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Rhodochrosite

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Formula:
MnCO
 
3
System:TrigonalColour:Pink, rose, red, ...
Lustre:Vitreous, PearlyHardness:3½ - 4
Member of:Calcite Group
Name:Named in 1813 by Johann Friedrich Ludwig Hausmann from the Greek ρόδο, "rose", and χρώς, "coloring", referring to its color.


Calcite Group. Calcite-Rhodochrosite Series and Rhodochrosite-Siderite Series.

Commonly occurs as a primary gangue mineral in moderate- to low-temperature hydrothermal veins, also in high-temperature metasomatic deposits and sedimentary manganese deposits or as a late stage hydrothermal mineral in pegmatites, especially lithiophilite-bearing ones.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Rhodochrosite. Currently in public beta-test.

Classification of Rhodochrosite

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:5/B.02-50
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:5.AB.05

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
A : Carbonates without additional anions, without H2O
B : Alkali-earth (and other M2+) carbonates
Dana 8th edition ID:14.1.1.4

14 : ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
1 : A(XO3)
Hey's CIM Ref.:11.12.1

11 : Carbonates
12 : Carbonates of Mn
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Type Occurrence of Rhodochrosite

Type Locality:Cavnic Mine (Kapnikbánya), Cavnic (Kapnic; Kapnik), Maramureș Co., Romania
Year of Discovery:1813

Occurrences of Rhodochrosite

Geological Setting:Low to moderate temperature hydrothermal veins, metamorphic deposits, carbonatites, sedimentary deposits.

Physical Properties of Rhodochrosite

Lustre:Vitreous, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Pink, rose, red, yellowish-grey, brown, white, gray; colourless to pale rose in transmitted light.
Comment:Reds occur when the mineral has minimal iron content.
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):3½ - 4
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
On {1011}.
Parting:On {0112} at times.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Translation gliding:Translation gliding with T{0001}, t[1010].
Density (measured):3.7 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.7 g/cm3

Crystallography of Rhodochrosite

Crystal System:Trigonal
Class (H-M):3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:R3c
Cell Parameters:a = 4.777Å, c = 15.67Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 3.28
Unit Cell Volume:V 309.68 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:6
Morphology:Crystals rhombohedral {1011} or less commonly {0112}, then frequently rounded and composite; scalenohedral rare; thick tabular {0001}; prismatic [0001]. {1120} and {2131} often striated [1101]. Massive, coarsely granular; compact; columnar; crusts; stalactitic (with zoned growth rings); botryoidal.
For habits see:Rhodochrosite Habits.
Twinning:On {0112}, lamellar, uncommon.
Crystal Atlas:
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Rhodochrosite no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Rhodochrosite no.8 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Rhodochrosite no.10 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Rhodochrosite no.11 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.66 (35)
2.84 (100)
2.39 (20)
2.172 (25)
2.000 (25)
1.770 (30)
1.763 (35)

Optical Data of Rhodochrosite

Type:Uniaxial (-)
RI values: nω = 1.814 - 1.816 nε = 1.596 - 1.598
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.218

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:High
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:Deep red coloured material may be faintly dichroic with absorption O greater than E.

Chemical Properties of Rhodochrosite

Formula:
MnCO
 
3
Simplified for copy/paste:MnCO3
Essential elements:C, Mn, O
All elements listed in formula:C, Mn, O
Common Impurities:Fe,Ca,Mg,Zn,Co,Cd

Relationship of Rhodochrosite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Calcite (see here)
Forms a series with Siderite (see here)
Member of:Calcite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Calcite
CaCO
 
3
Gaspéite
(Ni,Mg,Fe)CO
 
3
Magnesite
MgCO
 
3
Otavite
CdCO
 
3
Siderite
FeCO
 
3
Smithsonite
ZnCO
 
3
Spherocobaltite
CoCO
 
3
Common Associates:
TetrahedriteTephroiteSphaleriteSideriteRhodonite
QuartzPyriteManganiteHausmanniteGarnet Structural Group
FriedeliteFluoriteDolomiteCalciteBraunite
BaryteAlabandite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
5.AB.05Calcite
CaCO
 
3
5.AB.05Gaspéite
(Ni,Mg,Fe)CO
 
3
5.AB.05Magnesite
MgCO
 
3
5.AB.05Otavite
CdCO
 
3
5.AB.05Siderite
FeCO
 
3
5.AB.05Smithsonite
ZnCO
 
3
5.AB.05Spherocobaltite
CoCO
 
3
5.AB.10Ankerite
Ca(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
5.AB.10Dolomite
CaMg(CO
 
3
)
 
2
5.AB.10Kutnohorite
Ca(Mn,Mg,Fe)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
5.AB.10Minrecordite
CaZn(CO
 
3
)
 
2
5.AB.15Aragonite
CaCO
 
3
5.AB.15Cerussite
PbCO
 
3
5.AB.15Strontianite
SrCO
 
3
5.AB.15Witherite
BaCO
 
3
5.AB.20Vaterite
CaCO
 
3
5.AB.25Huntite
CaMg
 
3
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
5.AB.30Norsethite
BaMg(CO
 
3
)
 
2
5.AB.35Alstonite
BaCa(CO
 
3
)
 
2
5.AB.40Olekminskite
Sr(Sr,Ca,Ba)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
5.AB.40Paralstonite
BaCa(CO
 
3
)
 
2
5.AB.45Barytocalcite
BaCa(CO
 
3
)
 
2
5.AB.50Carbocernaite
(Ca,Na)(Sr,Ce,Ba)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
5.AB.55Benstonite
(Ba,Sr)
 
6
(Ca,Mn)
 
6
Mg(CO
 
3
)
 
13
5.AB.60Juangodoyite
Na
 
2
Cu(CO
 
3
)
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
11.12.2Holdawayite
Mn
 
6
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
7
(Cl,OH)
11.12.3Desautelsite
Mg
 
6
Mn
3+
2
(OH)
 
16
[CO
 
3
] · 4H
 
2
O
11.12.4Kutnohorite
Ca(Mn,Mg,Fe)(CO
 
3
)
 
2

Other Names for Rhodochrosite

Synonyms:
Carbonate of ManganeseDiallogiteDialogiteInca RoseManganese Spar
Raspberry SparRhodochroliteRhodocrositeStrömiteTorrensite
Villaurite
Other Languages:
Dutch:Rhodochrosiet
Finnish:Rodokrosiitti
Rodokrosiitin
French:Rhodochrosite
Manganèse oxydé carbonaté
Oxide de manganèse couleur de rose
Galician:Rodocrosita
German:Rhodochrosit
Blättriges Rotmanganerz
Diallogit
Dialogit
Dichter Rothstein
Himbeerspat
Himbeerspath
Kohlensaures Magnesium oxydul
Luftsaures Braunsteinerz
Manganspat
Manganspath
Rhodochrolit
Rosenspath
Rother Braunsteinerz
Strömit
Hebrew:רודוכרוזיט
Hungarian:Rodokrozit
Italian:Rodocrosite
Japanese:菱マンガン鉱
Latin:Magnesium acido aëro mineralisatum
Magnesium ochraceum rubrum
Polish:Rodochrozyt
Portuguese:Rodocrosita
Romanian:Rodocrozit
Russian:Родохрозит
Simplified Chinese:菱锰矿
钙菱锰矿
Slovak:Rodochrozit
Spanish:Rodocrosita
Diallogita
Dialogita
Rhodochrolita
Rhodochrosita
Strömita
Swedish:Rothspath
Varieties:
CapillititeCobaltoan RhodochrositePoniteSphaerodialogiteZincorhodochrosite

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:None.
Thermal Behaviour:Begins to dissociate at about 300˚ with the formation of CO2 and MnO.
Other Information:Soluble with effervescence in warm acids. Slightly soluble in water with the solubility rate increasing with the presence of CO2.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Rhodochrosite

Reference List:

- +
Bergmann, T. (1782) Sciagraphia regni mineralis (as Magnesium acido aëro mineralisatum).

Lenz, D.G. (1794) Versuch einer vollständigen Anleitung zur Kenntniss der Mineralien. vol. 2, Leipzig (as Luftsaures Braunsteinerz).

Haüy, R.J. (1809) Tableau comparative des résultants de la cristallographie et de l’analyse chimique relativement à la classification des minéraux. Paris: 111.

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1813) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen. Second edition: 302.

Sansoni (1881) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 5: 250.

Lacroix, A. (1901) Minéralogie de la France et des ses colonies, Paris. 5 volumes: vol. 3: 623.

Kreutz (1909) Mineralogical Magazine: 15: 232.

Manasse (1911) Atti soc. tosc., Mem., Pisa: 27: 76.

Wyckoff cited in: Strukturber (1913-1926): I: 316.

Ford (1917) Trans. Conn. Ac. Arts Sc.: 22: 211.

Wherry and Larsen (1917) Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences: 7: 365.

Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 5: 198.

Honess (1918) American Journal of Science: 45: 201.

Gaubert (1919) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 42: 97.

Niggli (1921) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 56: 231.

Veit (1921) Jahrbuch Min., Beil.-Bd.: 45: 121.

Koch (1924) Annals Hist.-Nat. Mus. Nat. Hungary: 21: 67.

Manchot and Lorenz (1924) Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, Hamburg, Leipzig: 134: 297.

Barić and Tućan (1925) Ann. Geol. Pen. Balkan., Belgrade: 8: 129.

Hintze, Carl (1927) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3A]: 3216.

Zsivny (1927) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 65: 728.

Mayo and O'Leary (1934) American Mineralogist: 19: 304.

Otto (1935) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 47: 89.

Dolar-Mantuani (1937) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 98: 181.

Yosimura (1939) Journal of the Faculty of Science of Hokkaido Imperial University: 4: 361.

Fornaseri (1941) Rend. Soc. min. ital.: 1: 60.

Wayland (1942) American Mineralogist: 27: 614.

Ham and Oakes (1944) Economic Geology: 39: 412.

Kulp, Wright, and Holmes (1949) American Mineralogist: 34: 195 (thermal analyses).

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 171-175.

American Journal of Sciences: 50: 317-360.

Reviews in Mineralogy, Mineralogical Society of America: 11.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 156: 233-243.

American Mineralogist (1988): 73: 798-808.

Deer, Howie, Zussman (1997): Vol. 2A: 586-599.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 590.

Mindat.org articles about Rhodochrosite

Article entries:
Rhodochrosite ShowcaseDominik Schläfli
Colorado Collecting TripPaul Gilmore

Best Localities for Rhodochrosite

Best of Species:Rhodochrosite

Internet Links for Rhodochrosite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Rhodochrosite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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