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Socorro Co., New Mexico, USA
© Michael C. Roarke

Colour:Iron-blackHardness:5 - 6
Name:From the Greek ψιλός (psilos) "smooth" or "bald", and μέλας (melas) "black" in allusion to the form and colour.

Obsolete group name for hard black Manganese Oxides

Classification of Psilomelane

Strunz 8th edition ID:4/X.0-0

4 : Oxides & Hydroxides
X : Unclassified oxides
0 :
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Physical Properties of Psilomelane

Lustre:Sub-Metallic, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Streak:Brownish black to black, shining
Hardness (Mohs):5 - 6
Density (measured):4.7 - 4.72 g/cm3
Density (calculated):0.42 g/cm3

Relationship of Psilomelane to other Species

Related Minerals - Strunz Grouping):

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Other Names for Psilomelane

Black HematiteBlack Iron Oreχ-psilomelaneCompact Black Manganese OreLeptonematite (of Breithaupt)
LeptonemerzMagnesia indurataProtomelanePsilomelaniteSchwarz-Eisenstein
Verhärtetes SchwarzbraunsteinerzVerhärtetes Schwarz-Manganerz
Other Languages:
Simplified Chinese:硬锰矿
Swedish:Derb Brunsten
Nickeloan Psilomelane

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Psilomelane

Reference List:

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Wallerius (1747): 268.

Haidinger (1827), Royal Society of Edinburgh, Transactions: 11: 129.

Egleston (1887), U.S. National Museum Bulletin 33: 137.

Krusch (1907), Zeitschrift für praktische Geologie, Berlin Halle a.S.: 15: 129.

Hintze (1929),: 1(3A): 3597.

Ramsdell (1932), American Mineralogist: 17: 143.

Vaux (1937), Mineralogical Magazine: 24: 521.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 668-670.

Fleischer, M. (1960), Studies of the manganese oxide minerals: III: Psilomelane: American Mineralogist: 45: 176-187.

Mineralogical Magazine (1965): 34: 634-655.

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