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Portlandite

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Formula:
Ca(OH)
 
2
System:TrigonalColour:Colourless, light yellow
Hardness:2½ - 3
Member of:Brucite Group
Name:In allusion to the occurrence of Ca(OH)2 as a product of hydration of portland cement.


Rare in nature, but an important phase in cement materials and concrete. Indicative of a very high pH value.

Classification of Portlandite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/F.03-100
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.FE.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
F : Hydroxides (without V or U)
E : Hydroxides with OH, without H2O; sheets of edge-sharing octahedra
Dana 8th edition ID:6.2.1.4

6 : HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
2 : X(OH)2
Hey's CIM Ref.:7.4.12

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
4 : Oxides of Be, Mg and the alkaline earths
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Type Occurrence of Portlandite

Type Locality:Scawt Hill, Larne, Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland, UK
Year of Discovery:1933

Physical Properties of Portlandite

Lustre:Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:Colourless, light yellow
Hardness (Mohs):2½ - 3
Tenacity:Sectile
Cleavage:Perfect
{0001}
Density (measured):2.227 - 2.233 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.24 g/cm3

Crystallography of Portlandite

Crystal System:Trigonal
Class (H-M):3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Cell Parameters:a = 3.59Å, c = 4.9Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 1.365
Unit Cell Volume:V 54.69 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Minute hexagonal plates. Tabular {0001}, with {101¯0} as linear faces (artificial material).

Optical Data of Portlandite

Type:Uniaxial (-)
RI values: nω = 1.574 nε = 1.547
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.027

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low

Chemical Properties of Portlandite

Formula:
Ca(OH)
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:Ca(OH)2
Essential elements:Ca, H, O
All elements listed in formula:Ca, H, O

Relationship of Portlandite to other Species

Member of:Brucite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Brucite
Mg(OH)
 
2
Pyrochroite
Mn(OH)
 
2
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.FE.05Amakinite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)(OH)
 
2
4.FE.05Brucite
Mg(OH)
 
2
4.FE.05Pyrochroite
Mn(OH)
 
2
4.FE.05Theophrastite
Ni(OH)
 
2
4.FE.10Bayerite
Al(OH)
 
3
4.FE.10Doyleite
Al(OH)
 
3
4.FE.10Gibbsite
Al(OH)
 
3
4.FE.10Nordstrandite
Al(OH)
 
3
4.FE.15Böhmite
AlO(OH)
4.FE.15Lepidocrocite
γ-Fe
3+
 
O(OH)
4.FE.20Grimaldiite
CrO(OH)
4.FE.20Heterogenite
CoO(OH)
4.FE.25Feitknechtite
Mn
3+
 
O(OH)
4.FE.25Lithiophorite
(Al,Li)MnO
 
2
(OH)
 
2
4.FE.30Quenselite
PbMnO
 
2
(OH)
4.FE.35Ferrihydrite
Fe
3+
5
O
 
3
(OH)
 
9
4.FE.40Feroxyhyte
Fe
3+
 
O(OH)
4.FE.40Vernadite
(Mn
4+
 
,Fe
3+
 
,Ca,Na)(O,OH)
 
2
· nH
 
2
O
4.FE.45Quetzalcoatlite
Zn
 
6
Cu
 
3
(TeO
 
6
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
· Ag
 
x
Pb
 
y
Cl
 
x+2y
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
7.4.1Bromellite
BeO
7.4.2Behoite
Be(OH)
 
2
7.4.3Clinobehoite
Be(OH)
 
2
7.4.4Chrysoberyl
BeAl
 
2
O
 
4
7.4.5Magnesiotaaffeite-2N’2S
Mg
 
3
Al
 
8
BeO
 
16
7.4.6Magnesiotaaffeite-6N’3S
Mg
 
2
BeAl
 
6
O
 
12
7.4.7Periclase
MgO
7.4.8Brucite
Mg(OH)
 
2
7.4.9Spinel
MgAl
 
2
O
 
4
7.4.10Meixnerite
Mg
 
6
Al
 
2
(OH)
 
16
(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
7.4.11Lime
CaO
7.4.13Chlormayenite
Ca
 
12
Al
 
14
O
 
32
Cl
 
2
7.4.14Hydrocalumite
Ca
 
4
Al
 
2
(OH)
 
12
(Cl,CO
 
3
,OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
7.4.15Marokite
CaMn
 
2
O
 
4
7.4.16Ranciéite
(Ca,Mn)Mn
 
4
O
 
9
· 3H
 
2
O
7.4.17Hollandite
Ba(Mn
4+
6
Mn
3+
2
)O
 
16
7.4.18Romanèchite
(Ba,H
 
2
O)
 
2
Mn
 
5
O
 
10
7.4.19Todorokite
(Ca,K,Na,Mg,Ba,Mn)(Mn,Mg,Al)
 
6
O
 
12
· 3H
 
2
O

Other Names for Portlandite

Other Languages:
German:Gelöschter Kalk
Hydratkalk
Kalkhydrat
Löschkalk
Portlandit
Russian:Портландит
Simplified Chinese:氢氧钙石
羟钙石
Spanish:Portlandita
Traditional Chinese:氫氧鈣石
羥鈣石

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Portlandite

Reference List:

- +
Tilley (1933), Mineralogical Magazine: 23: 419.

American Mineralogist (1934): 19: 35.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 641-642.

American Mineralogist (1963): 48: 924-930.

Internet Links for Portlandite

Search Engines:
  • Look for Portlandite on Google
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  • External Links:
  • Look for Portlandite on Webmineral
  • Look for Portlandite on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Portlandite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Portlandite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Portlandite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
  • Top quality minerals from Kristalle of California
  • Portlandite specimens for sale - minfind.com
  • Buy fine minerals and gemstones from Pala International
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  • Rare and Unusual minerals at Mineralogical Research Company
  • High-end worldwide specimens & outstanding customer service
  • DAKOTA MATRIX offers Cabinet and Rare Species from Worldwide Localities.
  • Fabre Minerals - search for Portlandite specimens
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  • Buy rare minerals from Excalibur Minerals
  • Localities for Portlandite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • Victoria
      • Swan Hill Rural City
        • Lake Boga
    Bill Birch (1996) Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 2, #2, 47-50.; W.D.Birch 1996. Portlandite and other recent mineral discoveries in the granites at Lake Boga, and Wycheproof and Pyramid Hill, Victoria. Australian Journal of Mineralogy Vol.2 No.2 Dec. 1996, pp. 47-50
    Belgium
     
    • Hainaut Province (Henegouwen; Hennegau)
      • Charleroi
        • Montignies-sur-Sambre
    Rui Nunes collection
    Canada
     
    • Québec
      • Laurentides
        • Deux-Montagnes RCM
          • Oka
    Sokolov S.V. (2010) On portlandite from carbonatite complexes. Abstracts of XXVII International conference School «Geochemistry of Alkaline rocks». – Moscow-Koktebel’. pp. 240 pp.
      • Nord-du-Québec
        • Kativik
    Daniel F. Rosa and Robert F. Martin (2010) A spurrite-, merwinite- and srebrodolskite-bearing skarn assemblage, West Clearwater Lake impact crater, northern Quebec. The Canadian Mineralogist (December 2010), 48(6):1519-1532
    China
     
    • Shaanxi Province
      • Hanzhong Prefecture
        • Mian Co.
    Zhongtang Yang, Zhiming Li, Gengbiao Qiao, Zhongbao Song, Xiaozhou Liu, and Wei Wan (2008): Geology and Prospecting 44(2), 38-44; Zhongtang Yang, Gengbiao Qiao, Zhiming Li, Xiaoyong Yang, Hongping Huang, Xianghua Lan, Zhongbao Song, Xiaozhou Liu, and Wei Wan (2009): Chinese Journal of Geology 44(1), 88-102
    France
     
    • Auvergne
      • Puy-de-Dôme
        • Clermont-Ferrand
          • Ceyrat
    XRD analysis (B. Devouard and E. Médard, Clermont-Ferrand)
    • Midi-Pyrénées
      • Aveyron
    Eytier J.R. & Ch., Favreau G., Devouard B., Vigier J. (2004), Minéraux de pyrométamorphisme de Lapanouse-de Sévérac (Aveyron), Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°85, pp: 3-58
    • Rhône-Alpes
      • Loire
        • La Pacaudière
          • Le Crozet
    Chollet, P. & Devouard, B. (2013): La mine de cuivre et de plomb des Rats, Le Crozet (Loire). Le Règne Minéral, 109, 7-46.
    Germany
     
    • Bavaria
      • Franconia
        • Maroldsweisach
    Pöllmann, H. (1991): Die Afwillit-Portlandit Paragenese im Basalt des Zeilbergs bei Maroldsweisach/Unterfranken. Aufschluss, 42, 257-266
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Sauerland
        • Arnsberg
          • Hüsten
    David Nieto collection, 5/93.
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Eifel
        • Daun
          • Üdersdorf
    Schüller, W., Betz, V., Die Mineralien vom Emmelberg, Lapis 12/1986
        • Mayen
          • Ettringen
            • Bellerberg volcano
    [Jasmund, K., Hentschel, G., Seltene Mineralparagenesen in den Kalksteineinschlüssen der Lava des Ettringer Bellerberges bei Mayen (Eifel), Beitr. Minera. Petr. 10, 296-314, 1964] [Lapis, 15 (5), 9-36]
              • Southern lava flow
    Hentschel, G. (1961): Seltene Mineralneubildungen in einem Kalksteineinschluß der Lava des Ettringer Bellerberges, Fortschritte Mineralogie, Vol. 39, 345
    • Thuringia
      • Gera
        • Ronneburg U deposit
    T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
    Hungary
     
    • Nógrád Co.
      • Mátra Mtns
        • Bátonyterenye
    Szakáll-Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary
    Israel
     
    • Negev
    Gross, S. (1977): The Mineralogy of the Hatrurim Formation, Israel. Geological Survey of Israel, Bulletin no. 70, 80 pp.; Mineralogical Magazine 1963 33 : 723-724.
    Italy
     
    • Campania
      • Naples Province
        • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
    Russo, M., Punzo, I. (2004): I minerali del Somma-Vesuvio, AMI
    • Latium
      • Viterbo Province
        • Montalto di Castro
          • Pietra Massa Locality
    Passaglia, E. & Turconi, B. (1982): Silicati ed altri minerali di Montalto di Castro - VT. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/1982, 97-110.
    • Liguria
      • Genova Province
        • Genova
          • Varenna Valley
    Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 22 (3), 39-41.
    • Umbria
      • Perugia Province
        • Spoleto
    Stoppa F., Scordari F., Mesto E., Sharygin V.V. and Bortolozzi G. - Calcium-aluminium-silicate-hydrate "cement" phases and rare Ca-zeolite association at Colle Fabbri, Central Italy (2010). Centr.Eur.J.Geosci. 2 (2), pag. 175-187 .
    Jordan
     
    http://www.natural-analogues.com/maqarin.htm
    Mexico
     
    • Morelos
      • Cuernavaca
    Ward's Natural Science Establishment specimen
    Norway
     
    • Buskerud
      • Kongsberg
    Bancroft, P., Nordrum, F.S. & Lyckberg, P.(2001): Kongsberg revisited. Mineralogical Record 32: 181-205
    Palestine
     
    • West Bank
      • Hatrurim formation
    Shulamit Gross (1977) The mineralogy of the Hatrurim Formation, Israel. Geol. Surv. of Israel, bull. # 70.
    Poland
     
    • Upper Silesia (Śląskie)
      • Upper Silesian Coal Basin
        • Katowice area
          • Siemianowice Śląskie
    Kruszewski L. 2006: Oldhamite-periclase-portlandite-fluorite assemblage and coexisting minerals of burnt dump in Siemianowice Śląskie - Dąbrówka Wielka area (Upper Silesia, Poland) - preliminary report. Mineralogia Polonica Special Papers, vol.28, 118-120
    Romania
     
    • Hunedoara Co.
      • Hunedoara
    Marincea, Ş., Bilal, E., Verkaeren, J., Pascal, M.-L., and Fonteilles, M. (2001) Superposed paragenesis in spurrite-, tilleyite- and gehlenite-bearing skarns from Cornet Hill, Apuseni Mountains, Romania. Canadian Mineralogist: 39: 1435-1453.
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
        • Buriatia Republic (Buryatia)
          • Vitim Plateau
    Pavel M. Kartashov data (2012)
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
    Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
            • Korkino
    Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 48
    South Africa
     
    • Limpopo Province
      • Phalaborwa
        • Loolekop
    Sokolov S.V. (2010) On portlandite from carbonatite complexes. Abstracts of XXVII International conference School «Geochemistry of Alkaline rocks». – Moscow-Koktebel’. pp. 240 pp.
    • Northern Cape Province
      • Kalahari manganese field
        • Black Rock
    Minerals of South Africa
        • Hotazel
    Speziale, S., Reichmann, H. J., Schilling, F. R., Wenk, H. R., & Monteiro, P. J. M. (2008). Determination of the elastic constants of portlandite by Brillouin spectroscopy. Cement and Concrete Research, 38(10), 1148-1153.
        • Kuruman
          • N'Chwaning Mines
    [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
    Minerals of South Africa
    Sweden
     
    • Medelpad
      • Sundsvall
        • Alnö
    Sandström, F., Binett, T., Wiklund, C. & Vikström, J. (2010): Alnöområdets geologi och mineralogi. Litiofilen. 27 (2) :14-42
    Tajikistan
     
    • Viloyati Mukhtori Gorno-Badakhshan (Viloyati Badakhshoni Kuni)
      • Pamir Mts
    Sokolov S.V. (2010) On portlandite from carbonatite complexes. Abstracts of XXVII International conference School «Geochemistry of Alkaline rocks». – Moscow-Koktebel’. pp. 240 pp.
    Tunisia
     
    • Siliana Governorate
      • Siliana
        • Djebel Sekarna
    Dill, Weiss, Botz, Dohrmann, Paleontological, mineralogical and chemical studies of syngenetic and epigenetic Pb–Zn–Ba–P mineralizations at the stratotype of the K/P boundary, International Journal of Earth Sciences, Feb 2010.
    UK
     
    • Northern Ireland
      • Co. Antrim
        • Glenoe
    Nawaz, R. (1977). A second occurrence of killalaite. Mineralogical Magazine, 41, 546-548. ; Henmi C, Kusachi I, Henmi K, Sabine P A, Young B R (1973) A new mineral bicchulite, the natural analogue of gehlenite hydrate, from Fuka, Okayama Prefecture, Japan and Carneal, County Antrim, Northern Ireland, Mineralogical Journal, 7, 243-251
        • Larne
    Mineralogical Magazine (1933): 23: 419-420; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 590.
    USA
     
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
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