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Aenigmatite

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Formula:
Na2Fe52+Ti(Si6O18)O2
System:
Triclinic
Colour:
Velvet-black
Lustre:
Greasy
Hardness:
5½ - 6
Name:
From the Greek αίνιγμα ("aenigma"), "a riddle", alluding to the uncertain chemical composition of the mineral.

Classification of Aenigmatite

Approved
9.DH.40

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
H : Inosilicates with 4-periodic single chains, Si4O12
69.2.1a.1

69 : INOSILICATES Chains with Side Branches or Loops
2 : Chains with Side Branches or Loops with P>2
14.9.34

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
9 : Silicates of Ti
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First Recorded Occurrence of Aenigmatite

Place of Conservation of First Recorded Material:
Mining Academy, Freiberg, Germany, 29166
Year of Discovery:
1865

Occurrences of Aenigmatite

Geological Setting:
A primary constituent in sodium-rich alkalic volcanics, pegmatites, and other silica-poor igneous rocks.

Physical Properties of Aenigmatite

Greasy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent, Opaque
Colour:
Velvet-black
Comment:
in thin section, reddish brown to black.
Streak:
Reddish brown
Hardness (Mohs):
5½ - 6
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
{010} {100}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven

Crystallography of Aenigmatite

Crystal System:
Triclinic
Class (H-M):
1 - Pinacoidal
Space Group:
P1
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.415(1) Å, b = 10.840(1) Å, c = 8.931(1) Å
α = 105.107(4)°, β = 96.610(5)°, γ = 125.398(4)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.961 : 1 : 0.824
Unit Cell Volume:
V 746.8 ų
Morphology:
Crystals poorly developed, prismatic, to 8 cm; as irregular segregations.
Twinning:
By rotation (011) or about [010] of
the pseudomonoclinic cell; polysynthetic.

Optical Data of Aenigmatite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.780 - 1.800 nβ = 1.800 - 1.820 nγ = 1.870 - 1.900
2V:
Measured: 27° to 55°, Calculated: 56° to 60°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.090 - 0.100
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
single

Chemical Properties of Aenigmatite

Formula:
Na2Fe52+Ti(Si6O18)O2
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Al,Mn,Mg,Ca,K,Cl

Relationship of Aenigmatite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
KrinoviteNa2Mg4Cr23+(Si6O18)O2
KuratiteCa2(Fe52+Ti)O2[Si4Al2O18]
WilkinsoniteNa2Fe42+Fe23+(Si6O18)O2
9.DH.05LeucophaniteNaCaBeSi2O6F
9.DH.10OhmiliteSr3(Ti,Fe3+)(Si4O12)(O,OH) · 2-3H2O
9.DH.15HaradaiteSrVSi2O7
9.DH.15SuzukiiteBaVSi2O7
9.DH.20BatisiteBaNaNaTi2(Si4O12)O2
9.DH.20Shcherbakovite(K,Ba)KNa(Ti,Nb)2(Si4O12)O2
9.DH.25TaikaniteSr3BaMn22+(Si4O12)O2
9.DH.30KrauskopfiteBaSi2O5 · 3H2O
9.DH.35Balangeroite(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+,Mn2+)42Si16O54(OH)40
9.DH.35GageiteMn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20
9.DH.40DorriteCa4(Mg3Fe93+)O4(Si3Al8Fe3+O36)
9.DH.40Høgtuvaite(Ca,Na)2(Fe2+,Fe3+,Ti)6[O2|Be(Si,Al)5O18]
9.DH.40KrinoviteNa2Mg4Cr23+(Si6O18)O2
9.DH.40Makarochkinite(Ca,Na)2Fe42+Fe3+Ti[O2|BeAlSi4O18]
9.DH.40RhöniteCa2(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+,Ti)6[O2|(Si,Al)6O18]
9.DH.40Serendibite(Ca,Na)2(Mg,Fe2+)3(Al,Fe3+)3[O2|(Si,Al,B)6O18]
9.DH.40WelshiteCa4Mg9Sb3O4[Si6Be3AlFe2O36]
9.DH.40WilkinsoniteNa2Fe42+Fe23+(Si6O18)O2
9.DH.45Sapphirine(Mg,Fe)4-xAl4+x[Al4+xSi2-xO18]O2
9.DH.50Khmaralite(Mg,Al,Fe)16[(Al,Si,Be)12O36]O4
9.DH.55Surinamite(Mg,Fe)3Al4BeSi3O16
9.DH.60Deerite(Fe,Mn)6(Fe,Al)3[Si6O17]O3(OH)5
9.DH.65HowieiteNa(Fe,Mn)10(Fe,Al)2Si12O31(OH)13
9.DH.65Taneyamalite(Na,Ca)(Mn,Mg,Fe)12Si12(O,OH)44
9.DH.70JohninnesiteNa2Mn92+Mg7(OH)8[AsO4]2[Si6O17]2
9.DH.75AgrelliteNaCa2Si4O10F
14.9.1NatisiteNa2Ti(SiO4)O
14.9.2LorenzeniteNa2Ti2(Si2O6)O3
14.9.3LintisiteLiNa3Ti2(Si2O6)2O2 · 2H2O
14.9.4DavaniteK2TiSi6O15
14.9.5KazakoviteNa6Mn2+Ti(Si6O18)
14.9.6TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
14.9.7OhmiliteSr3(Ti,Fe3+)(Si4O12)(O,OH) · 2-3H2O
14.9.8Lamprophyllite(Sr,K,Ba)2(Na,Ti,Mn2+,Fe3+)4Ti2(Si2O7)2O(O,OH,F)
14.9.9BenitoiteBaTi(Si3O9)
14.9.10BatisiteBaNaNaTi2(Si4O12)O2
14.9.11FresnoiteBa2Ti(Si2O7)O
14.9.12Joaquinite-(Ce)NaBa2Ce2FeTi2[Si4O12]2O2(OH,F) · H2O
14.9.13Orthojoaquinite-(Ce)NaBa2Ce2FeTi2[Si4O12]2O2(O,OH) · H2O
14.9.14StrontiojoaquiniteSr2Ba2(Na,Fe)2Ti2[Si4O12]2O2(O,OH)2 · H2O
14.9.15Bario-orthojoaquinite(Ba,Sr)4Fe2Ti2[Si4O12]2O2 · H2O
14.9.16Strontio-orthojoaquinite(Na,Fe)2Sr2Ba2Ti2[Si4O12]2O2(O,OH)2 · H2O
14.9.17BafertisiteBa(Fe2+,Mn2+)2Ti(Si2O7)O(F,OH)2
14.9.18HejtmaniteBa(Mn2+,Fe2+)2Ti(Si2O7)O(OH,F)
14.9.19Delindeite(Na,K)2(Ba,Ca)2(Ti,Fe,Al)3(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2 · 2H2O
14.9.20Barytolamprophyllite(Ba,Na)2(Na,Ti,Fe3+)4Ti2(Si2O7)2O(OH,F)
14.9.21Trimounsite-(Y)Y2Ti2(SiO4)O5
14.9.22Perrierite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca,Th)4(Fe2+,Mg)Fe23+(Ti,Fe3+)2(Si2O7)2O8
14.9.23Chevkinite(Ce,Ca,Th)4(Fe,Mn)2(Ti,Fe)3[Si2O7]2O8
14.9.24Strontiochevkinite(Sr,La,Ce,Ca)4Fe2+(Ti,Zr)2Ti2(Si2O7)2O8
14.9.25TisinaliteNa3H3(Mn,Ca,Fe)TiSi6(O,OH)18 · 2H2O
14.9.26NeptuniteNa2KLi(Fe2+,Mn2+)2Ti2(Si8O24)
14.9.27ManganoneptuniteNa2KLi(Mn2+,Fe2+)2Ti2[Si8O24]
14.9.28Kupletskite(K,Na)3(Mn,Fe)7Ti2Si8O26(OH)4F
14.9.29Astrophyllite(K,Na)3(Fe,Mn)7Ti2Si8O24(O,OH)7
14.9.30Hydroastrophyllite(H3O,K,Ca)3(Fe,Mn)5-65Ti2Si8(O,OH)31
14.9.31Magnesioastrophyllite(Na,K)4Mg2(Fe,Fe,Mn)5Ti2Si8O24(O,OH,F)7
14.9.32BaratoviteKCa7(Ti,Zr)2Li3Si12O36F2
14.9.35SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
14.9.36TinaksiteK2Na(Ca,Mn2+)2Ti[O|Si7O18(OH)]
14.9.37Janhaugite(Na,Ca)3(Mn2+,Fe2+)3(Ti,Zr,Nb)2(Si2O7)2O2(OH,F)2
14.9.38KoashviteNa6(Ca,Mn)(Ti,Fe)Si6O18 · H2O

Other Names for Aenigmatite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Aenigmatite

Reference List:
Mineralogical Magazine (1976): 40: 595-598.

American Mineralogist: 56: 427-446.

Grew, E.S., Halenius, U., M. Pasero : The crystal chemistry of aenigmatite revisited: electron microprobe data, structure refinement and Mossbauer spectroscopy of aenigmatite from Vesteroya (Norway): European J. Mineralogy 20, 983-991.

Internet Links for Aenigmatite

Localities for Aenigmatite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • Tasmania
    • Central Plateau
      • Interlaken
Bottrill, R. S. & Baker, W. E. (2008): A Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. Geological Survey Bulletin 73, Mineral Resources Tasmania, 254 pp
    • Huon district
No reference listed
Brazil
 
  • Paraná
    • Tijucas do Sul
      • Morro Redondo complex
Vilalva, F.C.J., and Vlach, S.R.F. (2010): Mineralogical Magazine 74(4), 645-658
Cameroon
 
  • North Region
Ngounouno, I., Moreau, Ch., Deruelle, B., Demaiffe, D., Montigny, R. (2001): Petrologie du complexe alcalin sous-sature de Kokoumi (Cameroun), Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France; November 2001; vol. 172; no. 6; p. 675-686
  • South-West Region
    • Buea
      • Cameroon Mt
Nkoumbou, C., Deruelle, B., Velde, D. (1995): Petrology of Mt Etinde Nephelinite Series, Journal of Petrology, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 373-395
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Liard Mining Division
Ostinsoe, E. A., 1960, Level Mountain, Northwestern British Columbia, University of British Columbia thesis.
Am. Min. , 1974, 59, pp.820-829.
  • New Brunswick
    • Queens Co.
Martin, R F, Payette, C (1988) The Welsford Anorogenic Igneous Complex, southern New Brunswick: Rift-Related Acadian Magmatism. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File Issue: 1727
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Labrador
L. W. Curtis And J. Gittins (1979) Aluminous and Titaniferous Clinopyroxenes from Regionally Metamorphosed Agpaitic Rocks in Central Labrador. J. Petrology 20:165-186.
      • Seal Lake alkaline complex (Letitia Lake)
\"Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences,\" G.J. Orris and R.I. Grauch, Open File Report 02-189, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, 2002.; GSC database locality No. 4100
GSC database; GSC database locality No. 4101
    • Newfoundland
      • Baie Verte Peninsula
        • King´s Point
Miller, R. R., & Abdel-Rahman, A. M. (1995) The King's Point Complex, Newfoundland, and Its Potential for Rare-metal Mineralization. Geological Survey Report 95-1 pp159-175
  • Northwest Territories
    • Mackenzie District
      • Blachford Lake alkaline complex
SHEARD, E.R., WILLIAMS-JONES, A.E., HEILIGMANN, M., PEDERSON, C. AND TRUEMAN, D.L. (2012) Controls on the concentration of zirconium, niobium, and the rare earth elements in the Thor Lake rare metal deposit, Northwest Territories, Canada. Economic Geology, 107(1), 81-104.
Sheard, E.R. (2010); SHEARD, E.R., WILLIAMS-JONES, A.E., HEILIGMANN, M., PEDERSON, C. AND TRUEMAN, D.L. (2012) Controls on the concentration of zirconium, niobium, and the rare earth elements in the Thor Lake rare metal deposit, Northwest Territories, Canada. Economic Geology, 107(1), 81-104.
  • Ontario
    • Thunder Bay District
Mitchell (1991)
      • Pic Township
Ann P.Sabina (1991), Rocks and Minerals for the Collector, Sudbury to Winnipeg. GSC Misc. Report 49. p.91
  • Québec
    • Gaspésie-Îles-de-la-Madeleine
      • La Haute-Gaspésie RCM
Wallace et al. (1990) Can. Min. 28, 251; Wallace, G.M., Whalen, J.B. & Martin, R.F. (1990) Agpaitic and miaskitic nepheline syenites of the McGerrigle plutonic complex, Gaspé, Quebec. Canadian Mineralogist 28, 251-266.
    • Montérégie
      • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
        • Mont Saint-Hilaire
Canadian Micro Mineral Association (CMMA), 45 (6), 2
    • Montréal
      • Mont Royal
Finley (1930)
  • Québec & Newfoundland and Labrador
Currie (1985): GSC Paper 85-1A, 73-80 ; BIRKETT, T.C., MILLER, R.R., ROBERTS, A.C., & MARIANO, A.N. (1992) Zirconium bearing minerals from the Strange Lake intrusive complex, Quebec Labrador. Canadian Mineralogist, 30, 191-205.
  • Yukon Territory
    • Watson Lake Mining District
Geol, Survey of Canada database
China
 
  • Sichuan Province
    • Liangshan Autonomous Prefecture
      • Mianning Co.
Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189
Finland
 
  • Northern Finland Region
    • Kajaani
      • Vuolijoki
Lindholm,O. & Anttonen, R. 1980. Geology of the Otanmäki mine. s. 25-33 in: Häkli, T.A. (toim.) Precambrian ores of Finland, 26th International Geological Congress, Paris 1980. Guide to excursions 078 A+C, Part 2 (Finland), Geological Survey of Finland.
Greenland
 
  • Kujalleq
    • Narsaq
      • Igaliku (Igaliko)
        • Narsaarsuk Plateau
Bøgghild, O.B. (1953): The Mineralogy of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bd. 149. Nr. 3., C.A. Reitzels Forlag, Copenhagen. 445 p (p.307); Petersen Ole V.,Secher K.(1985) - Gronland: Mineralien, Geologie, Geschichte. - Verlag Bode & Partner K.G., Bochum, 87 pagg.
Petersen, O.V. (2001): List of all minerals identified in the Ilímaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland. Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin. 190, 25-33
[Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index, 3rd Edition"] + Petersen, O. V. & Johnsen, O. (2005): Minerals First described from Greenland. Canadian Mineralogist Special Publication 8.
          • Qeqertaussaq Island
Soerensen, H. (1962): On the occurrence of Steenstrupine in the Ilimaussaq massif, southwest Greenland, Meddelelser om Groenland, Reitzels Forlag Koebenhavn
        • Tunulliarfik Fjord (Tunugdliarfik)
Petersen, O. V. & Johnsen, O. (2005): Minerals First described from Greenland. Canadian Mineralogist Special Publication 8.; Bøggild, O.B. (1953): The Mineralogy of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bd. 149. Nr. 3. 445 pages
Petersen, O. V. & Johnsen, O. (2005): Minerals First described from Greenland. Canadian Mineralogist Special Publication 8.; Bøggild, O.B. (1953): The Mineralogy of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bd. 149. Nr. 3. 445 pages. (p.307)
Robles, E., Fontan, F., Monchoux, P., Soerensen, H. (2001): Hiortdahlite II from the Ilimaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland, South Greenland, Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin, 190, 131-137
      • Nunarssuit Island
http://www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/green.htm
http://www.uni-tuebingen.de/uni/emi/ag-markl/pages/marks/pages/abstracts/EUG2001.html
      • Quagdlimiut
http://www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/green.htm
  • Tunu Province (East Greenland)
    • Kangerlussuaq Firth
http://www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/green.htm
    • Kialineq Bay
http://www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/green.htm
Hungary
 
  • Baranya Co.
    • Mecsek Mts
      • Szászvár
Mineral Species of Hungary, 2005
Italy
 
  • Sicily
    • Trapani Province
Am Min 51:200-205
  • Umbria
    • Terni Province
      • San Venanzo
Stoppa, F., Sharygin, V.V. and Cundari, A. (1997) New mineral data from the kamafugite-carbonatite association: the melilitolite from Pian di Celle, Italy. Mineralogy and Petrology, 61, 27-45.
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Chubu Region
      • Aichi Prefecture
        • Kita-Shidara-gun
The Mineral Species of Japan (5th ed) Matsubara
    • Chugoku region
      • Shimane Prefecture
The Mineral Species of Japan (5th ed) Matsubara
Kenya
 
  • Rift Valley Province
J. Petrology (1969) 10 (3): 409-439.
Madagascar
 
  • Antsiranana Province
    • Diana Region (Northern Region)
      • Ambanja District
        • Ampasindava Peninsula
Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Malawi
 
Wooley (2001)
Mexico
 
  • Chihuahua
    • Pueblito de Allende
Brearley, A. J. & Jones, R. H. (1998). Chondritic Meteorites. In: Planetary Materials (Papike, J. J., Editor): Chapter 3, 398 pages. Mineralogical Society of America: Washington, DC, USA. (1998)
Mongolia
 
  • Hovd Aimag (Khovd Aimag)
    • Altai Mts
G.M. Tsareva data
        • Mount Ulyn Khuren
Kartashov P.M., Voloshin A.V., PakhomovskiiYa.A. On the zonal crystaline gadolinite from the alkaline granite pegmatites of Haldzan Buragtag (Mongolian Altai), - Zapiski VMO, 1993,N3,p. 65-79.
Pavel M. Kartashov data
Namibia
 
  • Khomas Region
    • Windhoek District
      • Aris
von Knorring, O. and Franke, W. (1987): A preliminary note on the mineralogy and geochemistry of the Aris phonolite, SWA/Namibia. Comm. Geol. Surv. S.W.Africa (Namibia) 3, 61. ; Wartha, R., Palfi, A., Niedermayr, G., Brandstätter, F. and Petersen, O. V. (2001): Der Aris-Phonolith-Komplex und seine Mineralien. In Bahmann, U. and A. (Eds.), Namibia – Zauberwelt edler Steine und Kristalle, Bode-Verlag, Haltern, Germany, pp. 172-179. (in German); [http://www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/aris.htm]
New Zealand
 
Railton, G.L. & Watters, W.A., Minerals of New Zealand, New Zealand Geological Survey Bull. #104 (1990).
Railton, G.L. & Watters, W.A., Minerals of New Zealand, New Zealand Geological Survey Bull. #104 (1990).; Mineralogical Magazine 1956 31 : 96-106
NZJGG, 2003, 46: 581-590. NZJGG, 1991, 34: 337-340. NZJGG, 1981, 24: 449-467
NZJGG, 2003, 46: 581-590. NZJGG, 1991, 34: 337-340. NZJGG, 1981, 24: 449-467
NZJGG, 2003, 46: 581-590. NZJGG, 1991, 34: 337-340. NZJGG, 1981, 24: 449-467
  • North Island
Railton, G.L. & Watters, W.A., Minerals of New Zealand, New Zealand Geological Survey Bull. #104 (1990).
  • South Island
    • Otago
Railton, G.L. & Watters, W.A., Minerals of New Zealand, New Zealand Geological Survey Bull. #104 (1990).
Niger
 
  • Agadez Department
    • Aïr Region
      • South Aïr
J. Fabriès and G. Rocci, Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéral. Cristallo., 1965, LXXXVIII, 319-340
North Korea
 
  • Kangwon Province
    • Pyonggang-gun
Pavel M. Kartashov data
  • Yanggang Province (Ryanggang Province)
    • Paektu Mountain (Baekdu Mountain; Mt Hakuto)
Suzuki, J. (1938) On a rock of nordmarkitic composition from Hakutou volcano, Korea. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido Imperial University, Series IV, 4, #1-2, 173-181.
Norway
 
  • Telemark
    • Porsgrunn
      • Langesundsfjorden
Andersen, F.,Berge, S.A. & Burvald, I. (1996): Die Mineralien des Langesundsfjords und des umgebenden Larvikit-Gebietes, Oslo-Region, Norwegen. MineralienWelt 7(4):21-100; Åsheim, A., Berge, S.A. & Larsen, A.O. (2008): Sporelementer i ænigmatitt fra larvik plutonkompleks. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift. 38: 63-65
      • Mørje
        • Sagåsen
Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 p.
  • Vestfold
    • Larvik
      • Stavern (Fredriksvärn)
Åsheim, A. (1994): Hamberg(itt). STEIN 21 (2), 117-119
    • Sandefjord
Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 p.
      • Vesterøya
        • Auve
Knut Edvard Larsen collection # MM-253
Åsheim, A., Berge, S.A. & Larsen, A.O. (2008): Sporelementer i ænigmatitt fra larvik plutonkompleks. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift. 38: 63-65; Berge, S.A., Larsen, K.E. & Andersen, F. (2011): Buer, Vesterøya, Sandefjord- en typelokalitet for et nytt mineral. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift. 46: 49-56
        • Framnes
Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 p.
Berge, S. A. & Andersen, F. (2002): Mineralforekomster i Sandefjordområdet. Norsk Bergverksmuseums Skrift. 20, 50-59
Knut Edvard Larsen collection # 1833
Berge, S. A. & Andersen, F. (2002): Mineralforekomster i Sandefjordområdet. Bergverksmuseets Skrift 20, 50-59; Berge, S. A. (2013):Mineralene i Husebyyåsen feltspatbrudd, Vesterøya, Sandefjord. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter. 50, 93-99
Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 p.
Berge, S. A. & Andersen, F. (2002): Mineralforekomster i Sandefjordområdet. Bergverksmuseets Skrift 20, 50-59
Knut Edvard Larsen collection
Knut Edvard Larsen collection
Åsheim, A., Berge, S.A. & Larsen, A.O. (2008): Sporelementer i ænigmatitt fra Larvik plutonkompleks. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift. 38: 63-65
Raade, G & Larsen, A. O. (1980): Polylithionite from syenite pegmatite at Vøra, Sandefjord, Oslo Region, Norway. Contributions to the Mineralogy of Norway, no 65. Norsk Geologisk Tidskrift 60, 117-124; Raade, G. (2011): Chemistry of aenigmatite from Vesterøya, larvik plutonic complex, Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift. 46: 37-40
Portugal
 
  • Azores District
    • San Miguel Island
Ridolfi, F., Renzulli, A., Santi, P., Upton, B.G.J., Evolutionary stages of crystallisation of weakly peralkine syenites: evidence from ejecta in the plinian deposits of Agua de Pau volcano (Sao Miguel, Azores Islands), Mineralogical Magazine, 67(4), 749-767, 2003
Russia
 
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Sakhalinskaya Oblast'
      • Sakhalin Island
        • Morotu (Morotsu; Morutu)
Grapes, R., Yagi, K., and Okumura, K. (1979) Aenigmatite, sodic pyroxene, arfvedsonite and associated minerals in syenites from Morotu, Sakhalin. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 69, 97–103.
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaja Oblast'
      • Kola Peninsula
David Zakharov specimen
        • Khibiny Massif
[World of Stones 95:5-6, p64]
            • Astrophyllite Stream
Arzamastsev, A., Yakovenchuk, V., Pakhomovsky, Y., & Ivanyuk, G. (2008). The Khibina and Lovozero alkaline massifs: Geology and unique mineralization. In Guidbook for 33rd International Geological Congress Excursion (No. 47, p. 58)
Azarova, Y. V., Shlyukova, Z. V., Zolotarev Jr, A. A., & Organova, N. I. (2009). Burovaite-Ca,(Na, K) 4Ca2 (Ti, Nb) 8 [Si4O12] 4 (OH, O) 8· 12H2O, a new labuntsovite-group mineral species and its place in low-temperature mineral formation in pegmatites of the Khibiny pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Geology of Ore Deposits, 51(8), 774-783.
Konopleva, N.G., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Korchak, Y.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 720-731.
          • Koashva Mt
Konopleva, N.G., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Korchak, Y.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 720-731.
Pekov, I.V. & Podlesnyi, A.S. (2004): Kukisvumchorr Deposit: Mineralogy of Alkaline Pegmatites and Hydrotermalites. Mineralogical Almanac, vol. 7, 140 pages + xxiv photo's pages
Konopleva, N.G., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Korchak, Y.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 720-731.
Takai, Y., Uehara, S., Inoo, T. (2011) Minerals from Khibiny, Kola, Russia. Chigaku Kenkyu, 60 (1), 41-46.
Konopleva, N.G., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Korchak, Y.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 720-731.
Am Min 79:1011
Pavel M. Kartashov data
Arzamastsev, A., Yakovenchuk, V., Pakhomovsky, Y., & Ivanyuk, G. (2008). The Khibina and Lovozero alkaline massifs: Geology and unique mineralization. In Guidbook for 33rd International Geological Congress Excursion (No. 47, p. 58).
Arzamastsev, A., Yakovenchuk, V., Pakhomovsky, Y., & Ivanyuk, G. (2008). The Khibina and Lovozero alkaline massifs: Geology and unique mineralization. In Guidbook for 33rd International Geological Congress Excursion (No. 47, p. 58).
Konopleva, N.G., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Korchak, Y.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 720-731.
Konopleva, N.G., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Korchak, Y.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 720-731.
Pavel M. Kartashov data
Pavel Kartasov photo; Khomyakov, A. P., Pushcharovskiy, D. Y., & Ronsbo, J. G. (1983). Clinophosinaite, Na3CaPSiO7, a new mineral. International Geology Review, 25(6), 731-734.
Konopleva, N.G., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Korchak, Y.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 720-731.
        • Lovozero Massif
[World of Stones 95:5-6, p64]
Saint Helena
 
  • Ascension Island
Min.Mag.(1952) 29, 850-857
South Africa
 
  • North West Province
    • Bojanala Platinum District
      • Western Bushveld Complex
Wooley (2001) 269-270.
South Korea
 
  • Gyeongsangbuk-do (Kyongsang-bukto; Gyeongsangbugdo)
    • Ulleung-gun
Atsuo Harumoto (1970) Volcanic Rocks and Associated Rocks of Utsuryoto Island, (Japan Sea). (39pp + geological map)
Tanzania
 
  • Arusha Region
    • Ngorongoro Conservation Area
Journal of Conference Abstracts , Volume 2 Number 1 , vsg - Minsoc '97, http://www.the-conference.com/JConfAbs/2/26.html
Zaitsev A.N., Wenzel T., Markl G., Spratt J., Petrov S.V., Williams, C.T. (2010) Mineralogy and geochemistry of nephelinites and phonolites from the Sadiman volcano, northern Tanzania. Abstracts of XXVII International conference School «Geochemistry of Alkaline rocks». – Moscow-Koktebel’. pp. 240 pp.
UK
 
Tindle, A.G. (2008) Minerals of Britian and Ireland
    • Strathclyde (Ayrshire)
      • Beith
BMS Database
Ukraine
 
  • Zaporozhskaya Oblast' (Zaporiz'ka; Zaporozh'e)
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Coconino Co.
      • San Franciscan volcanic field (San Francisco Peaks; San Francisco Mts)
        • San Francisco Mountain
Robinson, Henry H. (1913), The San Franciscan Volcanic Field, AZ, USGS PP 76: 110-112.
azminerals.com
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 102; Laughlin, A.W., et al (1986), Hetromorphism and crystallization paths of katungites, Navajo volcanic field, AZ, USA, in J. Ross, et al (editor), Kimberlites and related rocks, vol. 1, Geol. Soc. Australia Spec. Pub. 14.
  • Arkansas
    • Pulaski Co.
      • Little Rock
Rocks and Minerals, (1988) 63:104-125; Rocks and Minerals, (1989) 64:314-322
Henry Barwood - unpublished (2010)
  • California
    • Sonoma Co.
      • Santa Rosa
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 59, 282; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 473.
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 59.
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 59.
  • Hawaii
    • Maui Co.
      • Maui
        • West Maui
AmMin 63:771
  • Idaho
    • Owyhee Co.
      • De Lamar District
Mineralogical Record, Sep 1995
  • Maine
    • York Co.
Toulmin, P., 1957, Notes on a Peralkaline Granite from Cashes Ledge, Gulf of Maine, American Mineralogist, 42: 912-915
      • York
King, V. and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, Descriptive Mineralogy, volume 1, Maine Geological Survey, pp. 418 + 88 plates.
  • Massachusetts
    • Essex Co.
Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
    • Norfolk Co.
Sayer, Susan (1974): An Integrated Study of the Blue Hills Porphyry and Related Units, Quincy and Milton, Massachusetts (MIT master's thesis)
  • Nevada
    • Humboldt Co.
      • Opalite District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Mexico
    • Otero Co.
      • Cornudas Mts
USGS Open-File Report 02-189
  • Washington
    • Okanogan Co.
      • Golden Horn Batholith
Micro Probe Volume VI Number 8; Minerals of Washington, B. Cannon, 1975 (37)
Yemen
 
  • Hadramawt Governorate
Lunar and Planetary Science XXXII (2001); Zolensky, M. & A.Ivanov, Chemie der Erde 63,185-246(2003)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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