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Rhönite

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Formula:
Ca2(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+,Ti)6[O2|(Si,Al)6O18]
System:
Triclinic
Colour:
Brown-red, black to ...
Hardness:
5 - 6
Name:
Named for the type locality in the Rhön Mountains, near Fulda, Hesse, Germany.

Classification of Rhönite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Explanation of status:
Originally believed to be a variety of aenigmatite, but a composition gap was established in 1970
9.DH.40

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
H : Inosilicates with 4-periodic single chains, Si4O12
69.2.1a.5

69 : INOSILICATES Chains with Side Branches or Loops
2 : Chains with Side Branches or Loops with P>2
16.14.3

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
14 : Aluminosilicates of Ti, Zr, Sn and Pb
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First Recorded Occurrence of Rhönite

Year of Discovery:
1907
Geological Setting of First Recorded Material:
nepheline basanite

Occurrences of Rhönite

Geological Setting:
Silica undersaturated, alkalic, mafic to intermediate igneous rocks.

Physical Properties of Rhönite

Vitreous, Sub-Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent, Opaque
Colour:
Brown-red, black to reddish black
Streak:
reddish brown
Hardness (Mohs):
5 - 6
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
Density:
3.4 - 3.76 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Crystallography of Rhönite

Polytype:
Formula:
Crystal System:
Class (H-M)
Space Group:
Space Group Setting:
Cell Parameters:
Ratio:
Unit Cell Volume (calc):
Z:
Rhönite-8Å
 
 
 

 

Optical Data of Rhönite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.795 - 1.810 nβ = 1.806 - 1.825 nγ = 1.830 - 1.845
2V:
Measured: 50° to 90°, Calculated: 70° to 84°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.035
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
r > v extreme

Chemical Properties of Rhönite

Formula:
Ca2(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+,Ti)6[O2|(Si,Al)6O18]
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Rhönite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
DorriteCa4(Mg3Fe93+)O4(Si3Al8Fe3+O36)
Høgtuvaite(Ca,Na)2(Fe2+,Fe3+,Ti)6[O2|Be(Si,Al)5O18]
LeucorhöniteCa2(Mg,Fe3+,Al)6(Si,Al)6O20
MakarochkiniteCa2Fe42+Fe3+Ti[O2|BeAlSi4O18]
Serendibite(Ca,Na)2(Mg,Fe2+)3(Al,Fe3+)3[O2|(Si,Al,B)6O18]
WelshiteCa4Mg9Sb3O4[Si6Be3AlFe2O36]
9.DH.05LeucophaniteNaCaBeSi2O6F
9.DH.10OhmiliteSr3(Ti,Fe3+)(Si4O12)(O,OH) · 2-3H2O
9.DH.15HaradaiteSrVSi2O7
9.DH.15SuzukiiteBaVSi2O7
9.DH.20BatisiteBaNaNaTi2(Si4O12)O2
9.DH.20Shcherbakovite(K,Ba)KNa(Ti,Nb)2(Si4O12)O2
9.DH.25TaikaniteSr3BaMn22+(Si4O12)O2
9.DH.30KrauskopfiteBaSi2O5 · 3H2O
9.DH.35Balangeroite(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+,Mn2+)42Si16O54(OH)40
9.DH.35GageiteMn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20
9.DH.40AenigmatiteNa2Fe52+Ti(Si6O18)O2
9.DH.40DorriteCa4(Mg3Fe93+)O4(Si3Al8Fe3+O36)
9.DH.40Høgtuvaite(Ca,Na)2(Fe2+,Fe3+,Ti)6[O2|Be(Si,Al)5O18]
9.DH.40KrinoviteNa2Mg4Cr23+(Si6O18)O2
9.DH.40MakarochkiniteCa2Fe42+Fe3+Ti[O2|BeAlSi4O18]
9.DH.40Serendibite(Ca,Na)2(Mg,Fe2+)3(Al,Fe3+)3[O2|(Si,Al,B)6O18]
9.DH.40WelshiteCa4Mg9Sb3O4[Si6Be3AlFe2O36]
9.DH.40WilkinsoniteNa2Fe42+Fe23+(Si6O18)O2
9.DH.45Sapphirine(Mg,Fe)4-xAl4+x[Al4+xSi2-xO18]O2
9.DH.50Khmaralite(Mg,Al,Fe)16[(Al,Si,Be)12O36]O4
9.DH.55Surinamite(Mg,Fe)3Al4BeSi3O16
9.DH.60Deerite(Fe,Mn)6(Fe,Al)3[Si6O17]O3(OH)5
9.DH.65HowieiteNa(Fe,Mn)10(Fe,Al)2Si12O31(OH)13
9.DH.65Taneyamalite(Na,Ca)(Mn,Mg,Fe)12Si12(O,OH)44
9.DH.70JohninnesiteNa2Mn92+Mg7(OH)8[AsO4]2[Si6O17]2
9.DH.75AgrelliteNaCa2Si4O10F
16.14.1ZoriteNa8(Ti,Nb)5(Si6O17)2(OH,O)5 · 14H2O
16.14.2Vinogradovite(Na,Ca,K)4Ti4AlSi6O23(OH) · 2H2O
16.14.4Kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
16.14.5Ferro-kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe32+AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
16.14.6JonesiteBa4(K,Na)2Ti4Al2(Si3O9)2(SiO4)4O2 · 6H2O
16.14.7Lourenswalsite(K,Ba)2(Ti,Mg,Ca,Fe)4(Si,Al,Fe)6O14(OH)12
16.14.8Labuntsovite-MnNa4K4(Ba,K)2Mn2+(Ti,Nb)8(Si4O12)4(O,OH)8 · 10-12H2O
16.14.9KimzeyiteCa3(Zr,Ti)2((Si,Al,Fe3+)O4)3
16.14.10EllenbergeriteMg6(Mg,Ti,Zr,◻)2(Al,Mg)6Si8O28(OH)10
16.14.11Carlosturanite(Mg,Fe,Ti)21(Si,Al)12O28(OH)34•H2O
16.14.12EakeriteCa2SnAl2Si6O18(OH)2 · 2H2O
16.14.13PlumalsitePb4Al2(SiO3)7
16.14.14WickenburgiteCaPb3Al2Si10O24(OH)6
16.14.15MaricopaitePb7Ca2(Si,Al)48O100 · 32H2O
16.14.16Epidote-(Pb){CaPb}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
16.14.17BurckhardtitePb2(Fe3+,Mn3+)Te4+(AlSi3O10)O2(OH)2 · H2O
16.14.18MathewrogersitePb7FeAl3GeSi12O36(OH,H2O)6

Other Names for Rhönite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Rhönite

Reference List:
American Mineralogist (1970): 55: 864-874.

European Journal of Mineralogy: 2: 203-218.

Canadian Mineralogist (1994): 32: 439.

Soellner, J. (1907): Über Rhönit, ein neues aenigmatitähnliches Mineral und über das Vorkommen desselben in basaltischen Gesteinen, Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie und Geologie, Beilage, 24, 1-57.

Internet Links for Rhönite

Localities for Rhönite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Antarctica
 
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Victoria Land
      • Ross Island
Am Min 60:722-725
  • Western Antarctica
    • Marie Byrd Land
      • Executive Committee Range
R.H. Grapes et al. , Min. Mag. , August 2003, Vol. 67, N°4, pp. 639-651.
Argentina
 
  • Buenos Aires
    • Coronel Suaréz
      • D'Orbigny
Jambon, A. & Boudouma, O. (2011). Evidence for Rhönite in Angrites D'Orbigny and Sahara 99555: 74th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society. Meteoritics & Planetary Science Supplement, id.5167. (Sept 2011)
Australia
 
  • Tasmania
    • Scottsdale District
      • West Scottsdale
        • (Briggs Qry; Springfield)
http://www.crocoite.com/locationbulletins/part1/zeolites.pdf
Austria
 
  • Burgenland
    • Oberpullendorf
      • Kobersdorf
        • Pauliberg
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993); U. Kolitsch, W. Postl, H.-P. Bojar and W. Trattner (2009): Die Mineralvorkommen im Basalt des Pauliberges. In: Autorenkollektiv (Red. M. A. Götzinger und P. Huber) (2009): Die Mineralien des Burgenlandes - Geologie, Mineralogie und mineralische Rohstoffe. – Wissenschaftliche Arbeiten aus dem Burgenland, Band 126, Amt der Burgenländischen Landesregierung, Abteilung 7 - Landesmuseum, Eisenstadt, 83-99.
France
 
  • Auvergne
    • Puy-de-Dôme
      • Besse-et-Saint-Anastaise
        • Murol
Queneau Patrice collection
hède
  • Rhône-Alpes
    • Ardèche
      • Privas
        • Alissas
Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, pp. 450-464.
        • Freyssenet
Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, pp. 450-464.
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Stuttgart
      • Ostfildern
Walenta, K. (1960) Jber. u. Mitt. oberrh. geol. Ver. Vol 42 (1960): 23-53
  • Hesse
    • Fulda
Soellner, J. (1907): Über Rhönit, ein neues aenigmatitähnliches Mineral und über das Vorkommen desselben in basaltischen Gesteinen, Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie und Geologie, Beilage, 24, 1-57.
    • Vogelsberg
      • Schotten
        • Gonterskirchen
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Eifel
      • Andernach
        • Eich
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der basaltischen Gesteine im Laacher Vulkangebiet, Der Aufschluß, Heft 2, 1975
        • Kruft
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der basaltischen Gesteine im Laacher Vulkangebiet, Der Aufschluß, Heft 2, 1975
        • Nickenich
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
      • Daun
        • Oberstadtfeld
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
        • Üdersdorf
Schüller, W., Betz, V., Die Mineralien vom Emmelberg, Lapis 12/1986
      • Kelberg
        • Drees
Schüller, W., Die Mineralien des Niveligsberges bei Drees in der Eifel, Der Aufschluß SB 33, 1990
      • Mayen
        • Ettringen
          • Bellerberg volcano
[Hentschel, G., Seltene Minerale in Calcium-reichen Auswürflingen vom Bellerberg bei Mayen/Eifel, Aufschluß 29, 77-83, 1978] [Lapis, 15 (5), 9-36]
      • Niederzissen
        • Wassenach
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der basaltischen Gesteine im Laacher Vulkangebiet, Der Aufschluß, Heft 2, 1975
Soellner, J. (1907): Über Rhönit, ein neues aenigmatitähnliches Mineral und über das Vorkommen desselben in basaltischen Gesteinen, Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie und Geologie, Beilage, Vol. 24, 1-57
      • Polch
        • Ochtendung
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Lapis 1988(7+8), 70-72
Greenland
 
  • Tunu Province (East Greenland)
http://www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/green.htm
Hungary
 
  • Nógrád Co.
    • Karancs-Medves Mts
      • Bárna
Mineral Species of Hungary, 2005
      • Salgótarján
EGU / EGS - AGU - EUG Joint Assembly, Abstracts from the meeting held in Nice, France, 6 - 11 April 2003, abstract #748 "Silicate melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts from Hegyestu (Bakony-Balaton Highland) and Pecsko alkaline basalts (Nograd-Gomor), Hungary"
  • Veszprém Co.
    • Balaton Uplands
      • Zánka
XVI ECROFI European Current Research On Fluid Inclusions, Porto 2001, Abstracts (Eds F. Noronha, A. Dória and A. Guedes), Faculdade de Ciências do Porto, Departamento de Geologia, Memória nº 7, pp. 237-240. Porto, 2001
Italy
 
  • Sicily
    • Catania Province
      • Etna Volcanic Complex
http://perso.club-internet.fr/rivierec/decembre_-_novembre_2001.htm.
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Chugoku region
      • Shimane Prefecture
Monkawa et al. (2002) Abstract of the Meeting of the Mineralogical Society of Japan, 65.
Kazakhstan
 
  • Pavlodar Province (Pavlodar Oblysy; Pavlodarskaya Oblast')
Lunar and Planetary Science XXXI
Mexico
 
  • Chihuahua
    • Pueblito de Allende
American Mineralogist (1971): 56: 2053.
Morocco
 
  • Souss-Massa-Draâ Region
    • Ouarzazate Province
      • Aoult
http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.P41A0219K (as rhönite); http://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2014/pdf/1818.pdf
    • Zagora Province
Kuehner, S. M. & Irving, A. J. (2007) Primary Ferric Iron-Bearing Rhönite in Plutonic Igneous Angrite NWA 4590: Implications for Redox Conditions on the Angrite Parent Body, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2007, abs. #P41A-0219. (Dec 2007)
New Zealand
 
  • South Island
    • Otago
      • Dunedin District
Am Min 60:722-725
Sahara
 
Jambon, A. & Boudouma, O. (2011). Evidence for Rhönite in Angrites D'Orbigny and Sahara 99555: 74th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society. Meteoritics & Planetary Science Supplement, id.5167. (Sept 2011)
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Lučenec Co.
Koděra et all.,1990: Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, I-III, 1590p
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
    • Rimavská Sobota Co.
Koděra et all.,1990: Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, I-III, 1590p
Spain
 
  • Canary Islands
    • Las Palmas Province
      • Gran Canaria (Grand Canary)
        • Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
Analyzed by XRD by Dr. Joan Vinals (Barcelona)- Col. Agustin Agudo Espinosa
USA
 
  • Hawaii
    • Kauai Co.
AmMin 69:57
  • Texas
    • Brewster Co.
      • Big Bend National Park
Am Min 55:5-6 pp 864-874
Zimbabwe
 
  • Matabeleland South
    • Beitbridge District
Kopylova, M.G., Gurney, J.J., and Daniels, L.R.M. (1997): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 129, 366-384.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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