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Renierite

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Formula:
(Cu,Zn)
 
11
(Ge,As)
 
2
Fe
 
4
S
 
16
System:TetragonalColour:Orange-bronze, tarnishes ...
Hardness:4 - 5
Name:Named after Armand Marie Vincent Joseph Renier (Verviers 26 June 1876 - Leuze 9 October 1951), Director of the Geological Survey of Belgium.


Charge balance maintained by coupled substitution Zn+Ge = Cu+As.

Classification of Renierite

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:2/C.10-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:2.CB.35a

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
C : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 1: 1 (and similar)
B : With Zn, Fe, Cu, Ag, etc.
Dana 8th edition ID:2.9.4.1

2 : SULFIDES
9 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Hey's CIM Ref.:6.2.3

6 : Sulphosalts - Sulphostannates, Sulphogermanates,Sulpharsenates, Sulphantimonates, Sulphovanadates and Sulphohalides
2 : Sulphogermanates
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Type Occurrence of Renierite

Type Locality:Kipushi Mine (Prince Léopold Mine), Kipushi, Katanga (Shaba), Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
Year of Discovery:1948

Physical Properties of Renierite

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Orange-bronze, tarnishes reddish
Hardness (Mohs):4 - 5

Crystallography of Renierite

Crystal System:Tetragonal
Class (H-M):4 2m - Scalenohedral
Space Group:P4 2c
Cell Parameters:a = 10.62Å, c = 10.55Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 0.993
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,189.88 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.06 (100)
2.65 (30)
1.871 (80)
1.600 (60)
Comments:(for Zn-rich As-poor renierite)

Chemical Properties of Renierite

Formula:
(Cu,Zn)
 
11
(Ge,As)
 
2
Fe
 
4
S
 
16
Simplified for copy/paste:(Cu,Zn)11(Ge,As)2Fe4S16
Essential elements:Cu, Fe, Ge, S
All elements listed in formula:As, Cu, Fe, Ge, S, Zn
Analytical Data:Charge balance maintained by coupled substitution Zn+Ge = Cu+As.
Empirical Formula:
Cu
 
10
ZnGe
 
2
Fe
 
4
S
 
16
to Cu
 
11
GeAsFe
 
4
S
 
16
Common Impurities:Ga,Pb

Relationship of Renierite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
2.CB.05aColoradoite
HgTe
2.CB.05aHawleyite
CdS
2.CB.05aMetacinnabar
HgS
2.CB.05cPolhemusite
(Zn,Hg)S
2.CB.05bSakuraiite
(Cu,Zn,Fe)
 
3
(In,Sn)S
 
4
2.CB.05aSphalerite
ZnS
2.CB.05aStilleite
ZnSe
2.CB.05aTiemannite
HgSe
2.CB.05UM1998-15-S:CuFeZn
Cu
 
2
Fe
 
3
Zn
 
5
S
 
10
2.CB.05aRudashevskyite
(Fe,Zn)S
2.CB.10aChalcopyrite
CuFeS
 
2
2.CB.10aEskebornite
CuFeSe
 
2
2.CB.10aGallite
CuGaS
 
2
2.CB.10bHaycockite
Cu
 
4
Fe
 
5
S
 
8
2.CB.10aLenaite
AgFeS
 
2
2.CB.10bMooihoekite
Cu
 
9
Fe
 
9
S
 
16
2.CB.10bPutoranite
Cu
 
9
(Fe,Ni)
 
9
S
 
16
2.CB.10aRoquesite
CuInS
 
2
2.CB.10bTalnakhite
Cu
 
9
(Fe,Ni)
 
8
S
 
16
2.CB.10aLaforêtite
AgInS
 
2
2.CB.15aČernýite
Cu
 
2
(Cd,Zn,Fe)SnS
 
4
2.CB.15aFerrokesterite
Cu
 
2
(Fe,Zn)SnS
 
4
2.CB.15aHocartite
Ag
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Zn)SnS
 
4
2.CB.15aIdaite
Cu
 
5
FeS
 
6
2.CB.15aKesterite
Cu
 
2
(Zn,Fe)SnS
 
4
2.CB.15aKuramite
Cu
 
3
SnS
 
4
2.CB.15bMohite
Cu
 
2
SnS
 
3
2.CB.15aPirquitasite
Ag
 
2
ZnSnS
 
4
2.CB.15aStannite
Cu
 
2
(Fe,Zn)SnS
 
4
2.CB.15cStannoidite
Cu
+
6
Cu
2+
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Zn)
 
3
Sn
 
2
S
 
12
2.CB.15aVelikite
Cu
 
2
HgSnS
 
4
2.CB.15cUM2006-11-S:CuFeGeZn
Cu
 
8
(Fe,Zn)
 
3
Ge
 
2
S
 
12
(?)
2.CB.20Chatkalite
Cu
 
6
FeSn
 
2
S
 
8
2.CB.20Mawsonite
Cu
 
6
Fe
 
2
SnS
 
8
2.CB.30Colusite
Cu
 
26
V
 
2
(As,Sn,Sb)
 
6
S
 
32
2.CB.30Germanite
Cu
 
13
Fe
 
2
Ge
 
2
S
 
16
2.CB.30Germanocolusite
Cu
 
26
V
 
2
(Ge,As)
 
6
S
 
32
2.CB.30Nekrasovite
Cu
 
26
V
 
2
(Sn,As,Sb)
 
6
S
 
32
2.CB.30Stibiocolusite
Cu
 
13
V
 
4
(Sb,Sn,As)
 
3
S
 
16
2.CB.30Ovamboite
Cu
 
20
(Fe,Cu,Zn)
 
6
W
 
2
Ge
 
6
S
 
32
2.CB.30Maikainite
Cu
 
20
(Fe,Cu)
 
6
Mo
 
2
Ge
 
6
S
 
32
2.CB.35aHemusite
Cu
 
6
SnMoS
 
8
2.CB.35aKiddcreekite
Cu
 
6
SnWS
 
8
2.CB.35aPolkovicite
(Fe,Pb)
 
3
(Ge,Fe)
 
1-x
S
 
4
2.CB.35aVinciennite
Cu
+
7
Cu
2+
3
Fe
2+
2
Fe
3+
2
Sn(As,Sb)S
 
16
2.CB.35aMorozeviczite
(Pb,Fe)
 
3
Ge
 
1-x
S
 
4
2.CB.35bCatamarcaite
Cu
 
6
GeWS
 
8
2.CB.40Lautite
CuAsS
2.CB.45Cadmoselite
CdSe
2.CB.45Greenockite
CdS
2.CB.45Wurtzite
(Zn,Fe)S
2.CB.45Rambergite
MnS
2.CB.45Buseckite
(Fe,Zn,Mn)S
2.CB.55aCubanite
CuFe
 
2
S
 
3
2.CB.55bIsocubanite
CuFe
 
2
S
 
3
2.CB.60Picotpaulite
TlFe
 
2
S
 
3
2.CB.60Raguinite
TlFeS
 
2
2.CB.65Argentopyrite
AgFe
 
2
S
 
3
2.CB.65Sternbergite
AgFe
 
2
S
 
3
2.CB.70Sulvanite
Cu
 
3
VS
 
4
2.CB.75Vulcanite
CuTe
2.CB.80Empressite
AgTe
2.CB.85Muthmannite
AuAgTe
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
6.2.1Germanite
Cu
 
13
Fe
 
2
Ge
 
2
S
 
16
6.2.2Briartite
Cu
 
2
(Fe,Zn)GeS
 
4
6.2.4Argyrodite
Ag
 
8
GeS
 
6
6.2.5Canfieldite
Ag
 
8
SnS
 
6
6.2.6Morozeviczite
(Pb,Fe)
 
3
Ge
 
1-x
S
 
4
6.2.7Polkovicite
(Fe,Pb)
 
3
(Ge,Fe)
 
1-x
S
 
4

Other Names for Renierite

Other Languages:
German:Renierit
Russian:Реньерит
Simplified Chinese:硫铜锗矿
Spanish:Renierita
Traditional Chinese:硫銅鍺礦
Varieties:
Arsenian Renierite

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Renierite

Reference List:

- +
American Mineralogist (1953): 38: 794-801.

American Mineralogist (1986): 71: 210-221.

Bernstein L.R., Reichel D.G., Merlino S.(1989) Renierite crystal structure refined from Rietveld analysis of powder neutron-diffraction data. American Mineralogist: 74: 1177-1181.

Internet Links for Renierite

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
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  • Look for Renierite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Renierite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Renierite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Fabre Minerals - search for Renierite specimens
  • Specimens:The following Renierite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Renierite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Argentina
     
    • Catamarca
      • Andalgalá Department
    Milka K. de Brodtkorb (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina. Vol. 1 (elements, sulphides and sulphosalts). (Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina); DE BRODTKORB, Milka K. Precious metaltellurides and other Te-bearing minerals in different paragenesis of Argentina: A review. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2009, vol.64, n.3, pp. 365-372.
    Armenia
     
    • Syunik' Province
    Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
      • Kafan District
        • Kapan (Ghapan; Kafan; Zangezur; Madan)
    Khachaturian, E. A. (1958): The mineral composition of ores of Kafan copper deposits. Izvest. Akad. Nauk Armyan. S.S.R., Ser. Geol i Geograf. Nauk 11 (No. 6), 25-38.
      • Kafan District (Kapan)
    Mederer, J., Moritz, R., Zohrabyan, S., Vardanyan, A., Melkonyan, R., & Ulianov, A. (2014). Base and precious metal mineralization in Middle Jurassic rocks of the Lesser Caucasus: A review of geology and metallogeny and new data from the Kapan, Alaverdi and Mehmana districts. Ore Geology Reviews, 58, 185-207.
    Australia
     
    • Tasmania
      • Queenstown district
        • Mount Lyell Mines
    Bottrill RS & Baker, WE (in prep) Catalogue of Minerals of Tasmania. Mineral Resources Tasmania
    Austria
     
    • Salzburg
      • Saalfelden
        • Leogang
          • Hütten
            • Schwarzleograben
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
              • Schwarzleo District
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
    • Styria
      • Leoben
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    Bulgaria
     
    • Pazardzhik Oblast (Pazardjik Oblast)
      • Panagyurishte (Panagurishte) Obshtina
        • Levski
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
    • Sofiya Oblast (Sofia Oblast)
      • Chelopech
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; American Mineralogist (1966): 51: 29-36; Bonev, I.K.; Petrunov, R.; Cook, N. J.; Ciobanu, C. L. (2005): Kostovite and its argentian varieties: Deposits and mineral associations. Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Petrology. 42, 1-22
    Canada
     
    • British Columbia
      • Alberni Mining Division
        • Vancouver Island
          • Buttle Lake
    Economic Geology,(1996) Vol. 91-3, pp.507-526
    • Nova Scotia
      • Inverness Co.
        • Meat Cove
    The Nova Scotia Mineral Occurrence Database (MODB)
    Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
     
    • Katanga (Shaba)
      • Kipushi
    Gramaccioli, C. M., 1985. Conoscere i minerali. I solfosali. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 96 pp; Kamona, A.F., Lévêque, J., Friedrich, G., and Haack, U. (1999): Mineralium Deposita 34, 273-283.; Kampunzu, A.B., Cailteux, J.L.H., Kamona, A.F., Intiomale, M.M., and Melcher, F. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 263-297.; Nenasheva, S. New Data on Minerals (2003): 38: 41-44; Chabu, M. (1995). The Geochemistry Of Phlogopite And Chlorite From The Kipushi Zn-Pb--Gu Deposit, Shaba, Zaire., Canadian Mineralogist 33, 547-558.
    France
     
    • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
      • Alpes-Maritimes
        • Guillaumes
    R. Pierrot, P. Picot, J. Feraud, J. Vernet : "Inventaire Minéralogique de la France, N° 4, Alpes Maritimes", BRGM, 1974
    Italy
     
    • Sardinia
      • Cagliari Province
        • Assemini
    Stara, P. (1990): La miniera di San Leone (CA). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 3/1990, 121-136.
      • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
        • Gonnesa
    Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Tanca, G.A. (1996): Iglesiente - Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Volume 1 & 2. Nine Italian Mineralogical Groups/Associations, 192 + 239 pp.
        • Iglesias
          • Punta della Torre
    De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Tohoku Region
        • Akita Prefecture
          • Kosaka
    [var: Arsenian Renierite] Hayashi, K. et al. (1985) As-bearing renierite from the Furutobe mine, Akita Prefecture, Japan. Journ. of the Japan. Assoc. of Min., Petr. and Econ. Geol. 80, 451-458.
          • Odate
    [var: Arsenian Renierite] Am. Min. 71 (1986), 210-221
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Pavlodar Province (Pavlodar Oblysy; Pavlodarskaya Oblast')
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    Namibia
     
    • Otjikoto Region (Oshikoto)
    Gramaccioli, C. M., 1985. Conoscere i minerali. I solfosali. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 96 pp
    http://rruff.info/renierite/display=default/
    • Otjozondjupa Region
      • Grootfontein District
    Cairncross, B. (1997) The Otavi Mountain Land Cu-Pb-Zn-V Deposits, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 28(2) 117 pp.
        • Kombat
    Dunn, P.J. (1991), Rare minerals of the Kombat Mine, Mineralogical Record: 22(6): 421-425.
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Krasnoyarsk Territory (Krasnoyarsk Kray; Krasnoyarskii Krai)
        • Igarka
    Cox, D.P., Lindsey, D.A., Singer, D.A., Moring, B.C., and Diggles, M.F. (2003): USGS Open-File Report 03-107
    • Northern Caucasus Region
      • Karachaevo-Cherkesskaya Republic (Karachai-Cherkess Republic; Karachay-Cherkessia Republic)
    Jambor J L, Grew E S (1994) New mineral names, American Mineralogist 79, 387-391
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
          • Magnitogorsk
    Belogub, E.V., Novoselov, K.A., Yakovleva, V.A., and Spiro, B. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 239-254.
    Spain
     
    • Andalusia
      • Granada
        • Motril
    - Morales Ruano,S.,Touray,J.C., Barbanson,L.y Fenoll,P. (1996). Génesis de las mineralizaciones de Ge asociadas a esfaleritas portadoras de fluidos "incompatibles" del Cerro del Toro(Alpujárride, SE de España) Geogaceta, 20, 1567-1570.
    • Asturias
      • Riosa
    A. Paniagua et al. , Bull. Minéral. , 1988, 111, pp. 383-391.
    USA
     
    • Alaska
      • Northwest Arctic Borough
        • Shungnak District
          • Ruby Creek Prospect
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
    • Colorado
      • Boulder Co.
        • Jamestown District
          • Inexco Mine
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    Zambia
     
    • Central Province
      • Kabwe District
        • Kabwe (Broken Hill)
    Kamona, A. F. & Friedrich, G. H. (2007): Geology, mineralogy and stable isotope geochemistry of the Kabwe carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn deposit, Central Zambia. Ore Geology Reviews 30, 217-243.; Kamona, A.F., Lévêque, J., Friedrich, G., and Haack, U. (1999): Mineralium Deposita 34, 273-283.
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