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Pseudorutile

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Formula:
Fe
 
2
Ti
 
3
O
 
9
System:HexagonalColour:Black
Hardness:
Name:Named for the relation to rutile.


Closely related to kleberite.

See also Arizonite (of Palmer).

Classification of Pseudorutile

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/C.24-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.CB.25

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
C : Metal: Oxygen = 2: 3,3: 5, and similar
B : With medium-sized cations
Dana 8th edition ID:8.4.2.1

8 : MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
4 : A2B3O9
Hey's CIM Ref.:7.9.18

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
9 : Oxides of Ti
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Type Occurrence of Pseudorutile

Type Locality:South Neptune Island, South Australia, Australia
Year of Discovery:1994

Physical Properties of Pseudorutile

Colour:Black
Streak:Reddish brown
Hardness (Mohs):

Crystallography of Pseudorutile

Crystal System:Hexagonal
Cell Parameters:a = 14.37Å, c = 4.61Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 0.321
Unit Cell Volume:V 824.41 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Chemical Properties of Pseudorutile

Formula:
Fe
 
2
Ti
 
3
O
 
9
Simplified for copy/paste:Fe2Ti3O9
Essential elements:Fe, O, Ti
All elements listed in formula:Fe, O, Ti

Relationship of Pseudorutile to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.CB.05Brizziite
NaSb
5+
 
O
 
3
4.CB.05Corundum
Al
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.05Ecandrewsite
(Zn,Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)TiO
 
3
4.CB.05Eskolaite
Cr
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.05Geikielite
MgTiO
 
3
4.CB.05Hematite
Fe
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.05Ilmenite
Fe
2+
 
TiO
 
3
4.CB.05Karelianite
V
3+
2
O
 
3
4.CB.05Melanostibite
Mn
2+
 
(Sb
5+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
3
4.CB.05Pyrophanite
Mn
2+
 
TiO
 
3
4.CB.05Akimotoite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)SiO
 
3
4.CB.05Auroantimonate
AuSbO
 
3
4.CB.05Romanite
(◻,Pb,Ca)UFe
2+
2
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
6
Ti
 
12
O
 
38
4.CB.05UM1998-11-O-AuHSb
Au
+
2
Sb
3+
 
O
 
2
(OH)
4.CB.05Tistarite
Ti
3+
2
O
 
3
4.CB.10Avicennite
Tl
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.10Bixbyite
Mn
3+
2
O
 
3
4.CB.15Armalcolite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Ti
 
2
O
 
5
4.CB.15Pseudobrookite
Fe
 
2
TiO
 
5
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N2S
[(Zn,Al,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
(Al,Fe
3+
 
,Ti)
 
8
O
 
15
(OH)]
 
2
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N6S
[(Zn,Mg)
 
7
(Al,Fe
3+
 
,Ti)
 
16
O
 
31
(OH)]
 
2
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-6N6S
[(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
(Al,Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
8
O
 
15
(OH)]
 
6
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N3S
[(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Zn)
 
4
(Al,Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
10
O
 
19
(OH)]
 
2
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N2S
[(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
[Al
 
7
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)]O
 
15
(OH)]
 
2
4.CB.20Ferrohögbomite-6N12S
[(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Zn)
 
5
(Al,Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
12
O
 
23
(OH)]
 
6
4.CB.25Kleberite
FeTi
 
6
O
 
11
(OH)
 
5
4.CB.30Berdesinskiite
V
3+
2
TiO
 
5
4.CB.30Oxyvanite
V
3+
2
V
4+
 
O
 
5
4.CB.35Olkhonskite
(Cr,V)
 
2
Ti
 
3
O
 
9
4.CB.35Schreyerite
V
3+
2
Ti
 
3
O
 
9
4.CB.40Kamiokite
Fe
 
2
Mo
 
3
O
 
8
4.CB.40Nolanite
(V
3+
 
,Fe
3+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Ti)
 
10
O
 
14
(OH)
 
2
4.CB.40Rinmanite
Zn
 
2
Sb
 
2
Mg
 
2
Fe
 
4
O
 
14
(OH)
 
2
4.CB.40Iseite
Mn
 
2
Mo
 
3
O
 
8
4.CB.40Majindeite
Mg
 
2
Mo
 
3
O
 
8
4.CB.45Claudetite
As
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.45Stibioclaudetite
AsSbO
 
3
4.CB.50Arsenolite
As
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.50Sénarmontite
Sb
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.55Valentinite
Sb
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.60Bismite
Bi
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.65Sphaerobismoite
Bi
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.70Sillénite
Bi
 
12
SiO
 
20
4.CB.75Kyzylkumite
Ti
 
2
V
3+
 
O
 
5
(OH)
4.CB.80Tietaiyangite
Fe
3+
4
Fe
2+
 
TiO
 
9
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
7.9.1Hongquiite
TiO
7.9.2Rutile
TiO
 
2
7.9.3Anatase
TiO
 
2
7.9.4Brookite
TiO
 
2
7.9.5Geikielite
MgTiO
 
3
7.9.6Perovskite
CaTiO
 
3
7.9.7Kassite
CaTi
 
2
O
 
4
(OH)
 
2
7.9.8Tausonite
SrTiO
 
3
7.9.9Crichtonite
(Sr,La,Ce,Y)(Ti,Fe
3+
 
,Mn)
 
21
O
 
38
7.9.10Lucasite-(Ce)
CeTi
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
7.9.11Hibonite
(Ca,Ce)Al
 
12
O
 
19
7.9.12Yttrocrasite-(Y)
(Y,Th,Ca,U)(Ti,Fe)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
7.9.13Pyrophanite
Mn
2+
 
TiO
 
3
7.9.14Iwakiite
Mn(Fe,Mn)
 
2
O
 
4
7.9.15Ilmenite
Fe
2+
 
TiO
 
3
7.9.16Pseudobrookite
Fe
 
2
TiO
 
5
7.9.17Ulvöspinel
Fe
 
2
TiO
 
4
7.9.19Freudenbergite
Na
 
2
(Ti,Fe)
 
8
O
 
16
7.9.20Kennedyite
MgFe
3+
2
Ti
 
3
O
 
10
7.9.21Armalcolite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Ti
 
2
O
 
5
7.9.22Högbomite
(Mg,Fe)
 
2
(Al,Ti)
 
5
O
 
10
7.9.23Qandilite
(Mg,Fe)
 
2
(Ti,Fe,Al)O
 
4
7.9.24Cafetite
(Ca,Mg)(Fe,Al)
 
2
Ti
 
4
O
 
12
· 4H
 
2
O
7.9.25Loveringite
(Ca,Ce)(Ti,Fe,Cr,Mg)
 
21
O
 
38
7.9.26Lindsleyite
(Ba,Sr)(Ti,Zr,Fe,Cr)
 
21
O
 
38
7.9.27Priderite
K(Ti
4+
7
Fe
3+
 
)O
 
16
7.9.28Jeppeite
(K,Ba)
 
2
(Ti,Fe)
 
6
O
 
13
7.9.29Ankangite
Ba(Ti,V
3+
 
,Cr)
 
8
O
 
16
7.9.30Ecandrewsite
(Zn,Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)TiO
 
3
7.9.31Landauite
NaMnZn
 
2
(Ti,Fe)
 
6
Ti
 
12
O
 
38

Other Names for Pseudorutile

Other Languages:
German:Pseudorutil
Varieties:
Hydroxylian Pseudorutile

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Pseudorutile

Reference List:

- +
Teufer, G. & Temple, A.K. (1966): Pseudorutile, a new mineral intermediate between ilmenite and rutile in the natural alteration of ilmenite. Nature 211, 179–181. [177-189?]

Grey, I.E. & Reid, A.F. (1975): The structure of pseudorutile and its role in the natural alteration of ilmenite. American Mineralogist 60, 898-906.

Melcher, F. (1991): Fe-Ti-Oxide assemblages in the basal parts of the Central Alpine Brenner Mesozoic, Tyrol/Austria. Mineralogy and Petrology 44, 197-212.

Mineralogical Magazine (1994): 58: 597-600.

American Mineralogist (1995): 80: 1077.

Internet Links for Pseudorutile

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  • External Links:
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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Pseudorutile details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Pseudorutile

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Algeria
     
    • Algiers Province
    C. Hejny et al. (2002) Eur. J. Mineral. 14, 957-967
    Antarctica
     
    • Eastern Antarctica
      • Princess Elizabeth Land
        • Ingrid Christensen Coast
          • Prydz Bay
            • Larsemann Hills (Larseman Hills)
    Edward S. Grew, et al (2007) European Journal of Mineralogy, 19, 29-245
    Australia
     
    • South Australia
    MM (1994), 58, 597-600
    • Victoria
      • Northern Grampians Shire
        • Carapooee
    W.D.Birch in Australian Journal of Earth Sciences (2007) 54 (609-628); Birch, W. D. (2008): Gem corundum from the St Arnaud district, Western Victoria, Australia. Australian J. of Mineralogy 14, 73-78.
      • Swan Hill Rural City
        • Kunat
    Mills, S.J. (2004)
      • Wemen
    [var: Hydroxylian Pseudorutile] Museum Victoria Mineralogy Collection
    Austria
     
    • Tyrol
      • North Tyrol
        • Sill valley (Wipp valley)
          • Stubai valley
            • Fulpmes
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    Cameroon
     
    • North-West Region
      • Nkambe
    Tetsopgang, S., Koyanagi, J., Enami, M., and Kihara, K. (2003): Mineralogical Magazine 67(3), 509-516.
    Canada
     
    • Northwest Territories
    CanMin 41:117-137
    • Ontario
      • Parry Sound District
        • Chapman Township
    T. S. Ercit (1994) The geochemistry and crystal chemistry of columbite-group minerals from granitic pegmatites, southwestern Grenville Province, Canadian Shield. The Canadian Mineralogist 32:421-438
    • Québec
      • Montréal
    TARASSOFF, P., HORVÁTH, L. and PFENNINGER-HORVÁTH, E. (2006) Famous mineral localities: the Francon quarry, Montréal, Québec. Mineralogical Record, 37, 5-60.
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Liberec Region
    Scharm, B.: Přehled minerálů nalezených v oblasti uranových koncentrací v severočeské křídě. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1995, roč. 3, s. 169-172.
    Germany
     
    • Saxony-Anhalt
      • Bitterfeld
    H.-J. Bautsch, G. Rohde, P. Sedlacek & A. Zedler (1978) Kleberit – ein neues Eisen-Titan-Oxidmineral aus tertiären Sanden. Zeitschrift für Geologische Wissenschaften 6, 661-671.
    • Saxony
      • Chemnitz
        • Markersdorf
    http://www.uni-wuerzburg.de/mineralogie/schuessler/Pegmatit.pdf
      • Erzgebirge
        • Freiberg District
          • Mohorn
            • Hetzdorf
    H.-J. Bautsch, G. Rohde, P. Sedlacek & A. Zedler (1978) Kleberit – ein neues Eisen-Titan-Oxidmineral aus tertiären Sanden. Zeitschrift für Geologische Wissenschaften 6, 661-671.
      • Frohburg
    H.-J. Bautsch, G. Rohde, P. Sedlacek & A. Zedler (1978) Kleberit – ein neues Eisen-Titan-Oxidmineral aus tertiären Sanden. Zeitschrift für Geologische Wissenschaften 6, 661-671.
      • Mittweida
        • Königshain
    H.-J. Bautsch, G. Rohde, P. Sedlacek & A. Zedler (1978) Kleberit – ein neues Eisen-Titan-Oxidmineral aus tertiären Sanden. Zeitschrift für Geologische Wissenschaften 6, 661-671.
    Russia
     
    • Central Region
      • Tambovskaya Oblast'
    Patyk-Kara, N.G., Levchenko, E.N., Stekhin, A.I., Barsegyan, V.V., Bochneva, A.A., Chizhova, I.A., Andrianova, E.A., and Dubinchuk, V.T. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(3), 218-239.
    South Africa
     
    • Western Cape Province
      • West Coast District
        • Papendorp
    Macdonald, W.G., Rozendaal, A., and de Meijer, R.J. (1997): Mineralium Deposita 32, 371-381.
    USA
     
    • Colorado
      • El Paso Co.
    Hanson, S.L. and Zito, G. (2013) Mineralogy of Miarolitic Pegmatites in the Stove Mountain Area, Colorado. The 40th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, Contributed Papers in Specimen Mineralogy, 14-15.
      • Park Co.
    AmMin 84:754-763
    www.smmp.net/IMA-CM/ctms_p.pdf.
    • New Jersey
      • Ocean Co.
    http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/pseudorutile.pdf.
    • Wisconsin
      • Sauk Co.
        • Baraboo
    55TH INSTITUTE ON LAKE SUPERIOR GEOLOGY (2009) PROCEEDINGS VOLUME 55 p. 57-58
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