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Rhönite

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Formula:
Ca
 
2
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
,Ti)
 
6
[O
 
2
|(Si,Al)
 
6
O
 
18
]
System:TriclinicColour:Brown-red, black to ...
Hardness:5 - 6
Member of:Rhönite Group > Sapphirine Supergroup
Name:Named for the type locality in the Rhön Mountains, near Fulda, Hesse, Germany.

Classification of Rhönite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Explanation of status:Originally believed to be a variety of aenigmatite, but a composition gap was established in 1970
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/F.14-50
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.DH.40

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
H : Inosilicates with 4-periodic single chains, Si4O12
Dana 8th edition ID:69.2.1a.5

69 : INOSILICATES Chains with Side Branches or Loops
2 : Chains with Side Branches or Loops with P>2
Hey's CIM Ref.:16.14.3

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
14 : Aluminosilicates of Ti, Zr, Sn and Pb
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Type Occurrence of Rhönite

Type Locality:Rhön, Fulda, Hesse, Germany
Year of Discovery:1907
Geological Setting of type material:nepheline basanite

Occurrences of Rhönite

Geological Setting:Silica undersaturated, alkalic, mafic to intermediate igneous rocks.

Physical Properties of Rhönite

Lustre:Vitreous, Sub-Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent, Opaque
Colour:Brown-red, black to reddish black
Streak:reddish brown
Hardness (Mohs):5 - 6
Cleavage:Distinct/Good
Density (measured):3.4 - 3.76 g/cm3

Crystallography of Rhönite

Crystal System:Triclinic
Class (H-M):1 - Pinacoidal
Space Group:P1

Optical Data of Rhönite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.795 - 1.810 nβ = 1.806 - 1.825 nγ = 1.830 - 1.845
2V:Measured: 50° to 90°, Calculated: 70° to 84°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.035

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Dispersion:r > v extreme

Chemical Properties of Rhönite

Formula:
Ca
 
2
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
,Ti)
 
6
[O
 
2
|(Si,Al)
 
6
O
 
18
]
Simplified for copy/paste:Ca2(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+,Ti)6[O2|(Si,Al)6O18]
Essential elements:Ca, Mg, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, O, Si, Ti

Relationship of Rhönite to other Species

Member of:Rhönite Group > Sapphirine Supergroup
Other Members of Group:

- +
Dorrite
Ca
 
4
(Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
9
)O
 
4
(Si
 
3
Al
 
8
Fe
3+
 
O
 
36
)
Høgtuvaite
(Ca,Na)
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
,Ti)
 
6
[O
 
2
|Be(Si,Al)
 
5
O
 
18
]
Leucorhönite
Ca
 
2
(Mg,Fe
3+
 
,Al)
 
6
(Si,Al)
 
6
O
 
20
Makarochkinite
Ca
 
2
Fe
2+
4
Fe
3+
 
Ti[O
 
2
|BeAlSi
 
4
O
 
18
]
Serendibite
(Ca,Na)
 
2
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
3
[O
 
2
|(Si,Al,B)
 
6
O
 
18
]
Welshite
Ca
 
4
Mg
 
9
Sb
 
3
O
 
4
[Si
 
6
Be
 
3
AlFe
 
2
O
 
36
]
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.DH.05Leucophanite
NaCaBeSi
 
2
O
 
6
F
9.DH.10Ohmilite
Sr
 
3
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)(Si
 
4
O
 
12
)(O,OH) · 2-3H
 
2
O
9.DH.15Haradaite
SrVSi
 
2
O
 
7
9.DH.15Suzukiite
BaVSi
 
2
O
 
7
9.DH.20Batisite
BaNaNaTi
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
12
)O
 
2
9.DH.20Shcherbakovite
(K,Ba)KNa(Ti,Nb)
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
12
)O
 
2
9.DH.25Taikanite
Sr
 
3
BaMn
2+
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
12
)O
 
2
9.DH.30Krauskopfite
BaSi
 
2
O
 
5
· 3H
 
2
O
9.DH.35Balangeroite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)
 
42
Si
 
16
O
 
54
(OH)
 
40
9.DH.35Gageite
Mn
 
21
(Si
 
4
O
 
12
)
 
2
O
 
3
(OH)
 
20
9.DH.40Aenigmatite
Na
 
2
Fe
2+
5
Ti(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)O
 
2
9.DH.40Dorrite
Ca
 
4
(Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
9
)O
 
4
(Si
 
3
Al
 
8
Fe
3+
 
O
 
36
)
9.DH.40Høgtuvaite
(Ca,Na)
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
,Ti)
 
6
[O
 
2
|Be(Si,Al)
 
5
O
 
18
]
9.DH.40Krinovite
Na
 
2
Mg
 
4
Cr
3+
2
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)O
 
2
9.DH.40Makarochkinite
Ca
 
2
Fe
2+
4
Fe
3+
 
Ti[O
 
2
|BeAlSi
 
4
O
 
18
]
9.DH.40Serendibite
(Ca,Na)
 
2
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
3
[O
 
2
|(Si,Al,B)
 
6
O
 
18
]
9.DH.40Welshite
Ca
 
4
Mg
 
9
Sb
 
3
O
 
4
[Si
 
6
Be
 
3
AlFe
 
2
O
 
36
]
9.DH.40Wilkinsonite
Na
 
2
Fe
2+
4
Fe
3+
2
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)O
 
2
9.DH.45Sapphirine
(Mg,Fe)
 
4-x
Al
 
4+x
[Al
 
4+x
Si
 
2-x
O
 
18
]O
 
2
9.DH.50Khmaralite
(Mg,Al,Fe)
 
16
[(Al,Si,Be)
 
12
O
 
36
]O
 
4
9.DH.55Surinamite
(Mg,Fe)
 
3
Al
 
4
BeSi
 
3
O
 
16
9.DH.60Deerite
(Fe,Mn)
 
6
(Fe,Al)
 
3
[Si
 
6
O
 
17
]O
 
3
(OH)
 
5
9.DH.65Howieite
Na(Fe,Mn)
 
10
(Fe,Al)
 
2
Si
 
12
O
 
31
(OH)
 
13
9.DH.65Taneyamalite
(Na,Ca)(Mn,Mg,Fe)
 
12
Si
 
12
(O,OH)
 
44
9.DH.70Johninnesite
Na
 
2
Mn
2+
9
Mg
 
7
(OH)
 
8
[AsO
 
4
]
 
2
[Si
 
6
O
 
17
]
 
2
9.DH.75Agrellite
NaCa
 
2
Si
 
4
O
 
10
F
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
16.14.1Zorite
Na
 
8
(Ti,Nb)
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
17
)
 
2
(OH,O)
 
5
· 14H
 
2
O
16.14.2Vinogradovite
(Na,Ca,K)
 
4
Ti
 
4
AlSi
 
6
O
 
23
(OH) · 2H
 
2
O
16.14.4Kaersutite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
AlTi}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)O
 
2
16.14.5Ferro-kaersutite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
3
AlTi}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)O
 
2
16.14.6Jonesite
Ba
 
4
(K,Na)
 
2
Ti
 
4
Al
 
2
(Si
 
3
O
 
9
)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
16.14.7Lourenswalsite
(K,Ba)
 
2
(Ti,Mg,Ca,Fe)
 
4
(Si,Al,Fe)
 
6
O
 
14
(OH)
 
12
16.14.8Labuntsovite-Mn
Na
 
4
K
 
4
(Ba,K)
 
2
Mn
2+
 
(Ti,Nb)
 
8
(Si
 
4
O
 
12
)
 
4
(O,OH)
 
8
· 10-12H
 
2
O
16.14.9Kimzeyite
Ca
 
3
(Zr,Ti)
 
2
((Si,Al,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
16.14.10Ellenbergerite
Mg
 
6
(Mg,Ti,Zr,◻)
 
2
(Al,Mg)
 
6
Si
 
8
O
 
28
(OH)
 
10
16.14.11Carlosturanite
(Mg,Fe,Ti)
 
21
(Si,Al)
 
12
O
 
28
(OH)
 
34
•H
 
2
O
16.14.12Eakerite
Ca
 
2
SnAl
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
18
(OH)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
16.14.13Plumalsite
Pb
 
4
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
3
)
 
7
16.14.14Wickenburgite
CaPb
 
3
Al
 
2
Si
 
10
O
 
24
(OH)
 
6
16.14.15Maricopaite
Pb
 
7
Ca
 
2
(Si,Al)
 
48
O
 
100
· 32H
 
2
O
16.14.16Epidote-(Pb)
{CaPb}{Al
 
2
Fe
3+
 
}(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)(SiO
 
4
)O(OH)
16.14.17Burckhardtite
Pb
 
2
(Fe
3+
 
,Mn
3+
 
)Te
4+
 
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)O
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
16.14.18Mathewrogersite
Pb
 
7
FeAl
 
3
GeSi
 
12
O
 
36
(OH,H
 
2
O)
 
6

Other Names for Rhönite

Synonyms:
Rhoenite
Other Languages:
German:Rhoenit
Rhönit
Russian:Ронит
Simplified Chinese:钛硅镁钙石
褐斜闪石
镁钙三斜闪石
Spanish:Rhoenita
Rhönita

Polytypes for Rhönite

Polytypes:
Rhönite-8Å

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Rhönite

Reference List:

- +
American Mineralogist (1970): 55: 864-874.

European Journal of Mineralogy: 2: 203-218.

Canadian Mineralogist (1994): 32: 439.

Soellner, J. (1907): Über Rhönit, ein neues aenigmatitähnliches Mineral und über das Vorkommen desselben in basaltischen Gesteinen, Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie und Geologie, Beilage, 24, 1-57.

Internet Links for Rhönite

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
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  • Look for Rhönite on Athena Mineralogy
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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Rhönite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Localities for Rhönite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Antarctica
     
    • Eastern Antarctica
      • Victoria Land
        • Ross Island
    Am Min 60:722-725
    • Western Antarctica
      • Marie Byrd Land
        • Executive Committee Range
    R.H. Grapes et al. , Min. Mag. , August 2003, Vol. 67, N°4, pp. 639-651.
    Argentina
     
    • Buenos Aires
    Jambon, A. & Boudouma, O. (2011). Evidence for Rhönite in Angrites D'Orbigny and Sahara 99555: 74th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society. Meteoritics & Planetary Science Supplement, id.5167. (Sept 2011)
    Australia
     
    • Tasmania
      • Scottsdale District
        • West Scottsdale
          • (Briggs Qry; Springfield)
    http://www.crocoite.com/locationbulletins/part1/zeolites.pdf
    Austria
     
    • Burgenland
      • Oberpullendorf
        • Kobersdorf
          • Pauliberg
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993); U. Kolitsch, W. Postl, H.-P. Bojar and W. Trattner (2009): Die Mineralvorkommen im Basalt des Pauliberges. In: Autorenkollektiv (Red. M. A. Götzinger und P. Huber) (2009): Die Mineralien des Burgenlandes - Geologie, Mineralogie und mineralische Rohstoffe. – Wissenschaftliche Arbeiten aus dem Burgenland, Band 126, Amt der Burgenländischen Landesregierung, Abteilung 7 - Landesmuseum, Eisenstadt, 83-99.
    France
     
    • Auvergne
      • Puy-de-Dôme
        • Besse-et-Saint-Anastaise
          • Murol
    Queneau Patrice collection
    hède
    • Rhône-Alpes
      • Ardèche
        • Privas
          • Alissas
    Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, pp. 450-464.
          • Freyssenet
    Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, pp. 450-464.
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Stuttgart
        • Ostfildern
    Walenta, K. (1960) Jber. u. Mitt. oberrh. geol. Ver. Vol 42 (1960): 23-53
    • Hesse
      • Fulda
    Soellner, J. (1907): Über Rhönit, ein neues aenigmatitähnliches Mineral und über das Vorkommen desselben in basaltischen Gesteinen, Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie und Geologie, Beilage, 24, 1-57.
      • Vogelsberg
        • Schotten
          • Gonterskirchen
    S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Eifel
        • Andernach
          • Eich
    Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der basaltischen Gesteine im Laacher Vulkangebiet, Der Aufschluß, Heft 2, 1975
          • Kruft
    Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der basaltischen Gesteine im Laacher Vulkangebiet, Der Aufschluß, Heft 2, 1975
          • Nickenich
    Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
        • Daun
          • Oberstadtfeld
    Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
          • Üdersdorf
    Schüller, W., Betz, V., Die Mineralien vom Emmelberg, Lapis 12/1986
        • Kelberg
          • Drees
    Schüller, W., Die Mineralien des Niveligsberges bei Drees in der Eifel, Der Aufschluß SB 33, 1990
        • Mayen
          • Ettringen
            • Bellerberg volcano
    [Hentschel, G., Seltene Minerale in Calcium-reichen Auswürflingen vom Bellerberg bei Mayen/Eifel, Aufschluß 29, 77-83, 1978] [Lapis, 15 (5), 9-36]
        • Niederzissen
          • Wassenach
    Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der basaltischen Gesteine im Laacher Vulkangebiet, Der Aufschluß, Heft 2, 1975
    Soellner, J. (1907): Über Rhönit, ein neues aenigmatitähnliches Mineral und über das Vorkommen desselben in basaltischen Gesteinen, Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie und Geologie, Beilage, Vol. 24, 1-57
        • Polch
          • Ochtendung
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    Lapis 1988(7+8), 70-72
    Greenland
     
    • Tunu Province (East Greenland)
    http://www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/green.htm
    Hungary
     
    • Nógrád Co.
      • Karancs-Medves Mtns
        • Bárna
    Mineral Species of Hungary, 2005
        • Salgótarján
    EGU / EGS - AGU - EUG Joint Assembly, Abstracts from the meeting held in Nice, France, 6 - 11 April 2003, abstract #748 "Silicate melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts from Hegyestu (Bakony-Balaton Highland) and Pecsko alkaline basalts (Nograd-Gomor), Hungary"
    • Veszprém Co.
      • Balaton Uplands
        • Zánka
    XVI ECROFI European Current Research On Fluid Inclusions, Porto 2001, Abstracts (Eds F. Noronha, A. Dória and A. Guedes), Faculdade de Ciências do Porto, Departamento de Geologia, Memória nº 7, pp. 237-240. Porto, 2001
    Italy
     
    • Sicily
      • Catania Province
        • Etna Volcanic Complex
    http://perso.club-internet.fr/rivierec/decembre_-_novembre_2001.htm.
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Chugoku region
        • Shimane Prefecture
    Monkawa et al. (2002) Abstract of the Meeting of the Mineralogical Society of Japan, 65.
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Pavlodar Province (Pavlodar Oblysy; Pavlodarskaya Oblast')
    Lunar and Planetary Science XXXI
    Mexico
     
    • Chihuahua
      • Pueblito de Allende
    American Mineralogist (1971): 56: 2053.
    Morocco
     
    • Souss-Massa-Draâ Region
      • Ouarzazate Province
        • Aoult
    http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.P41A0219K (as rhönite); http://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2014/pdf/1818.pdf
      • Zagora Province
    Kuehner, S. M. & Irving, A. J. (2007) Primary Ferric Iron-Bearing Rhönite in Plutonic Igneous Angrite NWA 4590: Implications for Redox Conditions on the Angrite Parent Body, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2007, abs. #P41A-0219. (Dec 2007)
    New Zealand
     
    • South Island
      • Otago
        • Dunedin District
    Am Min 60:722-725
    Sahara
     
    Jambon, A. & Boudouma, O. (2011). Evidence for Rhönite in Angrites D'Orbigny and Sahara 99555: 74th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society. Meteoritics & Planetary Science Supplement, id.5167. (Sept 2011)
    Slovakia
     
    • Banská Bystrica Region
      • Lučenec Co.
    Koděra et all.,1990: Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, I-III, 1590p
    Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
      • Rimavská Sobota Co.
    Koděra et all.,1990: Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, I-III, 1590p
    Spain
     
    • Canary Islands
      • Las Palmas Province
        • Gran Canaria (Grand Canary)
          • Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
    Analyzed by XRD by Dr. Joan Vinals (Barcelona)- Col. Agustin Agudo Espinosa
    USA
     
    • Hawaii
      • Kauai Co.
    AmMin 69:57
    • Texas
      • Brewster Co.
        • Big Bend National Park
    Am Min 55:5-6 pp 864-874
    Zimbabwe
     
    • Matabeleland South
      • Beitbridge District
    Kopylova, M.G., Gurney, J.J., and Daniels, L.R.M. (1997): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 129, 366-384.
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