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Purpurite

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Formula:
(Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4
Purpurite forms by leaching of Li out of its site leaving a vacancy and by oxidation of divalent Mn.
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Dark purple to purplish ...
Lustre:
Dull, Earthy
Hardness:
4 - 4½
Name:
Named in 1905 by Louis C. Graton and Waldemar T. Schaller from the Latin "purpura" in allusion to its colour.
Triphylite Group, Heterosite-Purpurite Series

Purpurite is the trivalent Mn-dominant, Li-deficient oxidation product of lithiophilite. The species of the Heterosite-Purpurite Series are secondary minerals formed by oxidation of iron and or manganese with the simultaneous leaching of lithium, primarily from their respective parent species, lithiophilite and triphylite. Intermediate alteration products are part of a continuous process of alteration: Ferrisicklerite and Sicklerite, are intermediate between unoxidized and unleached end-members and the completely leached and appropriately oxidized end-products, but may not be valid species. The Mn:Fe value has not been observed to vary much from the primary lithiophilite to the secondary purpurite. Purpurite is far less common than its look-alike species, heterosite. Purpurite is frequently artificially colored bright purple through acid etching.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Purpurite.

Classification of Purpurite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
8.AB.10

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
A : Phosphates, etc. without additional anions, without H2O
B : With medium-sized cations
38.4.1.2

38 : ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
4 : AXO4
19.12.11

19 : Phosphates
12 : Phosphates of Mn
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Type Occurrence of Purpurite

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Smithsonian Institution, Washington 93883
Year of Discovery:
1905
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Oxidized and leached primary lithiophilite pods from a granite pagmatite

Occurrences of Purpurite

Geological Setting:
Primarily an alteration product of lithiophylite in complex granitic pegmatites, rarely from the reaction of bat guano, Fe-Mn deposits and sea water.

Physical Properties of Purpurite

Dull, Earthy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Comment:
Luster of fresh fracture surfaces is satiny; dull on altered surfaces.
Colour:
Dark purple to purplish red.
Comment:
Dark brown to brown-black on altered surfaces.
Streak:
Light to medium purple, lighter than the colour of the massive mineral.
Hardness (Mohs):
4 - 4½
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
On {100}, good; on {010}, imperfect. Cleavage surfaces curved or crinkled at times.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
3.2 - 3.4 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.69 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Purpurite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Pmna
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.8237(6) Å, b = 9.766(1) Å, c = 4.7771(5) Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.596 : 1 : 0.489
Unit Cell Volume:
V 271.69 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Massive, cleavage fragments to 20 cm.
Comment:
Pmnb setting chosen to show relationship to the olivine structure
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
4.883 (70)
4.293 (100)
3.455 (65)
2.946 (60)
2.912 (60)
2.4433 (70)
2.4099 (30)
Comments:
ICDD 37-478

Optical Data of Purpurite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.852(2) nβ = 1.862(2) nγ = 1.922(2)
2V:
Measured: 38° , Calculated: 38°
Birefringence:
0.040
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.070
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
Moderate
Optical Extinction:
Parallel
Pleochroism:
Strong
Comments:
X = Greenish gray, gray to rose-red
Y = Deep blood-red to purplish red
Z = Deep blood-red to purplish red
Comments:
Z = Y > X. Also Z > Y >> X. Optic axis sections may exhibit anomalous green interference colours.

Chemical Properties of Purpurite

Formula:
(Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4

Purpurite forms by leaching of Li out of its site leaving a vacancy and by oxidation of divalent Mn.
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Fe

Relationship of Purpurite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Heterosite (see here)
Other Members of Group:
FerrisickleriteLi1-x(Fex3+Fe2+1-x)PO4
KarenwebberiteNa(Fe2+,Mn2+)PO4
LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
NatrophiliteNaMn2+PO4
SickleriteLi1-x(Mnx3+Mn2+1-x)PO4
TriphyliteLiFe2+PO4
8.AB.05FarringtoniteMg3(PO4)2
8.AB.10FerrisickleriteLi1-x(Fex3+Fe2+1-x)PO4
8.AB.10Heterosite(Fe3+,Mn3+)PO4
8.AB.10LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
8.AB.10NatrophiliteNaMn2+PO4
8.AB.10SickleriteLi1-x(Mnx3+Mn2+1-x)PO4
8.AB.10SimferiteLi(Mg,Fe3+,Mn3+)2(PO4)2
8.AB.10TriphyliteLiFe2+PO4
8.AB.10KarenwebberiteNa(Fe2+,Mn2+)PO4
8.AB.15Sarcopside(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)3(PO4)2
8.AB.15Chopinite(Mg,Fe2+)3(PO4)2
8.AB.20Beusite(Mn2+,Fe2+,Ca,Mg)3(PO4)2
8.AB.20Graftonite(Fe2+,Mn2+,Ca)3(PO4)2
8.AB.25XanthiositeNi3(AsO4)2
8.AB.30LammeriteCu3(AsO4)2
8.AB.30Lammerite-βCu3(AsO4)2
8.AB.35McbirneyiteCu3(VO4)2
8.AB.35StranskiiteZn2Cu(AsO4)2
8.AB.35PseudolyonsiteCu3(VO4)2
8.AB.40LyonsiteCu3Fe4(VO4)6
19.12.1MetaswitzeriteMn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
19.12.2BermaniteMn2+Mn23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
19.12.3NatrophiliteNaMn2+PO4
19.12.4SidorenkiteNa3Mn2+(CO3)(PO4)
19.12.5Niahite(NH4)(Mn2+,Mg)(PO4) · H2O
19.12.6RobertsiteCa3Mn43+(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
19.12.7PararobertsiteCa2Mn33+(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
19.12.8SinkankasiteMn2+Al(PO3OH)2(OH) · 6H2O
19.12.9MangangordoniteMn2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.10Heterosite(Fe3+,Mn3+)PO4
19.12.12Wolfeite(Fe2+,Mn2+)2(PO4)(OH)
19.12.13Triploidite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(OH)
19.12.14LipscombiteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
19.12.15FrondeliteMn2+Fe43+(PO4)3(OH)5
19.12.16RockbridgeiteFe2+Fe43+(PO4)3(OH)5
19.12.17Kryzhanovskite(Fe3+,Mn2+)3(PO4)2(OH,H2O)3
19.12.18LandesiteMn2+3-xFex3+(PO4)2(OH)x · (3-x)H2O
19.12.19Phosphoferrite(Fe2+,Mn2+)3(PO4)2 · 3H2O
19.12.20Reddingite(Mn2+,Fe2+)3(PO4)2 · 3H2O
19.12.21EarlshannoniteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
19.12.22Hureaulite(Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
19.12.23Switzerite(Mn,Fe)3(PO4)2 · 7H2O
19.12.24LaueiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.25PseudolaueiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.26StrunziteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
19.12.27StewartiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.28Alluaudite(Na,Ca)Mn2+(Fe3+,Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)2(PO4)3
19.12.29Ferroalluaudite(Na,Ca)Fe2+(Fe3+,Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)3
19.12.30Fillowite{Mn2+}{Na8}{Ca4Na4}{(Mn2+,Fe2+)43}(PO4)36
19.12.31JohnsomervilleiteNa10Ca6Mg18Fe25(PO4)36
19.12.32WicksiteNaCa2(Fe2+,Mn2+)4MgFe3+(PO4)6 · 2H2O
19.12.33Dickinsonite-(KMnNa){KNa}{Mn2+◻}{Ca}{Na3}{Mn132+}{Al}(PO4)12(OH)2
19.12.34Sarcopside(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)3(PO4)2
19.12.35Ludlamite(Fe,Mn,Mg)3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
19.12.36Graftonite(Fe2+,Mn2+,Ca)3(PO4)2
19.12.37WilhelmvierlingiteCaMnFe3+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
19.12.38FairfielditeCa2(Mn2+,Fe2+)(PO4)2 · 2H2O
19.12.39Beusite(Mn2+,Fe2+,Ca,Mg)3(PO4)2
19.12.40MesseliteCa2(Fe2+,Mn2+)(PO4)2 · 2H2O
19.12.41Jahnsite-(CaMnFe){Ca}{Mn2+}{Fe22+}{Fe23+}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.42Jahnsite-(CaMnMn){Ca}{Mn2+}{Mn22+}{Fe23+}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.43Jahnsite-(CaMnMg){Ca}{Mn2+}{(Mg,Fe2+)2}{Fe23+}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.44KeckiteCaMn2+Fe23+Fe23+(PO4)4(OH)3(H2O)7
19.12.45StanfielditeCa7Ca2Mg9(PO4)12
19.12.46Laubmannite(Fe2+,Mn2+,Ca)3Fe63+(PO4)4(OH)12
19.12.47ZodaciteCa4Mn2+Fe43+(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
19.12.48HagendorfiteNaCaMn2+Fe22+(PO4)3
19.12.49Maghagendorfite(□,Na,)(Na,Ca,Fe2+)Mn(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)3(PO4)3
19.12.50VaruliteNaCaMn2+Mn22+(PO4)3
19.12.51GriphiteNa4Li2Ca6(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)19Al8(PO4)24(F,OH)8
19.12.52Attakolite(Ca,Sr)Mn(Al,Fe)4(HPO4,PO4)3(SiO4,PO4)(OH)4
19.12.53Arrojadite-(KFe){KNa}{Fe2+◻}{Ca}{Na2◻}{Fe132+}{Al}(PO4)11(HPO4)(OH)2
19.12.54Lun'okite(Mn,Ca)(Mg,Fe,Mn)Al(PO4)2OH · 4H2O
19.12.55Eosphorite(Mn2+,Fe2+)Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
19.12.56Ernstite(Mn2+,Fe3+)Al(PO4)(OH,O)2 · H2O
19.12.57Childrenite(Fe2+,Mn2+)Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
19.12.58BobfergusoniteNa2Mn5FeAl(PO4)6
19.12.59QingheiiteNaMn3+Mg(Al,Fe3+)(PO4)3
19.12.60Whiteite-(CaFeMg){Ca}{(Fe2+,Mn2+)}{Mg2}{Al2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.61Whiteite-(CaMnMg){Ca}{Mn2+}{Mg2}{Al2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.62Whiteite-(MnFeMg){(Mn2+,Ca)}{(Fe2+,Mn2+)}{Mg2}{Al2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.63Rittmannite{(Mn2+,Ca)}{Mn2+}{(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)2}{(Al,Fe3+)2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.64ZanazziiteCa2Mg5Be4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 6H2O
19.12.65Samuelsonite(Ca,Ba)Ca8Fe22+Mn22+Al2(PO4)10(OH)2

Other Names for Purpurite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Purpurit
Spanish:Purpurita

Other Information

Not fluorescent in UV
Other Information:
Readily soluble in HCl.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Purpurite

Reference List:
Graton, L.C. & D.T. Schaller (1905), Purpurite, a new mineral, American Journal of Science, 4th. Series: 20: 146-151.

Schaller (1907) American Journal of Science: 24: 152 (as manganipurpurite).

Pisani in: Lacroix, A. (1910) Minéralogie de la France et des ses colonies, Paris. 5 volumes: vol. 4: 470.

Schaller (1910) USGS Bull. 490: 72.

Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1911), Notes on purpurite and heterosite: USGS Bull. 490: 79.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 84, 124.

de Jesus (1933) Com. Serv. Geol. Portugal: 19: 65 (as Neopurpurite).

Quensel (1937) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 59: 77 (as Na-heterosite).

Björling and Westgren (1938) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 60: 67.

Mason (1941) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 63: 117.

Fisher (1945) South Dakota Geological Survey Report 50.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 675-677.

Memoir. Noticias University Coimbra,
Portugal (1960): 50: 55-60.

Internet Links for Purpurite

Localities for Purpurite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • Western Australia
    • Port Hedland Shire
      • Wallareenya Station
Pegmatites of Western Australia; Mark I Jacobson, Mark A Calderwood, Benjamin A Grguric; Hesperian Press, Perth, 2007
American Mineralogist (1928): 13: 457; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 676.; Mason, B. & Dunn, P.J. (1974): An unusual occurrence of Bobierrite at Wodgina, Western Australia. Mineralogical Record 5 (6): 265
      • Wodgina Mine (Wodgina pegmatite)
Pegmatites of Western Australia; M Jacobson, M Calderwood, B Grguric; Hesperian Press, Perth, 2007.
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Koralpe
      • Moschkogel - Weinebene area
        • Brandrücken
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
    • Doce valley
      • Divino das Laranjeiras
        • Linópolis
Martins da Pedra collection
      • Mendes Pimentel
Atencio, D., Coutinho, J.M.V., Mascarenhas, Y.P., Ellena, J. (2006): Matioliite, the Mg-analog of burangaite, from Gentil mine, Mendes Pimentel, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and other occurrences. American Mineralogist, 91, 1932-1936.
Canada
 
  • Manitoba
    • Lac-du-Bonnet area
      • Bernic Lake
Phillips, K. A. (1978) Minerals of Manitoba: Vol 1 Nonmetallic and pegmatic. Manitoba Mineral Resources Division Educational Series 78/1.
Phillips, K. A. (1978) Minerals of Manitoba: Vol 1 Nonmetallic and pegmatic. Manitoba Mineral Resources Division Educational Series 78/1.
  • Northwest Territories
    • Tungsten
The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 41, pp. 139-160 (2003)
  • Ontario
    • Kenora District
Tindle, A.G., Breaks, F.W., and Selway, J.B. (2002) Tourmaline in petalite-subtype gramitic pegmatites: evidence of fractionation and contamination from Pakeagama Lake and Separation Lake areas of northwestern Ontario, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist, 40, 753-788.
    • Thunder Bay District
      • Barbara Lake Area
Hewitt, D.F. (1967) Pegmatite Mineral Resources of Ontario, Industrial Mineral Report 21, Ontario Department of Mines.
China
 
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Yili Hasake Autonomous Prefecture (Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture)
Zhiguo Liu, Dawei Dong, Milan Liu,Yu Sui, Wenhui Su, Zhengnan Qian, and Zhe Li (2005): Hyperfine Interactions 163(1-4), 13-27.
  • Zhejiang Province
    • Taizhou Prefecture
      • Tiantai Co.
Chaoyang Li, Tiegeng Liu, Lin Ye, Weiguang Zhu, and Hailin Deng (2003): Science in China, Series D (Earth Sciences), 46, Supplement 1, 84-98.
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Karlovy Vary Region
      • Lázně Kynžvart (Bad Königswart)
Černý, P., Veselovský, F.: Pegmatit Bílý kámen (Weisser Stein) u Kynžvartu. Minerál, 2000, roč. 8, č. 1, s. 10-16.
Finland
 
  • Eastern Finland Region
    • Tohmajärvi
Teertsra David K., Lahti Seppo I., Alviola Reijo, Cerny Petr. 1993. Geological Survey of Finland Bulletin 368, 39 s.
  • Western and Inner Finland Region
    • Orivesi
      • Eräjärvi area
Ilkka Mikkola collection
France
 
  • Limousin
    • Haute-Vienne
      • Razès
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 676.
  • Midi-Pyrénées
    • Ariège
      • Le Bosc
        • Cirque de Pénitence
Inventaire mineralogique de l'Ariege (Editions BRGM 1984)
Germany
 
  • Bavaria
    • Lower Bavaria
      • Zwiesel
Obermüller, T., (1993): Über Phosphatmineralien aus Zwiesel/Bayerischer Wald, Der Aufschluss, Vol. 44, pp. 337-341
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Waidhaus
        • Hagendorf
Italy
 
  • Lombardy
    • Lecco Province
      • Colico
        • Piona Peninsula
Gramaccioli C.M. (1975) - Minerali alpini e prealpini. Vpl. I, pagg. 214-215. Ist. Ital. Ed. Atlas, Bergamo
Namibia
 
  • Erongo Region
    • Karibib District
      • Goabeb Farm 63
Mineralogical Research Co. specimen
      • Usakos
        • Sandamap North Farm 115 (Sandamab)
[Schumann, 1992, 184 - "Minerals of the World"]
  • Karas Region
    • Bethanie District
Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2008): Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern, 602 pp. (in English)
Portugal
 
  • Guarda District
    • Sabugal
      • Bendada
Schnorrer-Köhler (1991), Mineral Occurrences.
  • Viana do Castelo District
    • Caminha
      • Arga de Baixo
    • Ponte da Barca
      • São Lourenço de Touvedo
Self-collected by Pedro Alves.
  • Viseu District
    • Mangualde
      • Chãs de Tavares
Rwanda
 
  • Southern Province
    • Gitarama
Royal Museum for Central Africa, Belgium Collection, # 9915
  • Western Province
    • Gatumba District
Mineralogical Magazine 1963 33 : 613-615; Daltry, V.D.C. and O. von Knorring (1998) Type-Mineralogy of Rwanda with Particular Reference to the Buranga Pegmatite. Geologica Belgica 1:1-9
South Africa
 
  • Northern Cape Province
    • Namakwa District (Namaqualand)
      • Steinkopf
Minerals of South Africa
    • ZF Mgcawu District
      • Kenhardt
Minerals of South Africa
Spain
 
  • Castile and Leon
    • Salamanca
Encarnación Roda-Robles, Alfonso Pesquera (2007) Locality no. 3: Lepidolite-spodumene-rich and cassiterite-rich pegmatites from the Feli open-pit, (La Fregeneda, Salamanca, Spain) in ALEXANDRE LIMA & ENCARNACIÓN RODA ROBLES ed (2007) GRANITIC PEGMATITES: THE STATE OF THE ART - FIELD TRIP GUIDEBOOK. MEMÓRIAS N. º 9, UNIV. DO PORTO, FACULDADE DE CIÊNCIAS, DEPARTAMENTO DE GEOLOGIA pp 55-64
  • Catalonia
    • Girona (Gerona)
      • Alt Empordà
        • Cadaqués
Bareche, E. (2005) "Els minerals de Catalunya. Segle XX" Ed. Museu Mollfulleda de Mineralogia - Grup Mineralògic Català, 269 p.
Sweden
 
  • Västerbotten
    • Skellefteå
Sandström, F. (2008) Varuträskpegmatiten. Litofilen, 25 (2), 17-46
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Yavapai Co.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 340; Jahns, Richard H. (1952), Pegmatite Deposits of the White Picacho District, Maricopa and Yavapai Counties, Arizona, Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 162.
        • Independence Gulch
Jahns, R.H. (1952), Pegmatite deposits of the White Picacho district, Maricopa and Yavapai Cos., AZ, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 162: 98-103.
Jahns, R.H. (1952), AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 162: 87-90.
  • California
    • San Diego Co.
      • Jacumba District
        • Jacumba
          • Tule Mountain (Mount Tule; Tulley Mountain)
Moore, P. B., 2000, Analyses of Primary Phosphates from Pegmatites in Maine and Other Localities, in V. T. King (editor), Mineralogy of Maine. Mining History, Gems, and Geology, Maine Geological Survey, Augusta, Maine, p. 333-336. Mineralogical Record 33(5):363-407
Mineralogical Record 33(5):363-407
Weber, F.H., Jr. (1962), A beryl discovery in southeastern San Diego County, California: California Division Mines & Geology, Mineral Information Service: 15(2): 8-11; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 103, 300.
      • Pala District
        • Pala
          • Chief Mountain
Moore, P. B., 2000, Analyses of Primary Phosphates from Pegmatites in Maine and Other Localities, in V. T. King (editor), Mineralogy of Maine. Mining History, Gems, and Geology, Maine Geological Survey, Augusta, Maine, p. 333-336. Mineralogical Record (2002): 33(5): 388.
Kunz, George Frederick (1906), Precious stones: Mineral Resources U.S., 1905: 1344; Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1911e), Notes on purpurite and heterosite: USGS Bulletin 490: 79; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 300.
Kunz, George Frederick (1906), Precious stones: Mineral Resources U.S., 1905: 1344; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 346.
          • Tourmaline Queen Mountain (Pala Mtn; Queen Mtn)
Fisher, J. 2002. Gem and rare-element pegmatites of southern California. Mineralogical Record, Volume 33, Number 5: pages 376-378, photographs.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 676.
  • Colorado
    • Larimer Co.
[www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
Rocks & Min.:62:234-235.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; USGS Prof. Paper 227
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; USGS Prof. Paper 227
        • Storm Mountain
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
      • Purple Haze and Rainbows End claims
[MinRec 20:382]
  • Connecticut
    • Fairfield Co.
      • Redding (Reading)
        • Branchville
Shainin (1946): AmMin 31:329-345
    • Middlesex Co.
      • Portland
        • Collins Hill
          • Strickland pegmatite (Strickland-Cramer Quarry; Strickland-Cramer Mine; Strickland-Cramer Feldspar-Mica Quarries)
Moore, P. B. (2000): Analyses of Primary Phosphates from Pegmatites in Maine and Other Localities, in V. T. King (editor), Mineralogy of Maine. Mining History, Gems, and Geology, Maine Geological Survey, Augusta, Maine: 333-336.; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
  • Maine
    • Androscoggin Co.
      • Auburn
        • East Mount Apatite District
No reference listed
        • West Mount Apatite District
No reference listed
No reference listed
No reference listed
No reference listed
      • Poland
King, V. T. and Foord, E. E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, Descriptive Mineralogy, volume 1, Maine Geological Survey, Augusta, Maine, USA, pp. 418 + 88 plates.
    • Cumberland Co.
      • Baldwin
        • West Baldwin
Collected by Clifford Trebilcock,visual ID; Thompson, W.B., et,al., 2000, Rocks & Minerals, vol. 75, no. 6, pgs 408-418; Rocks and Minerals (1999) 74:188,189
    • Oxford Co.
      • Buckfield
King, V. and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, V. 1, King, V. (ed.), 2000, Mineralogy of Maine, V. 2.
      • Greenwood
King, V. and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, v. 1.
        • Uncle Tom Mountain
No reference listed
      • Newry
King, V. and Foord, E. (1994) Mineralogy of Maine
      • Norway
Moore, P. B., 2000, Analyses of Primary Phosphates from Pegmatites in Maine and Other Localities, in V. T. King (editor), Mineralogy of Maine. Mining History, Gems, and Geology, Maine Geological Survey, Augusta, Maine, p. 333-336.
      • Paris
King, V. T. and Foord, E. E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, Descriptive Mineralogy, volume 1, Maine Geological Survey, Augusta, Maine, USA, pp. 418 + 88 plates. Moore, P. B., 2000, Analyses of Primary Phosphates from Pegmatites in Maine and Other Localities, in V. T. King (editor), Mineralogy of Maine. Mining History, Gems, and Geology, Maine Geological Survey, Augusta, Maine, p. 333-336. King and Foord, 2000, Addenda to Volume 1, Mineralogy of Maine, v. 2.
      • Rumford
King, V. T., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, Descriptive Mineralogy, v. 1, Maine Geological Survey, Augusta, Maine, pp. 418 + 88 plates. Moore, P. B., 2000, Analyses of Primary Phosphates from Pegmatites in Maine and Other Localities, in V. T. King (editor), Mineralogy of Maine. Mining History, Gems, and Geology, Maine Geological Survey, Augusta, Maine, p. 333-336.
Moore, P. B., 2000, Analyses of Primary Phosphates from Pegmatites in Maine and Other Localities, in V. T. King (editor), Mineralogy of Maine. Mining History, Gems, and Geology, Maine Geological Survey, Augusta, Maine, p. 333-336.; Cameron, Eugene N.; and others (1954) Pegmatite investigations, 1942-45, in New England. USGS Professional Paper 255.
      • Stoneham
Thompson, W, Joyner, D., Woodman, R., and King, V., 1998. Maine Mineral Localities, 3rd ed.; King and Foord, 1994, Mineralogy of Maine
  • Massachusetts
    • Hampshire Co.
      • Huntington (Norwich)
    • Worcester Co.
      • Leominster
Billings, M. P. and Wolfe, C. W. (1944): Spodumene Deposits in the Leominster-Sterling Area (USGS Open-File Report 45-88
  • New Hampshire
    • Cheshire Co.
      • Marlow
Kevin Czaja Collection
    • Grafton Co.
      • Alexandria
Morrill, P., 1960, New Hampshire Mines and Mineral Localities.
      • Grafton
Morrill. P., 1960, New Hampshire Mines and Mineral Localities.; Rocks & Minerals (2005) 80:242-261 New Hampshire Mineral Locality Index
      • Groton
USGS Prof Paper 255
No reference listed
      • Rumney
USGS Prof Paper 255
    • Sullivan Co.
      • Claremont
USGS Prof Paper 255
      • Newport
Moore, P. B., 2000, Analyses of Primary Phosphates from Pegmatites in Maine and Other Localities, in V. T. King (editor), Mineralogy of Maine. Mining History, Gems, and Geology, Maine Geological Survey, Augusta, Maine, p. 333-336.
  • North Carolina
    • Cleveland Co.
      • Kings Mountain District
Kesler,T.L.,1942,The Tin-Spodumene Belt Of The Carolinas:USGS Bulletion No.936-J
    • Gaston Co.
      • Kings Mountain
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 676.
    • Yancey Co.
      • Spruce Pine District
        • Burnsville
          • Hurricane Mountain
K.Linnekin collection
  • South Dakota
    • Custer Co.
      • Custer District
        • Berne
R&M 75:3 pp 156-169; Moore, P. B., 2000, Analyses of Primary Phosphates from Pegmatites in Maine and Other Localities, in V. T. King (editor), Mineralogy of Maine. Mining History, Gems, and Geology, Maine Geological Survey, Augusta, Maine, p. 333-336.
        • Custer
Roberts, W. L. and Rapp, G., 1965, Mineralogy of the Black Hills, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD, pp. 268. Moore, P. B., 2000, Analyses of Primary Phosphates from Pegmatites in Maine and Other Localities, in V. T. King (editor), Mineralogy of Maine. Mining History, Gems, and Geology, Maine Geological Survey, Augusta, Maine, p. 333-336.
SDSMT Bull 18 Roberts and Rapp "Mineralogy of the Black Hills"
        • Fourmile
Staatz, M. H.; Page, L. R.; Norton, J. J.; Wilmarth, V. R. (1963) Exploration for beryllium at the Helen Beryl, Elkhorn, and Tin Mountain pegmatites, Custer County, South Dakota. USGS Prof. Paper 297C.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Lawrence Co.
      • Lead District
    • Pennington Co.
      • Oreville District
USGS Bull 380D
  • Wisconsin
    • Florence Co.
      • Fern
Falster, A. , W.B. Simmons & P.B. Moore (1988) Fillowite, Lithiophilite, Heterosite/Purpurite and Allvaudite--Varulite Group Minerals from a Pegmatite in Florence County, WI, Abst. 15th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, Rocks and Minerals: 63(6) p. 455.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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