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(Ce,La)(PO4) · H2O
Brown, pale pink, ...
Resinous, Waxy, Greasy, Dull
Named in 1878 by William Garrow Lettsom from the Greek, ραβδοζ, a rod, plus φαιυεσθαι, to appear, in allusion to the bands characteristically exhibited in its spectrum, plus the suffix "-(Ce)" indicating the dominance of Ce over other REE in this species.
Rhabdophane Group.
The most common member in this group.

Classification of Rhabdophane-(Ce)


C : Phosphates without additional anions, with H2O
J : With only large cations

4 : (AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O

19 : Phosphates
9 : Phosphates of rare earths and Sc URL:
Please feel free to link to this page.

First Recorded Occurrence of Rhabdophane-(Ce)

Year of Discovery:
Geological Setting of First Recorded Material:
Vein copper ore deposit

Occurrences of Rhabdophane-(Ce)

Geological Setting:
An uncommon late-stage mineral in almost all of its occurrences: nepheline syenite pegmatites, polymetallic veins, also rarely from granite pegmatites, has been found in limonite beds

Physical Properties of Rhabdophane-(Ce)

Resinous, Waxy, Greasy, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Brown, pale pink, yellowish-white; pale gray, fibers may be colourless in transmitted light.
May be stained by iron oxides
Colorless when pure
Hardness (Mohs):
None Observed
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
3.77 - 4.01 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.19 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Rhabdophane-(Ce)

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) - Dihexagonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.055Å, c = 6.439Å
a:c = 1 : 0.913
Unit Cell Volume:
V 277.55 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Occurs as incrustations, botryoidal, globular, or stalactitic forms with radial-fibrous structure. Short rod-like simple hexagonal crystals.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
6.09 (90)
4.41 (80)
3.51 (70)
3.03 (100)
2.83 (90)
2.16 (60)
1.865 (60)

Optical Data of Rhabdophane-(Ce)

Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.654 - 1.700 nε = 1.703 - 1.744
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.049
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Optical Extinction:
Colorless, E tan to light brown

Chemical Properties of Rhabdophane-(Ce)

(Ce,La)(PO4) · H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Rhabdophane-(Ce) to other Species

Other Members of Group:
Brockite(Ca,Th,Ce)PO4 · H2O
Rhabdophane-(La)(La,Ce)(PO4) · H2O
Rhabdophane-(Nd)(Nd,Ce,La)(PO4) · H2O
Tristramite(Ca,U,Fe)(PO4,SO4) · 2H2O
8.CJ.05StercoriteNa(NH4)HPO4 · 4H2O
8.CJ.10Mundrabillaite(NH4)2Ca(HPO4)2 · H2O
8.CJ.10Swaknoite(NH4)2Ca(HPO4)2 · H2O
8.CJ.15NabaphiteNaBaPO4 · 9H2O
8.CJ.15NastrophiteNa(Sr,Ba)PO4 · 9H2O
8.CJ.20HaidingeriteCaHAsO4 · H2O
8.CJ.25VladimiriteCa4(AsO4)2(AsO3OH) · 4H2O
8.CJ.30FerrarisiteCa5(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 9H2O
8.CJ.35Machatschkiite(Ca,Na)6(AsO4)(HAsO4)3(PO4,SO4) · 15H2O
8.CJ.40PhaunouxiteCa3(AsO4)2 · 11H2O
8.CJ.40RauenthaliteCa3(AsO4)2 · 10H2O
8.CJ.45Brockite(Ca,Th,Ce)PO4 · H2O
8.CJ.45Grayite(Th,Pb,Ca)(PO4) · H2O
8.CJ.45Rhabdophane-(La)(La,Ce)(PO4) · H2O
8.CJ.45Rhabdophane-(Nd)(Nd,Ce,La)(PO4) · H2O
8.CJ.45Tristramite(Ca,U,Fe)(PO4,SO4) · 2H2O
8.CJ.45SmirnovskiteCaTh(PO4)2 · nH2O
8.CJ.50ArdealiteCa2(HPO4)(SO4) · 4H2O
8.CJ.50BrushiteCa(HPO4) · 2H2O
8.CJ.50Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2O
8.CJ.50PharmacoliteCa(HAsO4) · 2H2O
8.CJ.50Churchite-(Nd)Nd(PO4) · 2H2O
8.CJ.55McneariteNaCa5(AsO4)(HAsO4)4 · 4H2O
8.CJ.60DorfmaniteNa2HPO4 · 2H2O
8.CJ.65SincositeCa(VO)2(PO4)2 · 5H2O
8.CJ.65BariosincositeBa(VO)2(PO4)2 · 4H2O
8.CJ.70CatalanoiteNa2(HPO4) · 8H2O
8.CJ.75GuériniteCa5(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 9H2O
8.CJ.85NingyoiteCaU(PO4)2 · 1-2H2O
19.9.2Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2O
19.9.7Rhabdophane-(La)(La,Ce)(PO4) · H2O
19.9.8Rhabdophane-(Nd)(Nd,Ce,La)(PO4) · H2O
19.9.13KolbeckiteScPO4 · 2H2O

Other Names for Rhabdophane-(Ce)

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Other Information:
Readily soluble in HCl.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Rhabdophane-(Ce)

Reference List:
Lettsom (1878) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 3: 191 (as Rhabdophane).

Lecoq d Boisbaudran (1878) Comptes rendu de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 86: 1028 (as Rhabdophane).

Bertrand (1880) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 3: 58.

Hartley (1882) Journal of the Chemical Society, London: 41: 210.

Hartley (1884) Journal of the Chemical Society, London: 45: 167.

Lettsom (1882) Proceedings of the Crystallological Society, London: 105 (as Rhabdophane).

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 774 (as Rhabdophane).

American Mineralogist (1980): 65: 1065.

Walenta, K. (2003): Monokliner bleihaltiger Rhabdophan von der Grube Clara im mittleren Schwarzwald. Aufschluss 54, 405-409.

Internet Links for Rhabdophane-(Ce)

Localities for Rhabdophane-(Ce)

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
  • Namibe Province
    • Tombwa City Council
L. Torró, C. Villanova, M. Castillo, M. Campeny, A. O. Gonçalves and J. C. Melgarejo (2012): Niobium and rare earth minerals from the Virulundo carbonatite, Namibe, Angola. Mineral. Mag. 76, 393-409.
  • New South Wales
    • Yancowinna Co.
No reference listed
  • Tasmania
    • Corinna-Savage River district
Bottrill & Taheri, 2008, Savage River mine, Unpub. Rept, Mineral Resources Tasmania
  • Luxembourg Province
    • Stavelot Massif
      • Vielsalm
        • Grand Halleux
Loeber, A. (2005). "La carrière de Hourt, Grand Halleux, Province de Luxembourg, Belgique." Magazine du 4M, 26(255), 5-7; Dehove, J. and Hubert, F. (2006). "Nouvelles découvertes à Hourt." Magazine du 4M, 27(263), 9-11.
  • Québec
    • Montérégie
      • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
        • Mont Saint-Hilaire
Horváth, L and Gault, R.A. (1990), The mineralogy of Mont Saint-Hilaire Quebec. Mineralogical Record: 21: 284-359.
      • Lajemmerais RCM
        • Varennes & St-Amable
HORVÁTH, L., PFENNINGER HORVÁTH, E., GAULT, R.A., and TARASSOFF, P. (1998) Mineralogy of the Saint Amable sill, Varennes and Saint Amable, Québec, Canada. Mineralogical Record, 29, 83 118.
Horváth, L., Pfenninger-Horváth, E., Gault, R. A., & Tarassoff, P. (1998): Mineralogy of the Saint-Amable Sill, Varennes and Saint-Amable, Québec. Mineralogical Record, 29: 83-118.
  • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
    • Baotou League (Baotou Prefecture)
      • Bayan Obo Mining District
        • Bayan Obo
Zhang Peishan, Yang Zhuming, Tao Kejie, and Yang Xueming (1996): "Mineralogy and Geology of Rare Earths in China", Science Press (Beijing), 226 pp.
Czech Republic
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Liberec Region
Scharm, B.: Přehled minerálů nalezených v oblasti uranových koncentrací v severočeské křídě. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1995, roč. 3, s. 169-172.
    • Ústí Region
      • Most
        • Hora Svaté Kateřiny (Sankt Katharinaberg; Halleberg; Katterberg)
Breiter, Karel, Copjakova, Renata, and Skoda, Radek, 2009, The Involvement of F, CO2, and As in the Alteration of Zr-Th-REE-bearing Accessory Minerals in the Hora Svaté Kateřiny A-type Granite, Czech Republic, Canadian Mineralogist, v. 47, p. 1375-1398.
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • Olomouc Region
      • Prostějov area
Škoda R., Čopjakova R. 2006: Authigenic REE mineralsfrom greywackes of the Drahany Uplands, Czech Republic and their significance for diagenetic processes. Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 28, 208-210
  • Auvergne
    • Haute-Loire
      • Langeac
        • Marsanges
PERINET F. (2014) - Minéraux des terres rares de Marsanges (Haute Loire). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs N° 123 pp. 18-22
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Gengenbach
        • Haigerach valley
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
[var: Plumboan Rhabdophane-(Ce)] Belendorff, K. (1986): Lapis 11 (3), 27-28.
      • Todtnau
Lapis 21(12), 44 (1996)
      • Wolfach
        • Oberwolfach
          • Rankach valley
Walenta, K. (1979): Chukhrovit-(Ce) und Rhabdophan-(Ce) aus der Grube Clara im mittleren Schwarzwald. Chem. Erde, 38, 331-39. (in German); Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German); KOLITSCH, U., GRÖBNER, J. & BAYERL, R. (1995): Die Mineralien der Silber-Antimon-Vererzungen der Grube Clara im Zeitraum 1993 bis 1995. - Erzgräber 9 (2), 61-77.
  • Bavaria
    • Franconia
      • Fichtelgebirge
        • Weißenstadt
          • Großer Waldstein
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990; Meier, S. (2002): Seltene Phosphatmineralien aus dem Fichtelgebirge und der Oberpfalz. Lapis 27 (2), 32-34
          • Rudolfstein
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Spessart
        • Waldaschaff
Lorenz, J., Schmitt, R., Hahn, W. (2007): Rhabdophan und Cuprobismutit von der Barytgrube "Pauline" in Waldaschaff im Spessart, Der Aufschluss, Vol. 58, 41-54
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Eifel
      • Laach lake volcanic complex
        • Kruft
[Hentschel, G., (1983): Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag, München] [Blass, G., Emmerich, F., Graf, HW., Schäfer, Ch., Tschörtner, J., (2006): Minerale der Eifelvulkane, Version 1.0, CD, published by authors]
        • Mendig
          • Niedermendig
[Hentschel, G., (1983): Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag, München] [Blass, G., Emmerich, F., Graf, HW., Schäfer, Ch., Tschörtner, J., (2006): Minerale der Eifelvulkane, Version 1.0, CD, published by authors]
[Hentschel, G., (1983): Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag, München] [Blass, G., Emmerich, F., Graf, HW., Schäfer, Ch., Tschörtner, J., (2006): Minerale der Eifelvulkane, Version 1.0, CD, published by authors]
            • Wingertsberg
[Hentschel, G., (1983): Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag, München] [Blass, G., Emmerich, F., Graf, HW., Schäfer, Ch., Tschörtner, J., (2006): Minerale der Eifelvulkane, Version 1.0, CD, published by authors]
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Halle
      • Petersberg
Jahn, S. (2007): Der Petersberg bei Halle a. d. Saale. Mineralien-Welt 18(6), 16-41.
  • Saxony
    • Oberlausitz
      • Görlitz
        • Königshain
Witzke, T. & Giesler, T. (2013): Eine Seltenerd- und Niob-Tantal-Mineralisation aus dem Königshainer Granit in der Lausitz, Sachsen.- Mineralien-Welt 24(1), 36-45
  • Győr-Moson-Sopron Co.
    • Soproni Mts
      • Sopron-Brennbergbánya
Mineral Species of Hungary, 2005
      • Sopron
Mineral Species of Hungary, 2005
  • Sardinia
    • Cagliari Province
      • Sarroch
- Orlandi, P., Gelosa, M., Bonacina, E., Caboni, F., Mamberti, M., Tanca, G., A. et Vinci, A. (2013) : Sardignaite, gelosaite et tancaite-(Ce) : trois nouveaux minéraux de Su Seinargiu, Sarroch, Sardaigne, Italie. Le Règne Minéral, 112, 39-52.
  • Kyushu Region
    • Saga Prefecture
Takai, Y. and Uehara, S. (2012) Rhabdophane-(Y), YPO4·H2O, a new mineral in alkali olivine basalt from Hinodematsu, Genkai-cho, Saga Prefecture, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 107, 110-113.
  • Zomba District
American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 1216–1222, 2009
  • Aust-Agder
    • Iveland
      • Birkeland
Neumann (1985) : Norges mineraler. Norges geologiske undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 117
      • Skripeland
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68,p. 117.
  • Østfold
    • Halden
      • Idd
        • Aspedammen
R. Kristiansen (1974, pers. com.); Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 117
  • Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (North-West Frontier Province)
    • Peshawar
      • Hameed Abad Kafoor Dheri
The Mineralogical Record, Volume 35 Number 3, p. 212
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
[World of Stones 12:49]
      • Polar Yakutia
S.M. Kravchenko data
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaja Oblast'
      • Kola Peninsula
        • Khibiny Massif
          • Koashva Mt
Arzamastsev, A., Yakovenchuk, V., Pakhomovsky, Y., & Ivanyuk, G. (2008). The Khibina and Lovozero alkaline massifs: Geology and unique mineralization. In Guidbook for 33rd International Geological Congress Excursion (No. 47, p. 58).
[AmMin 85:1844]
Pavel M. Kartashov data
        • Lovozero Massif
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (2013)
N.V. Chukanov, I.V. Pekov, A.E. Zadov, S.V. Krivovichev, P.C.Burns, Yu. Schneider (2001): Organovaite-Mn,K2Mn(Nb,Ti)4(Si4O12)2(O,OH)4·6H2O, a new labuntsovite-group mineral from the Lovozero massif, Kola Peninsula. Zap. Vseross. Mineral. Obshch., 130(2), 46­53
P.M. Kartashov data
Pekov, I.V. (2000): Lovozero Massif. Moscow, Ocean Pictures Ltd, 480 pp.
          • Seidozero Lake
Yakovenchuk, V.N., Pakhomovsky, Ya.A., Men’shikov, Yu.P., Mikhailova, J.A., and Ivanyuk, G.Yu. (2007): Canadian Mineralogist 45, 451-456.
Pavel M. Kartashov data; Semenov E.I. (1972) Mineralogy of Lovozero alkaline massif, - Moscow, Nauka, p. 308 (in Rus.)
Semenov E.I. (1972) Mineralogy of Lovozero alkaline massif, - Moscow, Nauka, p. 308 (in Rus.)
The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 43, pp. 735-746 (2005)
          • Suoluaiv Mt
Mikhail Uchitel' data
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
        • Plast
          • Kochkar' District
            • Svetlyi
Igor Savin's data
  • Galicia
    • Pontevedra
      • Porriño
Calvo, M., Viñals, J. and Vila, F. (2009) Mineralogy of the pegmatites and miarolitic cavities in the granitic batholit of Porriño, Pontevedra, galicia, Spain. Mineral Up, (2009-1), 6-23
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • St Austell District
        • Tywardreath
No reference listed
  • Zhytomyr Oblast' (Zhitomir Oblast')
Lyckberg, P., Chornousenko, V. & Wilson, W. E. (2009): Volodarsk-Volynski, Zhitomir Oblast, Ukraine. Mineralogical Record, 40, 473-506.
  • Arkansas
    • Hot Spring Co.
      • Magnet Cove
Art Smith (2001) Mineral News, 17, #11.
  • Colorado
    • Gunnison Co.
      • White Earth District (Powderhorn District)
"Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
  • Nevada
    • Pershing Co.
      • Antelope District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada; Jensen, M. (1993): Update on the mineralogy of the Majuba Hill mine, Pershing County. Mineralogical Record. 24, 171-180.
Jensen, M. (1993): Update on the mineralogy of the Majuba Hill mine, Pershing County. Mineralogical Record. 24, 171-180.
  • Wisconsin
    • Marathon Co.
      • Wausau Intrusive Complex
Hanson, S.L., et al (1999) Rocks and Minerals, 74, 184
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