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Ramsdellite

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Formula:
Mn
4+
 
O
 
2
System:OrthorhombicColour:black, steel-grey
Hardness:3
Name:Named after the American mineralogist, Lewis S. Ramsdell (1895-1975), of the University of Michigan, who first described the mineral


Ramsdellite Group.

Forms by inversion of pyrolusite or oxidative dehydrogenation of groutite.

Classification of Ramsdellite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/D.10-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.DB.15a

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
B : With medium-sized cations; chains of edge-sharing octahedra
Dana 7th edition ID:4.4.7.1
Dana 8th edition ID:4.4.7.1

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
4 : AX2
Hey's CIM Ref.:7.18.4

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
18 : Oxides of Mn
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Type Occurrence of Ramsdellite

Type Locality:Lake Valley District, Sierra Co., New Mexico, USA
Year of Discovery:1943

Physical Properties of Ramsdellite

Lustre:Sub-Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:black, steel-grey
Streak:brownish black, black
Hardness (Mohs):3
Cleavage:Distinct/Good
Density (measured):4.37 g/cm3
Density (calculated):4.79 g/cm3

Crystallography of Ramsdellite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Cell Parameters:a = 4.53Å, b = 9.27Å, c = 2.86Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.489 : 1 : 0.309
Unit Cell Volume:V 120.43 ų
Z:4
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
4.08 (10)
2.53 (8)
2.13 (5)
1.88 (5)
1.64 (6)
1.60 (7)
1.46 (5)

Chemical Properties of Ramsdellite

Formula:
Mn
4+
 
O
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:Mn4+O2
Essential elements:Mn, O
All elements listed in formula:Mn, O

Relationship of Ramsdellite to other Species

Structurally related to group(s):
Ramsdellite Group
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.DB.05Argutite
GeO
 
2
4.DB.05Cassiterite
SnO
 
2
4.DB.05Plattnerite
PbO
 
2
4.DB.05Pyrolusite
MnO
 
2
4.DB.05Rutile
TiO
 
2
4.DB.05Tripuhyite
Fe
3+
 
Sb
5+
 
O
 
4
4.DB.05Tugarinovite
MoO
 
2
4.DB.05Varlamoffite
(Sn,Fe)(O,OH)
 
2
4.DB.10Byströmite
MgSb
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.10Tapiolite-(Fe)
(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.10Tapiolite-(Mn)
(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.10Ordoñezite
ZnSb
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.15bAkhtenskite
ε-Mn
4+
 
O
 
2
4.DB.15cNsutite
(Mn
4+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)(O,OH)
 
2
4.DB.15aParamontroseite
V
4+
 
O
 
2
4.DB.20Scrutinyite
alpha-PbO
 
2
4.DB.25Ishikawaite
U
4+
 
Fe
2+
 
Nb
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.25Ixiolite
(Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)
 
4
O
 
8
4.DB.25Samarskite-(Y)
(Y,Fe
3+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,U,Th,Ca)
 
2
(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.25Srilankite
ZrTi
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.25Yttrocolumbite-(Y)
Y(U
4+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)Nb
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.25Calciosamarskite
(Ca,Fe
3+
 
,Y)
 
2
(Nb,Ta,Ti)
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.25Samarskite-(Yb)
(Yb,Y,Fe
3+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,U,Th,Ca)
 
2
(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.30Ferberite
FeWO
 
4
4.DB.30Hübnerite
MnWO
 
4
4.DB.30Sanmartinite
(Zn,Fe)WO
 
4
4.DB.30Krasnoselskite
CoWO
 
4
4.DB.30Heftetjernite
ScTaO
 
4
4.DB.30Huanzalaite
MgWO
 
4
4.DB.35Columbite-(Fe)
FeNb
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Fe)
FeTa
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.35Columbite-(Mn)
(Mn,Fe)(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Mn)
MnTa
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.35Columbite-(Mg)
(Mg,Fe,Mn)(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.35Qitianlingite
(Fe,Mn)
 
2
(Nb,Ta)
 
2
WO
 
10
4.DB.35Magnocolumbite
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Mg)
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)(Ta,Nb)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.40Ferrowodginite
FeSnTa
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.40Lithiotantite
Li(Ta,Nb)
 
3
O
 
8
4.DB.40Lithiowodginite
LiTa
 
3
O
 
8
4.DB.40Titanowodginite
MnTiTa
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.40Wodginite
Mn(Sn,Ta)Ta
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.40Ferrotitanowodginite
Fe
2+
 
TiTa
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.40Wolframowodginite
Mn(Mn,Sn,Fe,Ta)(W,Ta,Nb)
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.45Tivanite
V
3+
 
TiO
 
3
(OH)
4.DB.50Carmichaelite
(Ti,Cr,Fe)[O
 
2-x
(OH)
 
x
]
4.DB.55Alumotantite
AlTaO
 
4
4.DB.60Biehlite
((Sb,As)O)
 
2
[MoO
 
4
]
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
7.18.1Manganosite
MnO
7.18.2Hausmannite
Mn
2+
 
Mn
3+
2
O
 
4
7.18.3Pyrolusite
MnO
 
2
7.18.5Akhtenskite
ε-Mn
4+
 
O
 
2
7.18.6Feitknechtite
Mn
3+
 
O(OH)
7.18.7Manganite
Mn
3+
 
O(OH)
7.18.8Groutite
Mn
3+
 
O(OH)
7.18.9Nsutite
(Mn
4+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)(O,OH)
 
2
7.18.10Pyrochroite
Mn(OH)
 
2
7.18.11Birnessite
(Na,Ca)
 
0.5
(Mn
4+
 
,Mn
3+
 
)
 
2
O
 
4
· 1.5H
 
2
O
7.18.12Aurorite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ag,Ca)Mn
4+
3
O
 
7
· 3H
 
2
O
7.18.13Cianciulliite
Mn(Mg,Mn)
 
2
Zn
 
2
(OH)
 
10
· 2-4H
 
2
O

Other Names for Ramsdellite

Synonyms:
Groutellite
Other Languages:
German:Ramsdellit
Russian:Рамсделлит
Simplified Chinese:斜方锰矿
Spanish:Ramsdellita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Ramsdellite

Reference List:

- +
American Mineralogist(1962): 47: 47-58.

American Mineralogist(1979): 64: 1199-1218.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie (1994): 209: 941.

Kohler, T., Armbruster, T., and Libowitzky, E. (1997) Hydrogen bonding and Jahn-Teller distortion in groutite, α-MnOOH, and manganite, γ-MnOOH, and their relations to the manganese dioxides ramsdellite and pyrolusite. Journal of Solid State Chemistry: 133: 486-500.

Internet Links for Ramsdellite

Search Engines:
  • Look for Ramsdellite on Google
  • Look for Ramsdellite images on Google
  • External Links:
  • Look for Ramsdellite on Webmineral
  • Look for Ramsdellite on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Ramsdellite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Ramsdellite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
  • Lapis Mineral Magazin
  • Fabre Minerals - search for Ramsdellite specimens
  • Fine and rare minerals from mintreasure.com
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  • Buy minerals from YourMineralCollection
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  • Buy fine minerals and gemstones from Pala International
  • Specimens:The following Ramsdellite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Ramsdellite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Yancowinna Co.
    No reference listed
    • South Australia
      • Eyre Peninsula
        • Middleback Range
          • Iron Knob
    No reference listed
    Azerbaijan
     
    • Göygöl District (Hanlar)
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
    Bulgaria
     
    • Haskovo Oblast (Khaskovo Oblast)
      • Rhodope Mts
    I. Kostov, V. Breskovska, J. Mincheva-Stefanova, G. Kirov (1964): Minerals of Bulgaria. Sofia, Bulgaria, 540 pp. (in Bulgarian).
    Burkina Faso
     
    • Centre-Nord Region
    Hénocque, O., Ruffet, G., Colin, F., & Féraud, G. (1998). < sup> 40 Ar/< sup> 39 Ar dating of West African lateritic cryptomelanes. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 62(16), 2739-2756.
    Canada
     
    • Nova Scotia
      • Hants Co.
        • East Hants
    R.W. Boyle, "The Geology, Geochemistry, and Origin of the Barite, Manganese, and Lead-Zinc-Copper-Silver Deposits of the Walton-Cheverie Area, Nova Scotia", Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin 166, 1972.
      • Kings Co.
        • Bay of Fundy
    Canadian Mineralogist 9 (1969) 718-720.
      • Pictou Co.
    Fleischer, M., Richmond, W.E, and Evans H.T. Jr., "Studies of the Manganese Oxides. V. Ramsdellite, MnO2, an Orthorhombic Dimorph of Pyrolusite", The American Mineralogist, vol. 47, pg. 47, Jan-Feb 1962.
    Chile
     
    • Atacama Region
      • Chañaral Province
        • Caballo Muerto district
    Maurizio Dini - analysed material by Bob Jenkins
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Karlovy Vary Region
        • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
          • Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal)
            • Horní Blatná District (Platten)
              • Horní Blatná (Platten; Bergstadt Platten)
    Bufka, A., Velebil, D.: Manganová mineralizace žíly Marie Terezie u Horní Blatné v Krušných horách. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 2003, roč. 11, s. 100-114.
    France
     
    • Alsace
      • Haut-Rhin
    Wittern, Journée: "Mineralien finden in den Vogesen", von Loga (Cologne), 1997
    • Franche-Comté
      • Haute-Saône
        • Faucogney-et-la-Mer
          • Esmoulières
            • Saphoz
    Wittern, Journée: "Mineralien finden in den Vogesen", von Loga (Cologne), 1997
    Perseil, E. A. (1975) - Nature and mineralogical studies of manganese oxides and carbonates in Faucogney (Haute-Saone). Comptes Rendus des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, D, 280, 1931-1934
    Perseil, E. A. (1975) - Nature and mineralogical studies of manganese oxides and carbonates in Faucogney (Haute-Saone). Comptes Rendus des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, D, 280, 1931-1934
    • Limousin
      • Creuse
        • Soumans
          • Montebras
    Patureau, J., Chiappero, P-J. & Lebocey, J. (2011): Mines et minéraux de Montebras, Soumans, Creuse. Le Règne Minéral. 99, 5-33
    • Midi-Pyrénées
      • Ariège
    Perseil, E. A. (1967): Manganese mineralization of the Upper Devonian in Las Cabesses (Ariege). Comptes Rendus du Congres National des Societes Savantes, Section des Sciences 91 (Part 2), 313-321.
      • Hautes-Pyrénées
    Le Règne Minéral 47: 5-21
          • Vielle Aure
    DE ASCENCAO GUEDES R., TIXADOR Y., CASTERET A. & GOUJOU JC. (2002) La mine de Coustou, Vielle-Aure, Hautes-Pyrénées. Le Règne Minéral, 47, 23-31. (in french)
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Black Forest
        • Gengenbach
          • Haigerach valley
    Wittern,A. (1995) Mineralien finden im Schwarzwald
        • Wolfach
          • Oberwolfach
            • Rankach valley
    Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German)
      • Odenwald
        • Heidelberg
          • Mauer
    S. Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Lower Saxony
      • Harz
        • Bad Grund
          • Iberg
    Schnorrer, G. & Klänhardt, K. (2002): Die Minerale des Iberg-Winterberg-Massives bei Bad Grund/Harz. Aufschluss, 53 (4), 181-199; Jahn, S., K. Stedingk & K. Klänhardt (2012): Das Iberg-Winterberg-Massiv bei Bad Grund. Mineralien-Welt, 23 (4), 30-67.
      • Peine
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Thuringia
      • Wurzbach
        • Weitisberga
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    Ghana
     
    • Western Region
      • Tarkwa
    Mücke, A., Dzigbodi-Adjimah, K., and Annor, A. (1999): Mineralium Deposita 34, 297-311.
    Greece
     
    • Aegean Islands Department (Aiyaíon)
      • Kykládes Prefecture
        • Cyclade Islands (Cyclades; Kikladhes; Nomos Kikladhon)
          • Milos Island (Melos)
    Hein, J. R.; Stamatakis, M. G.; Dowling, J. S. (2000): Trace metal-rich Quaternary hydrothermal manganese oxide and barite deposit, Milos Island, Greece. Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, 109, B67-B76.
    KILIAS, S. P. (2012). MICROBIAL MAT–RELATED STRUCTURES IN THE QUATERNARY CAPE VANI MANGANESE-OXIDE (-BARITE) DEPOSIT, NW MILOS ISLAND, GREECE. Microbial Mats in Siliciclastic Depositional Systems Through Time, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology) Special Publication, 101, 97-100.
    • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
      • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
        • Lavrion District Mines
          • Agios Konstantinos [St Constantine] (Kamariza)
    No reference listed
          • Daskalio area
    Hanke, H. (1996): Neues aus Lavrion (II). Mineralien-Welt, 7 (1), 54-56.
    Hungary
     
    • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Co.
      • Bükk Mtns
        • Bükkszentkereszt
    Koch: Minerals of Hungary, 1985
      • Zemplén Mtns (Tokaj Mtns)
        • Erdőhorváti
    GEODA, 1999
    • Veszprém Co.
      • Bakony Mtns
        • Eplény
    Szakáll & Gatter, 1993
        • Úrkút
          • Csárda Hill
    Szakáll & Jánosi (1996) The Minerals of Hungary
    India
     
    • Andhra Pradesh
      • Adilabad District
    Rao, J. S. R. Krishna; Kasipathi, C. (1985): Occurrence of todorokite from Adilabad Manganese Mines, Andhra Pradesh. Current Science 54, 862.
      • Vizianagaram District
    Econ Geol (1980) 75:1083-1104
    Econ Geol (1980) 75:1083-1104
    • Karnataka
      • Bellary District
        • Bellary-Hospet iron belt
          • Sandur
    Rao, J. S. R. K., Naidu, B. V. & Rao, K. V. (1979): Ore microscopic, x-ray and trace elemental data on manganese ores from Sandur, Karnataka, India. Acta Mineralogica-Petrographica 24, 91-97.
    Italy
     
    • Liguria
      • La Spezia Province
        • Vara Valley
          • Borghetto Vara
    • Veneto
      • Verona Province
        • Negrar
          • Montecchio
            • Vajo Siresol
    Probed by Prof. Giuseppetti (any paper at today)
      • Vicenza Province
        • Lusiana
    Boscardin M., Daleffe A., Rocchetti I., Zordan A. “I minerali nel Vicentino”, Museo “G. Zannato”, Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), 2011.
    Japan
     
    • Hokkaido
      • Oshima peninsula
        • Hiyama Subprefecture
    Miura, Hiroyuki;Kudou, Haruhiko;Choi, Jai Ho;Hariya, Yu (1990) The Crystal Structure of Ramsdellite from Pirika Mine. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University. Series 4, Geology and mineralogy; Vol.XXII, No.4
    • Honshu Island
      • Chubu Region
        • Niigata Prefecture
          • Niigata City
    University of Tokyo collection
        • Shizuoka prefecture
          • Shimoda City
    Alfredo Petrov specimens
      • Tohoku Region
        • Akita Prefecture
          • Kitaakita City
            • Ani-machi
    Dr. Matsuo Nambu ore collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
        • Iwate Prefecture
          • Kuji City
            • Yamagata
    Nambu, M. & Tanida, K. (1961): On the progressive alteration of manganese dioxide minerals in the Toyoguchi Mine, Iwate Prefecture. Ganseki Kobutsu Kosho Gakkaishi 45, 39-48. (in Japanese)
          • Noda
    Watanabe, T. (1959) Mineralogical Journal, 2, 6, 408-421
    Mexico
     
    • Baja California (Baja California Norte; BC Norte)
      • Mun. de Ensenada
    Panzcer (1987), pp. 103, 143, 150, 165, 174, 1777, 180, 186, 192, 226, 290, 319, 327, 334
    Panzcer, 1987, p. 327
      • Mun. de Tecate
        • Los Gavilanes
    Panczner(1987):327.
    [MinRec 14:110, 14:112]
    • Baja California Sur (BC Sur)
      • Mun. de Mulegé
        • Lucifer (San Lucifer)
    Panczner (1987): 327.
    • Chihuahua
      • Mun. de Aldama
    Cross, B. & Culp Zeitner J. (2006), Geodes Natures Treasures, P.21
      • Mun. de Aquiles Serdán
        • Santa Eulalia District
          • East Camp
    Megaw, P.K.M., 1990b, Geology and geochemistry of the Santa Eulalia mining district, Chihuahua, Mexico.: Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Arizona, 549 p
    • Durango
      • Mun. de Mapimí
        • Mapimí
    Rocks & Min.: 56:247.
    Panczner (1987): 327.
    New Caledonia
     
    • Northern Province
      • Houaïlou Commune
    Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., Bliss, J.D., and Moring, B.C., 2011, Ni-Co laterite deposits of the world; database and grade and tonnage models: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1058.
    Norway
     
    • Telemark
      • Notodden
    Selbekk R.S. (2010): Norges mineraler. En revidert utgave av Norges mineraler (Neumann 1985). Tapir-NGU-NHM. 552p (p.151)
    • Vest-Agder
      • Kristiansand
    Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 74; Breivik, H. ; Myre, K. & Larsen, A. O. (2007): Manganforekomster på Sørlandet: Kvivikdalen (Kostøl, Ålefjær): Norsk Bergverksmuseums Skrift, 35, 25-31
      • Mandal
    Neumann, H. (1959): Contributions to the mineralogy of Norway No. 1. An introduction. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 39:231-236
    Portugal
     
    • Guarda District
      • Sabugal
        • Bendada
    Schnorrer-Köhler (1991), Mineral Occurrences.
    • Setúbal District
      • Santiago do Cacém
        • Cercal
    Martins da Pedra collection
    Romania
     
    • Suceava Co.
      • Suceava district
        • Iacobeni (Jakobeny; Jacobeny; Jakabfalva)
    http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
    South Africa
     
    • Northern Cape Province
      • Kalahari manganese field
        • Hotazel
    Wilson, W.E. & Dunn, P.J., (1978) Famous localities: The Kalahari manganese field. Mineralogical Record 9(3) 137-153; Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa: pp 237.
    Minerals of South Africa
    Sweden
     
    • Dalsland
      • Åmål
        • Strandhem ore field
    Kjell Gatedal
    Switzerland
     
    • Wallis (Valais)
      • Turtmann Valley
        • Pipjitälli
    Ansermet, S. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais - II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. With contributions by N. Meisser, Ed. Porte-plumes (Ayer)
    UK
     
    • Wales
      • Ceredigion (Dyfed; Cardiganshire)
        • Trefeirig
          • Ponterwyd
            • Nant-y-Moch Reservoir area
    T.F. Cotterell, unpublished data
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Maricopa Co.
        • Vulture Mts
          • Vulture District
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 351; Hewett, D.F. (1964), Veins of hypogene manganese oxide minerals in the southwestern US, Econ.Geol.: 59: 1429-1472.
      • Mohave Co.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of AZ, 3rd. ed.: 188; Mouat, M.M. (1962), Mn Oxides from the Artillery Mts area, AZ, Am.Min.: 47: 744-757.
          • Artillery Peak
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 351.; Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 252, 351.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 252, 351.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of AZ, 3rd.ed.: 351; Mouat, M.M. (1962), Manganese oxides from the Artillery Mountains area, AZ, Am.Min.: 47:744-757.
      • Pinal Co.
        • Dudleyville
          • Malpais Hill
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 160, 250; Bideaux, R.A., et al (1960), Some new occurrences of minerals of AZ, AZ Geol. Soc. Digest: 3: 53-56; Thomssen, R.W. (1983), The minerals of Malpais Hill, Pinal Co., AZ, Min.Rec.: 14: 109-113.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 351; Thomssen, R.W. (1983), The minerals of Malpais Hill, Pinal Co., AZ, Min.Rec.: 14: 109-113.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 160, 250; Bideaux, R.A., et al (1960), Some new occurrences of minerals of AZ, AZ Geol. Soc. Digest: 3: 53-56; Thomssen, R.W. (1983), The minerals of Malpais Hill, Pinal Co., AZ, Min.Rec.: 14: 109-113.
        • Mammoth District
          • Tiger
            • St. Anthony deposit
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 351; Bideaux, R.A. (1980), Tiger, AZ, Min.Rec.: 11: 155-181.
      • Yavapai Co.
        • Box Canyon District
          • Sam Powell Peak
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 342-343, 351; Wilkinson, W.H., Jr., et al (1983), Ramsdellite from the Mistake Mine, Min.Rec.: 14: 333-335.
        • Weaver Mts
          • Weaver District (Virginia District; Mocking Bird District)
            • Octave
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 351.
    • California
      • Imperial Co.
        • Chocolate Mts
          • Paymaster District
    Hadley, Jarvis Bardwell (1942), Manganese deposits in the Paymaster mining district, Imperial County, California: USGS Bulletin 931-S: 465; Hewett, Donnel Foster (1964), Veins of hypogene manganese oxide minerals in the southwestern United States: Economic Geology: 59: 1440; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 318; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 164.
    • Colorado
      • Saguache Co.
    Rocks & Minerals (July-August, 2002)
    • Montana
      • Granite Co.
        • Philipsburg District (Flint Creek District)
    Geology and Ore Deposits of the Philipsburg District, Granite Co., Montana; William C. Prinz, 1967
      • Silver Bow Co.
    The mineralogy of the butte district, Montana By John M. Guilbert and Lester G. Zeihen; "Butte, Montana, Minerals, Mines and History", The Mineralogical Record, Vol 33, No. 1, Jan-Feb, 2002
    • New Mexico
      • Sierra Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
        • Iron Mountain No. 2 District
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
      • Socorro Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
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