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Renierite

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Formula:
(Cu,Zn)11(Ge,As)2Fe4S16
System:
Tetragonal
Colour:
Orange-bronze, tarnishes ...
Hardness:
4 - 5
Name:
Named after Armand Marie Vincent Joseph Renier (Verviers 26 June 1876 - Leuze 9 October 1951), Director of the Geological Survey of Belgium.
Charge balance maintained by coupled substitution Zn+Ge = Cu+As.

Classification of Renierite

Approved
2.CB.35a

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
C : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 1: 1 (and similar)
B : With Zn, Fe, Cu, Ag, etc.
2.9.4.1

2 : SULFIDES
9 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
6.2.3

6 : Sulphosalts - Sulphostannates, Sulphogermanates,Sulpharsenates, Sulphantimonates, Sulphovanadates and Sulphohalides
2 : Sulphogermanates
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First Recorded Occurrence of Renierite

Year of Discovery:
1948

Physical Properties of Renierite

Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Orange-bronze, tarnishes reddish
Hardness (Mohs):
4 - 5

Crystallography of Renierite

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4 2m - Scalenohedral
Space Group:
P4 2c
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.62Å, c = 10.55Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.993
Unit Cell Volume:
V 1,189.88 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.06 (100)
2.65 (30)
1.871 (80)
1.600 (60)
Comments:
(for Zn-rich As-poor renierite)

Chemical Properties of Renierite

Formula:
(Cu,Zn)11(Ge,As)2Fe4S16
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
Charge balance maintained by coupled substitution Zn+Ge = Cu+As.
Empirical Formula:
Cu10ZnGe2Fe4S16 to Cu11GeAsFe4S16
Common Impurities:
Ga,Pb

Relationship of Renierite to other Species

2.CB.05aColoradoiteHgTe
2.CB.05aHawleyiteCdS
2.CB.05aMetacinnabarHgS
2.CB.05cPolhemusite(Zn,Hg)S
2.CB.05bSakuraiite(Cu,Zn,Fe)3(In,Sn)S4
2.CB.05aSphaleriteZnS
2.CB.05aStilleiteZnSe
2.CB.05aTiemanniteHgSe
2.CB.05UM1998-15-S:CuFeZnCu2Fe3Zn5S10
2.CB.05aRudashevskyite(Fe,Zn)S
2.CB.10aChalcopyriteCuFeS2
2.CB.10aEskeborniteCuFeSe2
2.CB.10aGalliteCuGaS2
2.CB.10bHaycockiteCu4Fe5S8
2.CB.10aLenaiteAgFeS2
2.CB.10bMooihoekiteCu9Fe9S16
2.CB.10bPutoraniteCu9(Fe,Ni)9S16
2.CB.10aRoquesiteCuInS2
2.CB.10bTalnakhiteCu9(Fe,Ni)8S16
2.CB.10aLaforêtiteAgInS2
2.CB.15aČernýiteCu2(Cd,Zn,Fe)SnS4
2.CB.15aFerrokësteriteCu2(Fe,Zn)SnS4
2.CB.15aHocartiteAg2(Fe2+,Zn)SnS4
2.CB.15aIdaiteCu5FeS6
2.CB.15aKësteriteCu2(Zn,Fe)SnS4
2.CB.15aKuramiteCu3SnS4
2.CB.15bMohiteCu2SnS3
2.CB.15aPirquitasiteAg2ZnSnS4
2.CB.15aStanniteCu2(Fe,Zn)SnS4
2.CB.15cStannoiditeCu6+Cu22+(Fe2+,Zn)3Sn2S12
2.CB.15aVelikiteCu2HgSnS4
2.CB.15cUM2006-11-S:CuFeGeZnCu8(Fe,Zn)3Ge2S12 (?)
2.CB.20ChatkaliteCu6FeSn2S8
2.CB.20MawsoniteCu6Fe2SnS8
2.CB.30ColusiteCu26V2(As,Sn,Sb)6S32
2.CB.30GermaniteCu13Fe2Ge2S16
2.CB.30GermanocolusiteCu26V2(Ge,As)6S32
2.CB.30NekrasoviteCu26V2(Sn,As,Sb)6S32
2.CB.30StibiocolusiteCu13V4(Sb,Sn,As)3S16
2.CB.30Ovamboite Cu20(Fe,Cu,Zn)6W2Ge6S32
2.CB.30MaikainiteCu20(Fe,Cu)6Mo2Ge6S32
2.CB.35aHemusiteCu6SnMoS8
2.CB.35aKiddcreekiteCu6SnWS8
2.CB.35aPolkovicite(Fe,Pb)3(Ge,Fe)1-xS4
2.CB.35aVincienniteCu7+Cu32+Fe22+Fe23+Sn(As,Sb)S16
2.CB.35aMorozeviczite(Pb,Fe)3Ge1-xS4
2.CB.35bCatamarcaiteCu6GeWS8
2.CB.40LautiteCuAsS
2.CB.45CadmoseliteCdSe
2.CB.45GreenockiteCdS
2.CB.45Wurtzite(Zn,Fe)S
2.CB.45RambergiteMnS
2.CB.45Buseckite(Fe,Zn,Mn)S
2.CB.55aCubaniteCuFe2S3
2.CB.55bIsocubaniteCuFe2S3
2.CB.60PicotpauliteTlFe2S3
2.CB.60RaguiniteTlFeS2
2.CB.65ArgentopyriteAgFe2S3
2.CB.65SternbergiteAgFe2S3
2.CB.70SulvaniteCu3VS4
2.CB.75VulcaniteCuTe
2.CB.80EmpressiteAgTe
2.CB.85MuthmanniteAuAgTe2
6.2.1GermaniteCu13Fe2Ge2S16
6.2.2BriartiteCu2(Fe,Zn)GeS4
6.2.4ArgyroditeAg8GeS6
6.2.5CanfielditeAg8SnS6
6.2.6Morozeviczite(Pb,Fe)3Ge1-xS4
6.2.7Polkovicite(Fe,Pb)3(Ge,Fe)1-xS4

Other Names for Renierite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Renierit
Simplified Chinese:硫铜锗矿
Spanish:Renierita
Traditional Chinese:硫銅鍺礦

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Renierite

Reference List:
American Mineralogist (1953): 38: 794-801.

American Mineralogist (1986): 71: 210-221.

Bernstein L.R., Reichel D.G., Merlino S.(1989) Renierite crystal structure refined from Rietveld analysis of powder neutron-diffraction data. American Mineralogist: 74: 1177-1181.

Internet Links for Renierite

Specimens:
The following Renierite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Renierite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Argentina
 
  • Catamarca
    • Andalgalá Department
Milka K. de Brodtkorb (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina. Vol. 1 (elements, sulphides and sulphosalts). (Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina); DE BRODTKORB, Milka K. Precious metaltellurides and other Te-bearing minerals in different paragenesis of Argentina: A review. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2009, vol.64, n.3, pp. 365-372.
Armenia
 
  • Syunik' Province
Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
    • Kafan District
      • Kapan (Ghapan; Kafan; Zangezur; Madan)
Khachaturian, E. A. (1958): The mineral composition of ores of Kafan copper deposits. Izvest. Akad. Nauk Armyan. S.S.R., Ser. Geol i Geograf. Nauk 11 (No. 6), 25-38.
    • Kafan District (Kapan)
Mederer, J., Moritz, R., Zohrabyan, S., Vardanyan, A., Melkonyan, R., & Ulianov, A. (2014). Base and precious metal mineralization in Middle Jurassic rocks of the Lesser Caucasus: A review of geology and metallogeny and new data from the Kapan, Alaverdi and Mehmana districts. Ore Geology Reviews, 58, 185-207.
Australia
 
  • Tasmania
    • Queenstown district
      • Mount Lyell Mines
Bottrill RS & Baker, WE (in prep) Catalogue of Minerals of Tasmania. Mineral Resources Tasmania
Austria
 
  • Salzburg
    • Saalfelden
      • Leogang
        • Hütten
          • Schwarzleograben
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
            • Schwarzleo District
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
  • Styria
    • Leoben
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
Bulgaria
 
  • Pazardzhik Oblast (Pazardjik Oblast)
    • Panagyurishte (Panagurishte) Obshtina
      • Levski
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Bogdanov, K., Tsonev, D., & Popov, K. (2004). Mineral Assemblages And Genesis Of The Cu-Au Epithermal Deposits In The Southern Part Of The Panaguyrishte Ore District, Bulgaria. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece, 36:406-415
  • Sofiya Oblast (Sofia Oblast)
    • Chelopech
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; American Mineralogist (1966): 51: 29-36; Bonev, I.K.; Petrunov, R.; Cook, N. J.; Ciobanu, C. L. (2005): Kostovite and its argentian varieties: Deposits and mineral associations. Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Petrology. 42, 1-22
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Alberni Mining Division
      • Vancouver Island
        • Buttle Lake
Economic Geology,(1996) Vol. 91-3, pp.507-526
  • Nova Scotia
    • Inverness Co.
      • Meat Cove
The Nova Scotia Mineral Occurrence Database (MODB)
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
 
  • Katanga (Shaba)
    • Kipushi
Gramaccioli, C. M., 1985. Conoscere i minerali. I solfosali. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 96 pp; Kamona, A.F., Lévêque, J., Friedrich, G., and Haack, U. (1999): Mineralium Deposita 34, 273-283.; Kampunzu, A.B., Cailteux, J.L.H., Kamona, A.F., Intiomale, M.M., and Melcher, F. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 263-297.; Nenasheva, S. New Data on Minerals (2003): 38: 41-44; Chabu, M. (1995). The Geochemistry Of Phlogopite And Chlorite From The Kipushi Zn-Pb--Gu Deposit, Shaba, Zaire., Canadian Mineralogist 33, 547-558.
France
 
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Alpes-Maritimes
      • Guillaumes
R. Pierrot, P. Picot, J. Feraud, J. Vernet : "Inventaire Minéralogique de la France, N° 4, Alpes Maritimes", BRGM, 1974
Italy
 
  • Sardinia
    • Cagliari Province
      • Assemini
Stara, P. (1990): La miniera di San Leone (CA). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 3/1990, 121-136.
    • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
      • Gonnesa
Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Tanca, G.A. (1996): Iglesiente - Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Volume 1 & 2. Nine Italian Mineralogical Groups/Associations, 192 + 239 pp.
      • Iglesias
        • Punta della Torre
De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Tohoku Region
      • Akita Prefecture
        • Kosaka
[var: Arsenian Renierite] Hayashi, K. et al. (1985) As-bearing renierite from the Furutobe mine, Akita Prefecture, Japan. Journ. of the Japan. Assoc. of Min., Petr. and Econ. Geol. 80, 451-458.
        • Odate
[var: Arsenian Renierite] Am. Min. 71 (1986), 210-221
Kazakhstan
 
  • Pavlodar Province (Pavlodar Oblysy; Pavlodarskaya Oblast')
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Namibia
 
  • Otjikoto Region (Oshikoto)
Gramaccioli, C. M., 1985. Conoscere i minerali. I solfosali. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 96 pp
http://rruff.info/renierite/display=default/
  • Otjozondjupa Region
    • Grootfontein District
Cairncross, B. (1997) The Otavi Mountain Land Cu-Pb-Zn-V Deposits, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 28(2) 117 pp.
      • Kombat
Dunn, P.J. (1991), Rare minerals of the Kombat Mine, Mineralogical Record: 22(6): 421-425.
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Krasnoyarsk Territory (Krasnoyarsk Kray; Krasnoyarskii Krai)
      • Igarka
Cox, D.P., Lindsey, D.A., Singer, D.A., Moring, B.C., and Diggles, M.F. (2003): USGS Open-File Report 03-107
  • Northern Caucasus Region
    • Karachaevo-Cherkesskaya Republic (Karachai-Cherkess Republic; Karachay-Cherkessia Republic)
Jambor J L, Grew E S (1994) New mineral names, American Mineralogist 79, 387-391
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
        • Magnitogorsk
Belogub, E.V., Novoselov, K.A., Yakovleva, V.A., and Spiro, B. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 239-254.
Spain
 
  • Andalusia
    • Granada
      • Motril
- Morales Ruano,S.,Touray,J.C., Barbanson,L.y Fenoll,P. (1996). Génesis de las mineralizaciones de Ge asociadas a esfaleritas portadoras de fluidos "incompatibles" del Cerro del Toro(Alpujárride, SE de España) Geogaceta, 20, 1567-1570.
  • Asturias
    • Riosa
A. Paniagua et al. , Bull. Minéral. , 1988, 111, pp. 383-391.
USA
 
  • Alaska
    • Northwest Arctic Borough
      • Shungnak District
        • Ruby Creek Prospect
U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
  • Colorado
    • Boulder Co.
      • Jamestown District
        • Inexco Mine
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
Zambia
 
  • Central Province
    • Kabwe District
      • Kabwe (Broken Hill)
Kamona, A. F. & Friedrich, G. H. (2007): Geology, mineralogy and stable isotope geochemistry of the Kabwe carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn deposit, Central Zambia. Ore Geology Reviews 30, 217-243.; Kamona, A.F., Lévêque, J., Friedrich, G., and Haack, U. (1999): Mineralium Deposita 34, 273-283.
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