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Rhodochrosite

This page kindly sponsored by Bruce Ueno
Formula:
MnCO3
System:
Trigonal
Colour:
Pink, rose, red, ...
Lustre:
Vitreous, Pearly
Hardness:
3½ - 4
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1813 by Johann Friedrich Ludwig Hausmann from the Greek ρόδο, "rose", and χρώς, "coloring", referring to its color.
Calcite Group. Calcite-Rhodochrosite Series and Rhodochrosite-Siderite Series.

Commonly occurs as a primary gangue mineral in moderate- to low-temperature hydrothermal veins, also in high-temperature metasomatic deposits and sedimentary manganese deposits or as a late stage hydrothermal mineral in pegmatites, especially lithiophilite-bearing ones.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Rhodochrosite.

Classification of Rhodochrosite

Approved
5.AB.05

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
A : Carbonates without additional anions, without H2O
B : Alkali-earth (and other M2+) carbonates
14.1.1.4

14 : ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
1 : A(XO3)
11.12.1

11 : Carbonates
12 : Carbonates of Mn
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http://www.mindat.org/min-3406.html
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First Recorded Occurrence of Rhodochrosite

Year of Discovery:
1813

Occurrences of Rhodochrosite

Geological Setting:
Low to moderate temperature hydrothermal veins, metamorphic deposits, carbonatites, sedimentary deposits.

Physical Properties of Rhodochrosite

Vitreous, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Pink, rose, red, yellowish-grey, brown, white, gray; colourless to pale rose in transmitted light.
Comment:
Reds occur when the mineral has minimal iron content.
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
3½ - 4
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {1011}.
Parting:
On {0112} at times.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Translation gliding:
Translation gliding with T{0001}, t[1010].
Density:
3.7 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.7 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Rhodochrosite

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:
R3c
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.777Å, c = 15.67Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 3.28
Unit Cell Volume:
V 309.68 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
6
Morphology:
Crystals rhombohedral {1011} or less commonly {0112}, then frequently rounded and composite; scalenohedral rare; thick tabular {0001}; prismatic [0001]. {1120} and {2131} often striated [1101]. Massive, coarsely granular; compact; columnar; crusts; stalactitic (with zoned growth rings); botryoidal.
For habits see:Rhodochrosite Habits.
Twinning:
On {0112}, lamellar, uncommon.

Crystallographic forms of Rhodochrosite

Crystal Atlas:
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Click on an icon to view
Rhodochrosite no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Rhodochrosite no.8 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Rhodochrosite no.10 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Rhodochrosite no.11 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.66 (35)
2.84 (100)
2.39 (20)
2.172 (25)
2.000 (25)
1.770 (30)
1.763 (35)

Optical Data of Rhodochrosite

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.814 - 1.816 nε = 1.596 - 1.598
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.218
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
Deep red coloured material may be faintly dichroic with absorption O greater than E.

Chemical Properties of Rhodochrosite

Formula:
MnCO3
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Fe,Ca,Mg,Zn,Co,Cd

Relationship of Rhodochrosite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Calcite (see here)
Forms a series with Siderite (see here)
Member of:
Other Members of Group:
5.AB.05CalciteCaCO3
5.AB.05Gaspéite(Ni,Mg,Fe)CO3
5.AB.05MagnesiteMgCO3
5.AB.05OtaviteCdCO3
5.AB.05SideriteFeCO3
5.AB.05SmithsoniteZnCO3
5.AB.05SpherocobaltiteCoCO3
5.AB.10AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
5.AB.10DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
5.AB.10KutnohoriteCa(Mn,Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
5.AB.10MinrecorditeCaZn(CO3)2
5.AB.15AragoniteCaCO3
5.AB.15CerussitePbCO3
5.AB.15StrontianiteSrCO3
5.AB.15WitheriteBaCO3
5.AB.20VateriteCaCO3
5.AB.25HuntiteCaMg3(CO3)4
5.AB.30NorsethiteBaMg(CO3)2
5.AB.35AlstoniteBaCa(CO3)2
5.AB.40OlekminskiteSr(Sr,Ca,Ba)(CO3)2
5.AB.40ParalstoniteBaCa(CO3)2
5.AB.45BarytocalciteBaCa(CO3)2
5.AB.50Carbocernaite(Ca,Na)(Sr,Ce,Ba)(CO3)2
5.AB.55Benstonite(Ba,Sr)6(Ca,Mn)6Mg(CO3)13
5.AB.60JuangodoyiteNa2Cu(CO3)2
11.12.2HoldawayiteMn6(CO3)2(OH)7(Cl,OH)
11.12.3DesautelsiteMg6Mn23+(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2O
11.12.4KutnohoriteCa(Mn,Mg,Fe)(CO3)2

Other Names for Rhodochrosite

Other Information

Thermal Behaviour:
Begins to dissociate at about 300˚ with the formation of CO2 and MnO.
Other Information:
Soluble with effervescence in warm acids. Slightly soluble in water with the solubility rate increasing with the presence of CO2.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Rhodochrosite

Reference List:
Bergmann, T. (1782) Sciagraphia regni mineralis (as Magnesium acido aëro mineralisatum).

Lenz, D.G. (1794) Versuch einer vollständigen Anleitung zur Kenntniss der Mineralien. vol. 2, Leipzig (as Luftsaures Braunsteinerz).

Haüy, R.J. (1809) Tableau comparative des résultants de la cristallographie et de l’analyse chimique relativement à la classification des minéraux. Paris: 111.

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1813) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen. Second edition: 302.

Sansoni (1881) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 5: 250.

Lacroix, A. (1901) Minéralogie de la France et des ses colonies, Paris. 5 volumes: vol. 3: 623.

Kreutz (1909) Mineralogical Magazine: 15: 232.

Manasse (1911) Atti soc. tosc., Mem., Pisa: 27: 76.

Wyckoff cited in: Strukturber (1913-1926): I: 316.

Ford (1917) Trans. Conn. Ac. Arts Sc.: 22: 211.

Wherry and Larsen (1917) Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences: 7: 365.

Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 5: 198.

Honess (1918) American Journal of Science: 45: 201.

Gaubert (1919) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 42: 97.

Niggli (1921) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 56: 231.

Veit (1921) Jahrbuch Min., Beil.-Bd.: 45: 121.

Koch (1924) Annals Hist.-Nat. Mus. Nat. Hungary: 21: 67.

Manchot and Lorenz (1924) Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, Hamburg, Leipzig: 134: 297.

Barić and Tućan (1925) Ann. Geol. Pen. Balkan., Belgrade: 8: 129.

Hintze, Carl (1927) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3A]: 3216.

Zsivny (1927) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 65: 728.

Mayo and O'Leary (1934) American Mineralogist: 19: 304.

Otto (1935) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 47: 89.

Dolar-Mantuani (1937) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 98: 181.

Yosimura (1939) Journal of the Faculty of Science of Hokkaido Imperial University: 4: 361.

Fornaseri (1941) Rend. Soc. min. ital.: 1: 60.

Wayland (1942) American Mineralogist: 27: 614.

Ham and Oakes (1944) Economic Geology: 39: 412.

Kulp, Wright, and Holmes (1949) American Mineralogist: 34: 195 (thermal analyses).

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 171-175.

American Journal of Sciences: 50: 317-360.

Reviews in Mineralogy, Mineralogical Society of America: 11.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 156: 233-243.

American Mineralogist (1988): 73: 798-808.

Deer, Howie, Zussman (1997): Vol. 2A: 586-599.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 590.

Internet Links for Rhodochrosite

Specimens:
The following Rhodochrosite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Rhodochrosite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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