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5 - 6
From the Greek ψιλός (psilos) "smooth" or "bald", and μέλας (melas) "black" in allusion to the form and colour.
Obsolete group name for hard black Manganese Oxides

Classification of Psilomelane


4 : Oxides & Hydroxides
X : Unclassified oxides
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Physical Properties of Psilomelane

Sub-Metallic, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Brownish black to black, shining
Hardness (Mohs):
5 - 6
4.7 - 4.72 g/cm3 (Measured)    0.42 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Relationship of Psilomelane to other Species


Other Names for Psilomelane

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Psilomelane

Reference List:
Wallerius (1747): 268.

Haidinger (1827), Royal Society of Edinburgh, Transactions: 11: 129.

Egleston (1887), U.S. National Museum Bulletin 33: 137.

Krusch (1907), Zeitschrift für praktische Geologie, Berlin Halle a.S.: 15: 129.

Hintze (1929),: 1(3A): 3597.

Ramsdell (1932), American Mineralogist: 17: 143.

Vaux (1937), Mineralogical Magazine: 24: 521.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 668-670.

Fleischer, M. (1960), Studies of the manganese oxide minerals: III: Psilomelane: American Mineralogist: 45: 176-187.

Mineralogical Magazine (1965): 34: 634-655.

Internet Links for Psilomelane

Localities for Psilomelane

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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