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Aenigmatite

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Formula:
Na
 
2
Fe
2+
5
Ti(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)O
 
2
System:TriclinicColour:Velvet-black
Lustre:GreasyHardness:5½ - 6
Member of:Aenigmatite Group > Sapphirine Supergroup
Name:From the Greek αίνιγμα ("aenigma"), "a riddle", alluding to the uncertain chemical composition of the mineral.

Classification of Aenigmatite

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/F.14-20
Strunz 9th edition ID:9.DH.40
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.DH.40

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
H : Inosilicates with 4-periodic single chains, Si4O12
Dana 8th edition ID:69.2.1a.1

69 : INOSILICATES Chains with Side Branches or Loops
2 : Chains with Side Branches or Loops with P>2
Hey's CIM Ref.:14.9.34

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
9 : Silicates of Ti
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Type Occurrence of Aenigmatite

Type Locality:Kangerluarsuk Fjord (Kangerdluarssuq), Ilímaussaq complex, Narsaq, Kujalleq, Greenland
Place of Conservation of Type Material:Mining Academy, Freiberg, Germany, 29166
Year of Discovery:1865

Occurrences of Aenigmatite

Geological Setting:A primary constituent in sodium-rich alkalic volcanics, pegmatites, and other silica-poor igneous rocks.

Physical Properties of Aenigmatite

Lustre:Greasy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent, Opaque
Colour:Velvet-black
Comment:in thin section, reddish brown to black.
Streak:Reddish brown
Hardness (Mohs):5½ - 6
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Distinct/Good
{010} {100}
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven

Crystallography of Aenigmatite

Crystal System:Triclinic
Class (H-M):1 - Pinacoidal
Space Group:P1
Cell Parameters:a = 10.415(1) Å, b = 10.840(1) Å, c = 8.931(1) Å
α = 105.107(4)°, β = 96.610(5)°, γ = 125.398(4)°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.961 : 1 : 0.824
Unit Cell Volume:V 746.8 ų
Morphology:Crystals poorly developed, prismatic, to 8 cm; as irregular segregations.
Twinning:By rotation (011) or about [010] of
the pseudomonoclinic cell; polysynthetic.

Optical Data of Aenigmatite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.780 - 1.800 nβ = 1.800 - 1.820 nγ = 1.870 - 1.900
2V:Measured: 27° to 55°, Calculated: 56° to 60°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.090 - 0.100

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Dispersion:single

Chemical Properties of Aenigmatite

Formula:
Na
 
2
Fe
2+
5
Ti(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)O
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:Na2Fe2+5Ti(Si6O18)O2
Essential elements:Fe, Na, O, Si, Ti
All elements listed in formula:Fe, Na, O, Si, Ti
Common Impurities:Al,Mn,Mg,Ca,K,Cl

Relationship of Aenigmatite to other Species

Member of:Aenigmatite Group > Sapphirine Supergroup
Other Members of Group:

- +
Krinovite
Na
 
2
Mg
 
4
Cr
3+
2
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)O
 
2
Kuratite
Ca
 
2
(Fe
2+
5
Ti)O
 
2
[Si
 
4
Al
 
2
O
 
18
]
Wilkinsonite
Na
 
2
Fe
2+
4
Fe
3+
2
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)O
 
2
Common Associates:
RiebeckiteIlmeniteHedenbergiteFayaliteAugite
ArfvedsoniteAegirine
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.DH.05Leucophanite
NaCaBeSi
 
2
O
 
6
F
9.DH.10Ohmilite
Sr
 
3
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)(Si
 
4
O
 
12
)(O,OH) · 2-3H
 
2
O
9.DH.15Haradaite
SrVSi
 
2
O
 
7
9.DH.15Suzukiite
BaVSi
 
2
O
 
7
9.DH.20Batisite
BaNaNaTi
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
12
)O
 
2
9.DH.20Shcherbakovite
(K,Ba)KNa(Ti,Nb)
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
12
)O
 
2
9.DH.25Taikanite
Sr
 
3
BaMn
2+
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
12
)O
 
2
9.DH.30Krauskopfite
BaSi
 
2
O
 
5
· 3H
 
2
O
9.DH.35Balangeroite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)
 
42
Si
 
16
O
 
54
(OH)
 
40
9.DH.35Gageite
Mn
 
21
(Si
 
4
O
 
12
)
 
2
O
 
3
(OH)
 
20
9.DH.40Dorrite
Ca
 
4
(Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
9
)O
 
4
(Si
 
3
Al
 
8
Fe
3+
 
O
 
36
)
9.DH.40Høgtuvaite
(Ca,Na)
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
,Ti)
 
6
[O
 
2
|Be(Si,Al)
 
5
O
 
18
]
9.DH.40Krinovite
Na
 
2
Mg
 
4
Cr
3+
2
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)O
 
2
9.DH.40Makarochkinite
Ca
 
2
Fe
2+
4
Fe
3+
 
Ti[O
 
2
|BeAlSi
 
4
O
 
18
]
9.DH.40Rhönite
Ca
 
2
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
,Ti)
 
6
[O
 
2
|(Si,Al)
 
6
O
 
18
]
9.DH.40Serendibite
(Ca,Na)
 
2
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
3
[O
 
2
|(Si,Al,B)
 
6
O
 
18
]
9.DH.40Welshite
Ca
 
4
Mg
 
9
Sb
 
3
O
 
4
[Si
 
6
Be
 
3
AlFe
 
2
O
 
36
]
9.DH.40Wilkinsonite
Na
 
2
Fe
2+
4
Fe
3+
2
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)O
 
2
9.DH.45Sapphirine
(Mg,Fe)
 
4-x
Al
 
4+x
[Al
 
4+x
Si
 
2-x
O
 
18
]O
 
2
9.DH.50Khmaralite
(Mg,Al,Fe)
 
16
[(Al,Si,Be)
 
12
O
 
36
]O
 
4
9.DH.55Surinamite
(Mg,Fe)
 
3
Al
 
4
BeSi
 
3
O
 
16
9.DH.60Deerite
(Fe,Mn)
 
6
(Fe,Al)
 
3
[Si
 
6
O
 
17
]O
 
3
(OH)
 
5
9.DH.65Howieite
Na(Fe,Mn)
 
10
(Fe,Al)
 
2
Si
 
12
O
 
31
(OH)
 
13
9.DH.65Taneyamalite
(Na,Ca)(Mn,Mg,Fe)
 
12
Si
 
12
(O,OH)
 
44
9.DH.70Johninnesite
Na
 
2
Mn
2+
9
Mg
 
7
(OH)
 
8
[AsO
 
4
]
 
2
[Si
 
6
O
 
17
]
 
2
9.DH.75Agrellite
NaCa
 
2
Si
 
4
O
 
10
F
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
14.9.1Natisite
Na
 
2
Ti(SiO
 
4
)O
14.9.2Lorenzenite
Na
 
2
Ti
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
6
)O
 
3
14.9.3Lintisite
LiNa
 
3
Ti
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
6
)
 
2
O
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
14.9.4Davanite
K
 
2
TiSi
 
6
O
 
15
14.9.5Kazakovite
Na
 
6
Mn
2+
 
Ti(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)
14.9.6Titanite
CaTi(SiO
 
4
)O
14.9.7Ohmilite
Sr
 
3
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)(Si
 
4
O
 
12
)(O,OH) · 2-3H
 
2
O
14.9.8Lamprophyllite
(Sr,K,Ba)
 
2
(Na,Ti,Mn
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)
 
4
Ti
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
 
2
O(O,OH,F)
14.9.9Benitoite
BaTi(Si
 
3
O
 
9
)
14.9.10Batisite
BaNaNaTi
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
12
)O
 
2
14.9.11Fresnoite
Ba
 
2
Ti(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)O
14.9.12Joaquinite-(Ce)
NaBa
 
2
Ce
 
2
FeTi
 
2
[Si
 
4
O
 
12
]
 
2
O
 
2
(OH,F) · H
 
2
O
14.9.13Orthojoaquinite-(Ce)
NaBa
 
2
Ce
 
2
FeTi
 
2
[Si
 
4
O
 
12
]
 
2
O
 
2
(O,OH) · H
 
2
O
14.9.14Strontiojoaquinite
Sr
 
2
Ba
 
2
(Na,Fe)
 
2
Ti
 
2
[Si
 
4
O
 
12
]
 
2
O
 
2
(O,OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
14.9.15Bario-orthojoaquinite
(Ba,Sr)
 
4
Fe
 
2
Ti
 
2
[Si
 
4
O
 
12
]
 
2
O
 
2
· H
 
2
O
14.9.16Strontio-orthojoaquinite
(Na,Fe)
 
2
Sr
 
2
Ba
 
2
Ti
 
2
[Si
 
4
O
 
12
]
 
2
O
 
2
(O,OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
14.9.17Bafertisite
Ba(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
Ti(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)O(F,OH)
 
2
14.9.18Hejtmanite
Ba(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
Ti(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)O(OH,F)
14.9.19Delindeite
(Na,K)
 
2
(Ba,Ca)
 
2
(Ti,Fe,Al)
 
3
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
 
2
O
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
14.9.20Barytolamprophyllite
(Ba,Na)
 
2
(Na,Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
4
Ti
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
 
2
O(OH,F)
14.9.21Trimounsite-(Y)
Y
 
2
Ti
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O
 
5
14.9.22Perrierite-(Ce)
(Ce,Ca,Th)
 
4
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)Fe
3+
2
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
 
2
O
 
8
14.9.23Chevkinite
(Ce,Ca,Th)
 
4
(Fe,Mn)
 
2
(Ti,Fe)
 
3
[Si
 
2
O
 
7
]
 
2
O
 
8
14.9.24Strontiochevkinite
(Sr,La,Ce,Ca)
 
4
Fe
2+
 
(Ti,Zr)
 
2
Ti
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
 
2
O
 
8
14.9.25Tisinalite
Na
 
3
H
 
3
(Mn,Ca,Fe)TiSi
 
6
(O,OH)
 
18
· 2H
 
2
O
14.9.26Neptunite
Na
 
2
KLi(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
Ti
 
2
(Si
 
8
O
 
24
)
14.9.27Manganoneptunite
Na
 
2
KLi(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
Ti
 
2
[Si
 
8
O
 
24
]
14.9.28Kupletskite
(K,Na)
 
3
(Mn,Fe)
 
7
Ti
 
2
Si
 
8
O
 
26
(OH)
 
4
F
14.9.29Astrophyllite
(K,Na)
 
3
(Fe,Mn)
 
7
Ti
 
2
Si
 
8
O
 
24
(O,OH)
 
7
14.9.30Hydroastrophyllite
(H
 
3
O,K,Ca)
 
3
(Fe,Mn)
 
5-65
Ti
 
2
Si
 
8
(O,OH)
 
31
14.9.31Magnesioastrophyllite
(Na,K)
 
4
Mg
 
2
(Fe,Fe,Mn)
 
5
Ti
 
2
Si
 
8
O
 
24
(O,OH,F)
 
7
14.9.32Baratovite
KCa
 
7
(Ti,Zr)
 
2
Li
 
3
Si
 
12
O
 
36
F
 
2
14.9.35Schorlomite
Ca
 
3
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
((Si,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
14.9.36Tinaksite
K
 
2
Na(Ca,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
Ti[O|Si
 
7
O
 
18
(OH)]
14.9.37Janhaugite
(Na,Ca)
 
3
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
(Ti,Zr,Nb)
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
 
2
O
 
2
(OH,F)
 
2
14.9.38Koashvite
Na
 
6
(Ca,Mn)(Ti,Fe)Si
 
6
O
 
18
· H
 
2
O

Other Names for Aenigmatite

Synonyms:
CossyriteCosyriteKölbingite
Other Languages:
Dutch:Aenigmatiet
German:Aenigmatit
Cosyrit
Kölbingit
Italian:Enigmatite
Norwegian (Bokmål):Ænigmatitt
Russian:Энигматит
Spanish:Aenigmatita
Cosyrita
Kölbingita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Aenigmatite

Reference List:

- +
Mineralogical Magazine (1976): 40: 595-598.

American Mineralogist: 56: 427-446.

Grew, E.S., Halenius, U., M. Pasero : The crystal chemistry of aenigmatite revisited: electron microprobe data, structure refinement and Mossbauer spectroscopy of aenigmatite from Vesteroya (Norway): European J. Mineralogy 20, 983-991.

Internet Links for Aenigmatite

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
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  • Look for Aenigmatite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Aenigmatite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Aenigmatite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Localities for Aenigmatite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • Tasmania
      • Central Plateau
        • Interlaken
    Bottrill, R. S. & Baker, W. E. (2008): A Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. Geological Survey Bulletin 73, Mineral Resources Tasmania, 254 pp
      • Huon district
    No reference listed
    Brazil
     
    • Paraná
      • Tijucas do Sul
        • Morro Redondo complex
    Vilalva, F.C.J., and Vlach, S.R.F. (2010): Mineralogical Magazine 74(4), 645-658
    Cameroon
     
    • North Region
    Ngounouno, I., Moreau, Ch., Deruelle, B., Demaiffe, D., Montigny, R. (2001): Petrologie du complexe alcalin sous-sature de Kokoumi (Cameroun), Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France; November 2001; vol. 172; no. 6; p. 675-686
    • South-West Region
      • Buea
        • Cameroon Mt
    Nkoumbou, C., Deruelle, B., Velde, D. (1995): Petrology of Mt Etinde Nephelinite Series, Journal of Petrology, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 373-395
    Canada
     
    • British Columbia
      • Liard Mining Division
    Ostinsoe, E. A., 1960, Level Mountain, Northwestern British Columbia, University of British Columbia thesis.
    Am. Min. , 1974, 59, pp.820-829.
    • New Brunswick
      • Queens Co.
    Martin, R F, Payette, C (1988) The Welsford Anorogenic Igneous Complex, southern New Brunswick: Rift-Related Acadian Magmatism. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File Issue: 1727
    • Newfoundland and Labrador
      • Labrador
    L. W. Curtis And J. Gittins (1979) Aluminous and Titaniferous Clinopyroxenes from Regionally Metamorphosed Agpaitic Rocks in Central Labrador. J. Petrology 20:165-186.
        • Seal Lake alkaline complex (Letitia Lake)
    \"Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences,\" G.J. Orris and R.I. Grauch, Open File Report 02-189, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, 2002.; GSC database locality No. 4100
    GSC database; GSC database locality No. 4101
    • Northwest Territories
      • Mackenzie District
        • Blachford Lake alkaline complex
    SHEARD, E.R., WILLIAMS-JONES, A.E., HEILIGMANN, M., PEDERSON, C. AND TRUEMAN, D.L. (2012) Controls on the concentration of zirconium, niobium, and the rare earth elements in the Thor Lake rare metal deposit, Northwest Territories, Canada. Economic Geology, 107(1), 81-104.
    Sheard, E.R. (2010); SHEARD, E.R., WILLIAMS-JONES, A.E., HEILIGMANN, M., PEDERSON, C. AND TRUEMAN, D.L. (2012) Controls on the concentration of zirconium, niobium, and the rare earth elements in the Thor Lake rare metal deposit, Northwest Territories, Canada. Economic Geology, 107(1), 81-104.
    • Ontario
      • Thunder Bay District
    Mitchell (1991)
        • Pic Township
    Ann P.Sabina (1991), Rocks and Minerals for the Collector, Sudbury to Winnipeg. GSC Misc. Report 49. p.91
    • Québec
      • Gaspésie-Îles-de-la-Madeleine
        • La Haute-Gaspésie RCM
    Wallace et al. (1990) Can. Min. 28, 251; Wallace, G.M., Whalen, J.B. & Martin, R.F. (1990) Agpaitic and miaskitic nepheline syenites of the McGerrigle plutonic complex, Gaspé, Quebec. Canadian Mineralogist 28, 251-266.
      • Montérégie
        • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
          • Mont Saint-Hilaire
    Canadian Micro Mineral Association (CMMA), 45 (6), 2
      • Montréal
    Finley (1930)
      • Nord-du-Québec
        • Nunavik
    BIRKETT, T.C., MILLER, R.R., ROBERTS, A.C., & MARIANO, A.N. (1992) Zirconium bearing minerals from the Strange Lake intrusive complex, Quebec Labrador. Canadian Mineralogist, 30, 191-205.
    • Québec & Newfoundland and Labrador
    Currie (1985): GSC Paper 85-1A, 73-80
    • Yukon Territory
      • Watson Lake Mining District
    Geol, Survey of Canada database
    China
     
    • Sichuan Province
      • Liangshan Autonomous Prefecture
        • Mianning Co.
    Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189
    Finland
     
    • Northern Finland Region
      • Kajaani
        • Vuolijoki
    Lindholm,O. & Anttonen, R. 1980. Geology of the Otanmäki mine. s. 25-33 in: Häkli, T.A. (toim.) Precambrian ores of Finland, 26th International Geological Congress, Paris 1980. Guide to excursions 078 A+C, Part 2 (Finland), Geological Survey of Finland.
    Greenland
     
    • Kujalleq
      • Narsaq
        • Igaliku (Igaliko)
          • Narsaarsuk Plateau
    Bøgghild, O.B. (1953): The Mineralogy of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bd. 149. Nr. 3., C.A. Reitzels Forlag, Copenhagen. 445 p (p.307); Petersen Ole V.,Secher K.(1985) - Gronland: Mineralien, Geologie, Geschichte. - Verlag Bode & Partner K.G., Bochum, 87 pagg.
    Petersen, O.V. (2001): List of all minerals identified in the Ilímaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland. Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin. 190, 25-33
    [Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index, 3rd Edition"] + Petersen, O. V. & Johnsen, O. (2005): Minerals First described from Greenland. Canadian Mineralogist Special Publication 8.
            • Qeqertaussaq Island
    Soerensen, H. (1962): On the occurrence of Steenstrupine in the Ilimaussaq massif, southwest Greenland, Meddelelser om Groenland, Reitzels Forlag Koebenhavn
          • Tunulliarfik Fjord (Tunugdliarfik)
    Petersen, O. V. & Johnsen, O. (2005): Minerals First described from Greenland. Canadian Mineralogist Special Publication 8.; Boeggild, O.B. (1953): The Mineralogy of Greenland, Meddelelser om Groenland, Vol. 149/3, Reitzels Forlag Koebenhavn
    Petersen, O. V. & Johnsen, O. (2005): Minerals First described from Greenland. Canadian Mineralogist Special Publication 8.; Boeggild, O.B. (1953): The Mineralogy of Greenland, Meddelelser om Groenland, Vol. 149/3, Reitzels Forlag Koebenhavn
    Robles, E., Fontan, F., Monchoux, P., Soerensen, H. (2001): Hiortdahlite II from the Ilimaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland, South Greenland, Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin, 190, 131-137
        • Nunarssuit Island
    http://www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/green.htm
    http://www.uni-tuebingen.de/uni/emi/ag-markl/pages/marks/pages/abstracts/EUG2001.html
        • Quagdlimiut
    http://www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/green.htm
    • Tunu Province (East Greenland)
      • Kangerlussuaq Firth
    http://www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/green.htm
      • Kialineq Bay
    http://www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/green.htm
    Hungary
     
    • Baranya Co.
      • Mecsek Mtns
        • Szászvár
    Mineral Species of Hungary, 2005
    Italy
     
    • Sicily
      • Trapani Province
    Am Min 51:200-205
    • Umbria
      • Terni Province
        • San Venanzo
    Stoppa, F., Sharygin, V.V. and Cundari, A. (1997) New mineral data from the kamafugite-carbonatite association: the melilitolite from Pian di Celle, Italy. Mineralogy and Petrology, 61, 27-45.
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Chubu Region
        • Aichi Prefecture
          • Kita-Shidara-gun
    The Mineral Species of Japan (5th ed) Matsubara
      • Chugoku region
        • Shimane Prefecture
    The Mineral Species of Japan (5th ed) Matsubara
    Kenya
     
    • Rift Valley Province
    J. Petrology (1969) 10 (3): 409-439.
    Madagascar
     
    • Antsiranana Province
      • Diana Region (Northern Region)
        • Ambanja District
          • Ampasindava Peninsula
    Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
    Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
    Malawi
     
    Wooley (2001)
    Mexico
     
    • Chihuahua
      • Pueblito de Allende
    Brearley, A. J. & Jones, R. H. (1998). Chondritic Meteorites. In: Planetary Materials (Papike, J. J., Editor): Chapter 3, 398 pages. Mineralogical Society of America: Washington, DC, USA. (1998)
    Mongolia
     
    • Hovd Aimag (Khovd Aimag)
      • Altai Mts
    G.M. Tsareva data
          • Mount Ulyn Khuren
    Kartashov P.M., Voloshin A.V., PakhomovskiiYa.A. On the zonal crystaline gadolinite from the alkaline granite pegmatites of Haldzan Buragtag (Mongolian Altai), - Zapiski VMO, 1993,N3,p. 65-79.
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
    Namibia
     
    • Khomas Region
      • Windhoek District
        • Aris
    von Knorring, O. and Franke, W. (1987): A preliminary note on the mineralogy and geochemistry of the Aris phonolite, SWA/Namibia. Comm. Geol. Surv. S.W.Africa (Namibia) 3, 61. ; Wartha, R., Palfi, A., Niedermayr, G., Brandstätter, F. and Petersen, O. V. (2001): Der Aris-Phonolith-Komplex und seine Mineralien. In Bahmann, U. and A. (Eds.), Namibia – Zauberwelt edler Steine und Kristalle, Bode-Verlag, Haltern, Germany, pp. 172-179. (in German); [http://www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/aris.htm]
    New Zealand
     
    Railton, G.L. & Watters, W.A., Minerals of New Zealand, New Zealand Geological Survey Bull. #104 (1990).
    Railton, G.L. & Watters, W.A., Minerals of New Zealand, New Zealand Geological Survey Bull. #104 (1990).; Mineralogical Magazine 1956 31 : 96-106
    NZJGG, 2003, 46: 581-590. NZJGG, 1991, 34: 337-340. NZJGG, 1981, 24: 449-467
    NZJGG, 2003, 46: 581-590. NZJGG, 1991, 34: 337-340. NZJGG, 1981, 24: 449-467
    NZJGG, 2003, 46: 581-590. NZJGG, 1991, 34: 337-340. NZJGG, 1981, 24: 449-467
    • North Island
    Railton, G.L. & Watters, W.A., Minerals of New Zealand, New Zealand Geological Survey Bull. #104 (1990).
    • South Island
      • Otago
    Railton, G.L. & Watters, W.A., Minerals of New Zealand, New Zealand Geological Survey Bull. #104 (1990).
    Niger
     
    • Agadez Department
      • Aïr Region
        • South Aïr
    J. Fabriès and G. Rocci, Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéral. Cristallo., 1965, LXXXVIII, 319-340
    North Korea
     
    • Kangwon Province
      • Pyonggang-gun
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
    Norway
     
    • Telemark
      • Porsgrunn
        • Langesundsfjorden
    Andersen, F.,Berge, S.A. & Burvald, I. (1996): Die Mineralien des Langesundsfjords und des umgebenden Larvikit-Gebietes, Oslo-Region, Norwegen. MineralienWelt 7(4):21-100; Åsheim, A., Berge, S.A. & Larsen, A.O. (2008): Sporelementer i ænigmatitt fra larvik plutonkompleks. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift. 38: 63-65
        • Mørje
          • Sagåsen
    Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 p.
    • Vestfold
      • Larvik
        • Stavern (Fredriksvärn)
    Åsheim, A. (1994): Hamberg(itt). STEIN 21 (2), 117-119
      • Sandefjord
    Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 p.
        • Vesterøya
    Åsheim, A., Berge, S.A. & Larsen, A.O. (2008): Sporelementer i ænigmatitt fra larvik plutonkompleks. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift. 38: 63-65; Berge, S.A., Larsen, K.E. & Andersen, F. (2011): Buer, Vesterøya, Sandefjord- en typelokalitet for et nytt mineral. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift. 46: 49-56
          • Framnes
    Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 p.
    Berge, S. A. & Andersen, F. (2002): Mineralforekomster i Sandefjordområdet. Norsk Bergverksmuseums Skrift. 20, 50-59
    Berge, S. A. & Andersen, F. (2002): Mineralforekomster i Sandefjordområdet. Bergverksmuseets Skrift 20, 50-59; Berge, S. A. (2013):Mineralene i Husebyyåsen feltspatbrudd, Vesterøya, Sandefjord. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter. 50, 93-99
    Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 p.
    Berge, S. A. & Andersen, F. (2002): Mineralforekomster i Sandefjordområdet. Bergverksmuseets Skrift 20, 50-59
    Knut Edvard Larsen collection
    Knut Edvard Larsen collection
    Åsheim, A., Berge, S.A. & Larsen, A.O. (2008): Sporelementer i ænigmatitt fra Larvik plutonkompleks. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift. 38: 63-65
    Raade, G & Larsen, A. O. (1980): Polylithionite from syenite pegmatite at Vøra, Sandefjord, Oslo Region, Norway. Contributions to the Mineralogy of Norway, no 65. Norsk Geologisk Tidskrift 60, 117-124; Raade, G. (2011): Chemistry of aenigmatite from Vesterøya, larvik plutonic complex, Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift. 46: 37-40
    Portugal
     
    • Azores District
      • San Miguel Island
    Ridolfi, F., Renzulli, A., Santi, P., Upton, B.G.J., Evolutionary stages of crystallisation of weakly peralkine syenites: evidence from ejecta in the plinian deposits of Agua de Pau volcano (Sao Miguel, Azores Islands), Mineralogical Magazine, 67(4), 749-767, 2003
    Russia
     
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Sakhalinskaya Oblast'
        • Sakhalin Island
          • Morotu (Morotsu; Morutu)
    Grapes, R., Yagi, K., and Okumura, K. (1979) Aenigmatite, sodic pyroxene, arfvedsonite and associated minerals in syenites from Morotu, Sakhalin. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 69, 97–103.
    • Northern Region
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
    David Zakharov specimen
          • Khibiny Massif
    [World of Stones 95:5-6, p64]
              • Astrophyllite Stream
    Arzamastsev, A., Yakovenchuk, V., Pakhomovsky, Y., & Ivanyuk, G. (2008). The Khibina and Lovozero alkaline massifs: Geology and unique mineralization. In Guidbook for 33rd International Geological Congress Excursion (No. 47, p. 58)
    Azarova, Y. V., Shlyukova, Z. V., Zolotarev Jr, A. A., & Organova, N. I. (2009). Burovaite-Ca,(Na, K) 4Ca2 (Ti, Nb) 8 [Si4O12] 4 (OH, O) 8· 12H2O, a new labuntsovite-group mineral species and its place in low-temperature mineral formation in pegmatites of the Khibiny pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Geology of Ore Deposits, 51(8), 774-783.
    Konopleva, N.G., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Korchak, Y.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 720-731.
            • Koashva Mt
    Konopleva, N.G., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Korchak, Y.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 720-731.
    Pekov, I.V. & Podlesnyi, A.S. (2004): Kukisvumchorr Deposit: Mineralogy of Alkaline Pegmatites and Hydrotermalites. Mineralogical Almanac, vol. 7, 140 pages + xxiv photo's pages
    Konopleva, N.G., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Korchak, Y.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 720-731.
    Takai, Y., Uehara, S., Inoo, T. (2011) Minerals from Khibiny, Kola, Russia. Chigaku Kenkyu, 60 (1), 41-46.
    Konopleva, N.G., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Korchak, Y.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 720-731.
    Am Min 79:1011
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
    Arzamastsev, A., Yakovenchuk, V., Pakhomovsky, Y., & Ivanyuk, G. (2008). The Khibina and Lovozero alkaline massifs: Geology and unique mineralization. In Guidbook for 33rd International Geological Congress Excursion (No. 47, p. 58).
    Arzamastsev, A., Yakovenchuk, V., Pakhomovsky, Y., & Ivanyuk, G. (2008). The Khibina and Lovozero alkaline massifs: Geology and unique mineralization. In Guidbook for 33rd International Geological Congress Excursion (No. 47, p. 58).
    Konopleva, N.G., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Korchak, Y.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 720-731.
    Konopleva, N.G., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Korchak, Y.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 720-731.
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
    Pavel Kartasov photo; Khomyakov, A. P., Pushcharovskiy, D. Y., & Ronsbo, J. G. (1983). Clinophosinaite, Na3CaPSiO7, a new mineral. International Geology Review, 25(6), 731-734.
    Konopleva, N.G., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Korchak, Y.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 720-731.
          • Lovozero Massif
    [World of Stones 95:5-6, p64]
    Saint Helena
     
    • Ascension Island
    Min.Mag.(1952) 29, 850-857
    South Africa
     
    • North West Province
      • Western Bushveld Complex
        • Rustenburg District
    Wooley (2001) 269-270.
    South Korea
     
    • Gyeongsangbuk-do (Kyongsang-bukto; Gyeongsangbugdo)
      • Ulleung-gun
    Atsuo Harumoto (1970) Volcanic Rocks and Associated Rocks of Utsuryoto Island, (Japan Sea). (39pp + geological map)
    Tanzania
     
    • Arusha Region
      • Ngorongoro Conservation Area
    Journal of Conference Abstracts , Volume 2 Number 1 , vsg - Minsoc '97, http://www.the-conference.com/JConfAbs/2/26.html
    UK
     
    Tindle, A.G. (2008) Minerals of Britian and Ireland
      • Strathclyde (Ayrshire)
        • Beith
    BMS Database
    Ukraine
     
    • Zaporozhskaya Oblast' (Zaporiz'ka; Zaporozh'e)
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Coconino Co.
        • San Franciscan volcanic field (San Francisco Peaks; San Francisco Mts)
          • San Francisco Mountain
    Robinson, Henry H. (1913), The San Franciscan Volcanic Field, AZ, USGS PP 76: 110-112.
    azminerals.com
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 102; Laughlin, A.W., et al (1986), Hetromorphism and crystallization paths of katungites, Navajo volcanic field, AZ, USA, in J. Ross, et al (editor), Kimberlites and related rocks, vol. 1, Geol. Soc. Australia Spec. Pub. 14.
    • Arkansas
      • Pulaski Co.
        • Little Rock
    Rocks and Minerals, (1988) 63:104-125; Rocks and Minerals, (1989) 64:314-322
    Henry Barwood - unpublished (2010)
    • California
      • Sonoma Co.
        • Santa Rosa
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 59, 282; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 473.
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 59.
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 59.
    • Hawaii
      • Maui Co.
        • Maui
          • West Maui
    AmMin 63:771
    • Idaho
      • Owyhee Co.
        • De Lamar District
    Mineralogical Record, Sep 1995
    • Maine
      • York Co.
    Toulmin, P., 1957, Notes on a Peralkaline Granite from Cashes Ledge, Gulf of Maine, American Mineralogist, 42: 912-915
        • York
    King, V. and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, Descriptive Mineralogy, volume 1, Maine Geological Survey, pp. 418 + 88 plates.
    • Massachusetts
      • Essex Co.
    Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
      • Norfolk Co.
    Sayer, Susan (1974): An Integrated Study of the Blue Hills Porphyry and Related Units, Quincy and Milton, Massachusetts (MIT master's thesis)
    • Nevada
      • Humboldt Co.
        • Opalite District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • New Mexico
      • Otero Co.
        • Cornudas Mts
    USGS Open-File Report 02-189
    • Washington
      • Okanogan Co.
        • Golden Horn Batholith
    Micro Probe Volume VI Number 8; Minerals of Washington, B. Cannon, 1975 (37)
    Yemen
     
    • Hadramawt Governorate
    Lunar and Planetary Science XXXII (2001); Zolensky, M. & A.Ivanov, Chemie der Erde 63,185-246(2003)
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