite
Zn
 
6
Cu
 
3
(TeO
 
6
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
· Ag
 
x
Pb
 
y
Cl
 
x+2y
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
7.4.1Bromellite
BeO
7.4.2Behoite
Be(OH)
 
2
7.4.3Clinobehoite
Be(OH)
 
2
7.4.4Chrysoberyl
BeAl
 
2
O
 
4
7.4.5Magnesiotaaffeite-2N’2S
Mg
 
3
Al
 
8
BeO
 
16
7.4.6Magnesiotaaffeite-6N’3S
Mg
 
2
BeAl
 
6
O
 
12
7.4.7Periclase
MgO
7.4.8Brucite
Mg(OH)
 
2
7.4.9Spinel
MgAl
 
2
O
 
4
7.4.10Meixnerite
Mg
 
6
Al
 
2
(OH)
 
16
(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
7.4.11Lime
CaO
7.4.13Mayenite
Ca
 
12
Al
 
14
O
 
33
7.4.14Hydrocalumite
Ca
 
4
Al
 
2
(OH)
 
12
(Cl,CO
 
3
,OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
7.4.15Marokite
CaMn
 
2
O
 
4
7.4.16Ranciéite
(Ca,Mn)Mn
 
4
O
 
9
· 3H
 
2
O
7.4.17Hollandite
Ba(Mn
4+
6
Mn
3+
2
)O
 
16
7.4.18Romanèchite
(Ba,H
 
2
O)
 
2
Mn
 
5
O
 
10
7.4.19Todorokite
(Ca,K,Na,Mg,Ba,Mn)(Mn,Mg,Al)
 
6
O
 
12
· 3H
 
2
O

Other Names for Portlandite

Other Languages:
German:Gelöschter Kalk
Hydratkalk
Kalkhydrat
Löschkalk
Portlandit
Russian:Портландит
Simplified Chinese:氢氧钙石
羟钙石
Spanish:Portlandita
Traditional Chinese:氫氧鈣石
羥鈣石

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Portlandite

Reference List:

- +
Tilley (1933), Mineralogical Magazine: 23: 419.

American Mineralogist (1934): 19: 35.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 641-642.

American Mineralogist (1963): 48: 924-930.

Internet Links for Portlandite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Portlandite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Portlandite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • Victoria
      • Swan Hill Rural City
        • Kunat
    Bill Birch (1996) Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 2, #2, 47-50.
    Belgium
     
    • Hainaut Province (Henegouwen; Hennegau)
      • Charleroi
        • Montignies-sur-Sambre
    RN06042006
    Canada
     
    • Québec
      • Nord-du-Québec
        • Kativik
    Daniel F. Rosa and Robert F. Martin (2010) A spurrite-, merwinite- and srebrodolskite-bearing skarn assemblage, West Clearwater Lake impact crater, northern Quebec. The Canadian Mineralogist (December 2010), 48(6):1519-1532
    China
     
    • Shaanxi Province
      • Hanzhong Prefecture
        • Mian Co.
    Zhongtang Yang, Zhiming Li, Gengbiao Qiao, Zhongbao Song, Xiaozhou Liu, and Wei Wan (2008): Geology and Prospecting 44(2), 38-44
    France
     
    • Auvergne
      • Puy-de-Dôme
        • Clermont-Ferrand
          • Ceyrat
    XRD analysis (B. Devouard and E. Médard, Clermont-Ferrand)
    • Midi-Pyrénées
      • Aveyron
    Eytier J.R. & Ch., Favreau G., Devouard B., Vigier J. (2004), Minéraux de pyrométamorphisme de Lapanouse-de Sévérac (Aveyron), Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°85, pp: 3-58
    • Rhône-Alpes
      • Loire
        • La Pacaudière
          • Le Crozet
    Chollet, P. & Devouard, B. (2013): La mine de cuivre et de plomb des Rats, Le Crozet (Loire). Le Règne Minéral, 109, 7-46.
    Germany
     
    • Bavaria
      • Franconia
        • Maroldsweisach
    Pöllmann, H. (1991): Die Afwillit-Portlandit Paragenese im Basalt des Zeilbergs bei Maroldsweisach/Unterfranken. Aufschluss, 42, 257-266
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Sauerland
        • Arnsberg
          • Hüsten
    David Nieto collection, 5/93.
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Eifel
        • Daun
          • Üdersdorf
    Schüller, W., Betz, V., Die Mineralien vom Emmelberg, Lapis 12/1986
        • Mayen
          • Ettringen
            • Bellerberg volcano
    [Jasmund, K., Hentschel, G., Seltene Mineralparagenesen in den Kalksteineinschlüssen der Lava des Ettringer Bellerberges bei Mayen (Eifel), Beitr. Minera. Petr. 10, 296-314, 1964] [Lapis, 15 (5), 9-36]
              • Southern lava flow
    Hentschel, G. (1961): Seltene Mineralneubildungen in einem Kalksteineinschluß der Lava des Ettringer Bellerberges, Fortschritte Mineralogie, Vol. 39, 345
    • Thuringia
      • Gera
        • Ronneburg U deposit
    T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
    Hungary
     
    • Nógrád Co.
      • Mátra Mtns
        • Bátonyterenye
    Szakáll-Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary
    Israel
     
    • Negev
    Gross, S. (1977): The Mineralogy of the Hatrurim Formation, Israel. Geological Survey of Israel, Bulletin no. 70, 80 pp.; Mineralogical Magazine 1963 33 : 723-724.
    Italy
     
    • Campania
      • Naples Province
        • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
    Russo, M., Punzo, I. (2004): I minerali del Somma-Vesuvio, AMI
    • Latium
      • Viterbo Province
        • Montalto di Castro
          • Pietra Massa Locality
    Passaglia, E. & Turconi, B. (1982): Silicati ed altri minerali di Montalto di Castro - VT. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/1982, 97-110.
    • Liguria
      • Genova Province
        • Genova
          • Varenna Valley
    Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 22 (3), 39-41.
    • Umbria
      • Perugia Province
        • Spoleto
    Stoppa F., Scordari F., Mesto E., Sharygin V.V. and Bortolozzi G. - Calcium-aluminium-silicate-hydrate "cement" phases and rare Ca-zeolite association at Colle Fabbri, Central Italy (2010). Centr.Eur.J.Geosci. 2 (2), pag. 175-187 .
    Jordan
     
    http://www.natural-analogues.com/maqarin.htm
    Mexico
     
    • Morelos
      • Cuernavaca
    Ward's Natural Science Establishment specimen
    Norway
     
    • Buskerud
      • Kongsberg
    Bancroft, P., Nordrum, F.S. & Lyckberg, P.(2001): Kongsberg revisited. Mineralogical Record 32: 181-205
    Palestine
     
    • West Bank
      • Hatrurim formation
    Shulamit Gross (1977) The mineralogy of the Hatrurim Formation, Israel. Geol. Surv. of Israel, bull. # 70.
    Poland
     
    • Upper Silesia (Śląskie)
      • Upper Silesian Coal Basin
        • Katowice area
          • Siemianowice Śląskie
    Kruszewski L. 2006: Oldhamite-periclase-portlandite-fluorite assemblage and coexisting minerals of burnt dump in Siemianowice Śląskie - Dąbrówka Wielka area (Upper Silesia, Poland) - preliminary report. Mineralogia Polonica Special Papers, vol.28, 118-120
    Romania
     
    • Hunedoara Co.
      • Hunedoara
    Marincea, Ş., Bilal, E., Verkaeren, J., Pascal, M.-L., and Fonteilles, M. (2001) Superposed paragenesis in spurrite-, tilleyite- and gehlenite-bearing skarns from Cornet Hill, Apuseni Mountains, Romania. Canadian Mineralogist: 39: 1435-1453.
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
        • Buriatia Republic (Buryatia)
          • Vitim Plateau
    Pavel M. Kartashov data (2012)
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
    Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
            • Korkino
    Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 48
    South Africa
     
    • Northern Cape Province
      • Kalahari manganese field
        • Black Rock
    Minerals of South Africa
        • Hotazel
    No reference listed
        • Kuruman
          • N'Chwaning Mines
    [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
    Minerals of South Africa
    Sweden
     
    • Medelpad
      • Sundsvall
        • Alnö
    Sandström, F., Binett, T., Wiklund, C. & Vikström, J. (2010): Alnöområdets geologi och mineralogi. Litiofilen. 27 (2) :14-42
    Tunisia
     
    • Siliana Governorate
      • Siliana
        • Djebel Sekarna
    Dill, Weiss, Botz, Dohrmann, Paleontological, mineralogical and chemical studies of syngenetic and epigenetic Pb–Zn–Ba–P mineralizations at the stratotype of the K/P boundary, International Journal of Earth Sciences, Feb 2010.
    UK
     
    • Northern Ireland
      • Co. Antrim
        • Glenoe
    Nawaz, R. (1977). A second occurrence of killalaite. Mineralogical Magazine, 41, 546-548. ; Henmi C, Kusachi I, Henmi K, Sabine P A, Young B R (1973) A new mineral bicchulite, the natural analogue of gehlenite hydrate, from Fuka, Okayama Prefecture, Japan and Carneal, County Antrim, Northern Ireland, Mineralogical Journal, 7, 243-251
        • Larne
    Mineralogical Magazine (1933): 23: 419-420; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 590.
    USA
     
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
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    Copyright © Jolyon Ralph and Ida Chau 1993-2014. Site Map. Locality, mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. Site hosted & developed by Jolyon Ralph. Mindat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free mineralogical information to all. Mindat relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters. Mindat does not offer minerals for sale. If you would like to add information to improve the quality of our database, then click here to register.
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