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Rhodonite

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Formula:
MnSiO3
System:
Triclinic
Colour:
Red, pink, brownish-red, ...
Lustre:
Vitreous, Pearly
Hardness:
5½ - 6½
Name:
Named in 1819 by Christoph Friedrich Jasche from the Greek ρόδον, "rose", referring to its color.
Often contains minor Ca.
Pyroxmangite of MnSiO3 composition is the high-pressure, low-temperature polymorph with respect to rhodonite of the same composition (Maresch & Mottana, 1976).

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Rhodonite.

Classification of Rhodonite

Approved
9.DK.05

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
K : Inosilicates with 5-periodic single chains
65.4.1.1

65 : INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
4 : Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=5
14.17.1

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
17 : Silicates of Mn
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Type Occurrence of Rhodonite

Year of Discovery:
1819

Occurrences of Rhodonite

Geological Setting:
Manganese deposits formed by hydrothermal, contact or regional metamorphic, and sedimentary processes.

Physical Properties of Rhodonite

Vitreous, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Comment:
Somewhat pearly on cleavage
Colour:
Red, pink, brownish-red, gray.
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
5½ - 6½
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {110} & {110}
Good on {001}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
3.57 - 3.76 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.726 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Rhodonite

Crystal System:
Triclinic
Class (H-M):
1 - Pinacoidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.758Å, b = 10.499Å, c = 12.205Å
α = 108.58°, β = 102.92°, γ = 82.52°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.929 : 1 : 1.162
Z:
20
Morphology:
Crystals rough, typically tabular
Twinning:
Lamellar, with {010} as composition plane.
Comment:
Non-standard space-group setting C-1.

Crystallographic forms of Rhodonite

Crystal Atlas:
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Rhodonite no.30 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Rhodonite no.49 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

Epitaxial Relationships of Rhodonite

Epitaxial Minerals:
TiragalloiteMn42+(HAsSi3O13)
MarsturiteNaCaMn3Si5O14(OH)
Epitaxy Comments:
(001)[100]mar // (001)[100]rho ; Dunn & Leavens (1986)
(010)[001]tir // (010)[100]rho ; Roth & Meisser (2011)
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Rhodonite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.711 - 1.738 nβ = 1.714 - 1.741 nγ = 1.724 - 1.751
2V:
Measured: 58° to 73°, Calculated: 58°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.013
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
r < v
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
X= yellowish red
Y= pinkish red
Z= pale yellowish red

Chemical Properties of Rhodonite

Formula:
MnSiO3
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Al,Ca,Fe,Zn

Relationship of Rhodonite to other Species

9.DK.05BabingtoniteCa2(Fe,Mn)FeSi5O14(OH)
9.DK.05LithiomarsturiteLiCa2Mn2Si5O14(OH)
9.DK.05ManganbabingtoniteCa2(Mn,Fe)FeSi5O14(OH)
9.DK.05MarsturiteNaCaMn3Si5O14(OH)
9.DK.05Nambulite(Li,Na)Mn4Si5O14(OH)
9.DK.05Natronambulite(Na,Li)(Mn,Ca)4Si5O14OH
9.DK.05ScandiobabingtoniteCa2(Fe2+,Mn)ScSi5O14(OH)
9.DK.05Fowlerite
9.DK.10SantaclaraiteCaMn4[Si5O14OH](OH) · H2O
9.DK.15SaneroiteNa2(Mn,Mn)10Si11VO34(OH)4
9.DK.20Hellandite-(Y)(Ca,REE)4Y2Al(Be,Li)2-xB4Si4O22(OH)2
9.DK.20Tadzhikite-(Ce)(Ca,Ce)4(Ce,Y)2(Ti4+,Fe3+,Al)[B4Si4O22](OH)2
9.DK.20Mottanaite-(Ce)Ca4(CeCa)AlBe2(Si4B4O22)O2
9.DK.20CiprianiiteCa4[(Th,U)(REE)]Al◻2(Si4B4O22)(OH,F)2
9.DK.20Hellandite-(Ce)(Ca,REE)4Ce2Al(Be,Li)2-xB4Si4O22(OH)2
14.17.2TephroiteMn22+SiO4
14.17.3BrauniteMn2+Mn63+(SiO4)O8
14.17.4AlleghanyiteMn52+(SiO4)2(OH)2
14.17.5Ribbeite(Mn2+,Mg)5(SiO4)2(OH)2
14.17.6LeucophoeniciteMn72+(SiO4)3(OH)2
14.17.7JerrygibbsiteMn92+(SiO4)4(OH)2
14.17.8BementiteMn7Si6O15(OH)8
14.17.9ParsettensiteK1.2Mn8(Si,Al)12O26(OH)10
14.17.10YofortieriteMn5Si8O20(OH)2 · 8-9H2O

Other Names for Rhodonite

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Rhodonite

Reference List:
Acta Crystallographica:: 12: 182-187.

Peacor, D.R. and N. Niizeki (1963): The redetermination and refinement of the crystal structure of rhodonite, (Mn,Ca)SiO3. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 119, 98-116.

H. Momoi (1964) Mineralogical study of rhodonites in Japan... Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 15, #1, 39-63 (in english).

Ohashi, Y. and Finger, L.W. (1975) Pyroxenoids. A comparison of refined structures of rhodonite and pyroxmangite. Carnegie Institution Washington Year Book: 74: 564-569.

Maresch, W.V. and Mottana, A. (1976) The pyroxmangite-rhodonite transformation for the MnSiO3 composition. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 55: 69-79.

Narita, H., Koto, K., and Morimoto, N. (1977) The crystal structures of MnSiO3 polymorphs (rhodonite- and pyroxmangite-type). Mineralogical Journal of Sapporo: 8: 329-342.

American Mineralogist (1988): 73: 798-808.

Robie, R.A., Huebner, J.S., and Hemingway, B.S. (1995) Heat capacities and thermodynamic properties of braunite (Mn7SiO12) and rhodonite (MnSiO3). American Mineralogist: 80: 560-575.

Deer, W.A., Howie, R.A. and Zussman, J. (1997): Vol. 2A: 586-599.

Cook, R.B. (2005) "Connoisseur's Choice: Rhodonite." Rocks & Minerals 80: 264-269.

Internet Links for Rhodonite

Specimens:
The following Rhodonite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Rhodonite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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