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Armalcolite

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Armstong, Aldrin & Collins
Formula:
(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Grey
Hardness:
5
Name:
Named in 1970 by A. T. Andersen, T. E. Bunch, Eugene N. Cameron, S. E. Haggery, F. R. Boyd, O. B. James, K. Keil, Marun Prinz, Paul Ramdohr, and A. El Goresy. This name is in honor of the first three astronauts who traveled to Earth's Moon. The name is an acronym derived from the last names of Neil Alden ARMstrong (b. 1930), Edwin Eugene ALdrin (b. 1930) and Michael COLlins (b. 1930), the Apollo 11 astronauts who collected the type samples.

Classification of Armalcolite

Approved
4.CB.15

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
C : Metal: Oxygen = 2: 3,3: 5, and similar
B : With medium-sized cations
7.7.1.2

7 : MULTIPLE OXIDES
7 : AB2X5
7.9.21

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
9 : Oxides of Ti
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First Recorded Occurrence of Armalcolite

General Appearance of First Recorded Material:
subhedral to anhedral grains to 300 µm across
Place of Conservation of First Recorded Material:
Lunar Science Institute, Houston, Texas, USA
Year of Discovery:
1970
Geological Setting of First Recorded Material:
in Ti-rich basalt and microbreccias of lunar samples, formed at low pressures and high temperatures

Occurrences of Armalcolite

Geological Setting:
in salic volcanics; in ultramafic rocks, lamproites and kimberlites; in terrestrial impact craters; in inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites; rarely in granite pegmatites

Physical Properties of Armalcolite

Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Grey
Hardness (Mohs):
5
Density:
4.94 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.64 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Armalcolite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.743Å, b = 10.023Å, c = 3.738Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.972 : 1 : 0.373
Unit Cell Volume:
V 365.03 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.468 (100)
1.958 (80)
2.763 (25)
2.454 (25)
2.235 (15)
2.199 (15)
2.414 (10)
Comments:
Recorded on type material

Optical Data of Armalcolite

Type:
Biaxial
Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Strong, pale grey to dark bluish gray
Reflectivity:
450 nmR1=14.1%R2= 15.2%
470 nmR1=14.0%R2= 15.0%
500 nmR1=13.8%R2= 14.7%
520 nmR1=13.7%R2= 14.5%
546 nmR1=13.4%R2= 14.4%
586 nmR1=13.3%R2= 14.3%
620 nmR1=13.2%R2= 14.2%
640 nmR1=13.0%R2= 14.1%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 15.2%.
R1 shown in black, R2 shown in red
Colour in reflected light:
Grey to tan
Pleochroism:
Visible

Chemical Properties of Armalcolite

Formula:
(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
Electron microprobe analysis of type material; total iron calculated as FeO
TiO2 (72.0)
Al2O3 (1.48)
V2O5 (0.07)
Cr2O3 (1.94)
FeO (14.7)
MnO (0.07)
MgO (8.7)
CaO (0.32)

sum 99.28 wt.-%
Empirical Formula:
(Mg0.46Fe2+0.44Al0.06Cr0.06Ca0.01)=1.03Ti1.92O5

Relationship of Armalcolite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Pseudobrookite (see here)
4.CB.05BrizziiteNaSb5+O3
4.CB.05CorundumAl2O3
4.CB.05Ecandrewsite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)TiO3
4.CB.05EskolaiteCr2O3
4.CB.05GeikieliteMgTiO3
4.CB.05HematiteFe2O3
4.CB.05IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
4.CB.05KarelianiteV23+O3
4.CB.05MelanostibiteMn2+(Sb5+,Fe3+)O3
4.CB.05PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3
4.CB.05Akimotoite(Mg,Fe2+)SiO3
4.CB.05AuroantimonateAuSbO3
4.CB.05Romanite(◻,Pb,Ca)UFe22+(Ti,Fe3+)6Ti12O38
4.CB.05UM1998-11-O-AuHSbAu2+Sb3+O2(OH)
4.CB.05TistariteTi23+O3
4.CB.10AvicenniteTl2O3
4.CB.10BixbyiteMn23+O3
4.CB.15PseudobrookiteFe2TiO5
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N2S[(Zn,Al,Fe2+)3(Al,Fe3+,Ti)8O15(OH)]2
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N6S[(Zn,Mg)7(Al,Fe3+,Ti)16O31(OH)]2
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-6N6S[(Mg,Fe2+)3(Al,Ti,Fe3+)8O15(OH)]6
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N3S[(Mg,Fe2+,Zn)4(Al,Ti,Fe3+)10O19(OH)]2
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N2S[(Mg,Fe2+)3[Al7(Ti,Fe3+)]O15(OH)]2
4.CB.20Ferrohögbomite-6N12S[(Fe2+,Mg,Zn)5(Al,Ti,Fe3+)12O23(OH)]6
4.CB.25PseudorutileFe2Ti3O9
4.CB.25KleberiteFeTi6O11(OH)5
4.CB.30BerdesinskiiteV23+TiO5
4.CB.30OxyvaniteV23+V4+O5
4.CB.35Olkhonskite(Cr,V)2Ti3O9
4.CB.35SchreyeriteV23+Ti3O9
4.CB.40KamiokiteFe2Mo3O8
4.CB.40Nolanite(V3+,Fe3+,Fe2+,Ti)10O14(OH)2
4.CB.40RinmaniteZn2Sb2Mg2Fe4O14(OH)2
4.CB.40IseiteMn2Mo3O8
4.CB.40MajindeiteMg2Mo3O8
4.CB.45ClaudetiteAs2O3
4.CB.45StibioclaudetiteAsSbO3
4.CB.50ArsenoliteAs2O3
4.CB.50SénarmontiteSb2O3
4.CB.55ValentiniteSb2O3
4.CB.60BismiteBi2O3
4.CB.65SphaerobismoiteBi2O3
4.CB.70SilléniteBi12SiO20
4.CB.75KyzylkumiteTi2V3+O5(OH)
4.CB.80TietaiyangiteFe43+Fe2+TiO9
7.9.1HongquiiteTiO
7.9.2RutileTiO2
7.9.3AnataseTiO2
7.9.4BrookiteTiO2
7.9.5GeikieliteMgTiO3
7.9.6PerovskiteCaTiO3
7.9.7KassiteCaTi2O4(OH)2
7.9.8TausoniteSrTiO3
7.9.9Crichtonite(Sr,La,Ce,Y)(Ti,Fe3+,Mn)21O38
7.9.10Lucasite-(Ce)CeTi2(O,OH)6
7.9.11Hibonite(Ca,Ce)Al12O19
7.9.12Yttrocrasite-(Y)(Y,Th,Ca,U)(Ti,Fe)2(O,OH)6
7.9.13PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3
7.9.14IwakiiteMn2+Fe23+O4
7.9.15IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
7.9.16PseudobrookiteFe2TiO5
7.9.17UlvöspinelFe2TiO4
7.9.18PseudorutileFe2Ti3O9
7.9.19FreudenbergiteNa2(Ti,Fe)8O16
7.9.20KennedyiteMgFe23+Ti3O10
7.9.22Högbomite(Mg,Fe)2(Al,Ti)5O10
7.9.23Qandilite(Mg,Fe)2(Ti,Fe,Al)O4
7.9.24Cafetite(Ca,Mg)(Fe,Al)2Ti4O12 · 4H2O
7.9.25Loveringite(Ca,Ce,La)(Zr,Fe)(Mg,Fe)2(Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)18O38
7.9.26Lindsleyite(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)2(Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
7.9.27PrideriteK(Ti74+Fe3+)O16
7.9.28Jeppeite(K,Ba)2(Ti,Fe)6O13
7.9.29AnkangiteBa(Ti,V3+,Cr)8O16
7.9.30Ecandrewsite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)TiO3
7.9.31LandauiteNaMnZn2(Ti,Fe)6Ti12O38

Other Names for Armalcolite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Armalcolite

Reference List:
Anderson A.T., Bunch T.E, Cameron E.N, Haggerty S.E., Boyd F.R., Finger L.W., James O.B., Keil K., Prinz M., Ramdohr P. and El Goresy A. (1970) Armalcolite, a new mineral from the Apollo 11 samples. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 34, Supplement 1, 55-63.

Lind, M. D. and Houseley, R. M. (1972): Crystallization studies of lunar igneous rocks: Crystal structure of synthetic armalcolite. Science 175, 521-523.

Haggerty, S. E. (1973): Ortho and para-armalcolite samples in Apollo 17. Nature 242, 123-125.

Lindsley, D. H., Kesson, S. E., Hartzman, M. J., and Cushman, M. K. (1974): The stability of armalcolite: Experimental studies in the system MgO-Fe-Ti-O. Proceedings of the 5th. Lunar Science Conference, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 61, Supplement 1, 521-534.

Smyth, J. R. (1974): The crystal chemistry of armalcolite from Apollo 17. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 24, 262-270.

Wechsler, B. A. (1977): Cation distribution and high-temperature crystal chemistry of armalcolite. American Mineralogist 62, 913-920.

Pedersen, A. K. (1981): Armalcolite-bearing Fe-Ti oxide assemblages in graphite-equilibrated salic volcanic rocks with native iron from Disko, central west Greenland. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 77, 307-324.

Bowles, J. F. W. (1988): Definition and range of composition of naturally occurring minerals with the pseudobrookite structure. American Mineralogist 73, 1377-1383.

Hayob, J. L. and Essene, E. J. (1995): Armalcolite in crustal paragneiss xenoliths, central Mexico. American Mineralogist 80, 810-822.

Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 22.

Internet Links for Armalcolite

Localities for Armalcolite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Antarctica
 
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Victoria Land
      • Allan Hills
Makoto Kimura & Ahmed El Goresy (1989). Discovery of E-Chondrite Assemblages and Silica-Bearing Objects in ALH85085:- Link Between E- and C-Chondrites (Abstract). Abstracts and Program for the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society. LPI Contribution 712, p. 112.
Austria
 
  • Styria
    • Bad Radkersburg
      • Klöch
Taucher, J. & Hollerer, C. E. (1998): Minerale eines Si- und Al-reichen Xenoliths aus dem Basaltsteinbruch von Klöch, Nördlicher Bruch, (Steiermark, Österreich). Mitt. naturwiss. Ver. Steiermark 128, 21-42.
Canada
 
  • Nunavut Territory
    • Coppermine River area
Roach, T. S., Roeder, P. L., & Hulbert, L. J. (1998). Composition of chromite in the upper chromitite, Muskox layered intrusion, Northwest Territories. The Canadian Mineralogist, 36(1), 117-135.
China
 
  • Shaanxi Province
    • Hanzhong Prefecture
      • Ningqiang Co.
Lin, Y. T. & Kimura, M. (1996). Discovery of Complex Titanium Oxide Associations in a Plagioclase-Olivine Inclusion (POI) in the Ningqiang Carbonaceous Chondrite. Lunar and Planetary Science, vol. 27, pages 755-756. (1996).
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Liberec Region
Kühn, P., Scharmová, M.: Manganový armalcolit a pseudorutil z uranonosných sedimentů severočeské křídové pánve u Stráže pod Ralskem. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1999, roč. 7, s. 173-176.
French Southern and Antarctic Lands
 
Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 122, 174-190 (1995)
Germany
 
  • Bavaria
    • Swabia
J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3 (1997), 22
Greenland
 
  • Qaasuitsup
J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3 (1997), 22
Pedersen, A.K. (1979) A shale buchite xenolith with Al-armalcolite and native iron in a lava from Asuk, Disko, central West Greenland. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 69, No. 1, 83-94
Mexico
 
  • Chihuahua
    • Pueblito de Allende
Brearley, A. J. & Jones, R. H. (1998). Chondritic Meteorites. In: Planetary Materials (Papike, J. J., Editor): Chapter 3, 398 pages. Mineralogical Society of America: Washington, DC, USA. (1998)
  • San Luis Potosí
J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3 (1997), 22
Mongolia
 
  • Hovd Aimag (Khovd Aimag)
    • Altai Mts
P.M. Kartashov data
Oman
 
  • Dhofar Province (Al Janubiyah Province)
Meteoritical Bulletin No. 86
www.meteoriticalsociety.org/bulletin/mb87.pdf.
The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 88, 2004 JULY, Meteoritics & Planetary Science 39, Axxx–Axxx (2004)
Romania
 
  • Caraş-Severin Co.
    • Banat Mts
      • Gătaia
Seghedi I., Ntaflos T. 2006: G˘ataia lamproite (SW Romania). Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 29, 188-191
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
[World of Stones 12:49]
    • Taymyrskiy Autonomous Okrug
      • Taimyr Peninsula
        • Khatanga
          • Malaya Romanikha River
P.M. Kartashov data
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
        • Chelyabinsk coal basin
Cesnokov, B., M. Kotrly, and T. Nisanbajev (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Banská Bystrica Co.
      • Brusno
Uher, P. ,Černý, P., 1998 : Vzácnoprvková mineralizácia v granitových pegmatitoch Nízkych Tatier. Mineralia Slovaca, 30, 2,93 – 94
South Africa
 
  • Free State Province
    • Xhariep District
      • Jagersfontein
Minerals of South Africa
  • Northern Cape Province
    • Francis Baard District
      • Kimberley
J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3 (1997), 22
J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3 (1997), 22
Spain
 
  • Castile-La Mancha
    • Albacete
      • Hellín
        • Cancarix
E. Salvioli-mariani et al. , Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, pp. 1027-1039.
  • Murcia
J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3 (1997), 22
The Moon
 
  • Descartes Highlands
J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3 (1997), 22; Dowty, E., Keil, K., & Prinz, M. (1974) Igneous rocks from Apollo 16 rake samples. In: Lunar Science Conference, 5th, Houston, Tex., March 18-22, 1974, Proceedings. Volume 2. (A75-39540 19-91) New York, Pergamon Press, Inc., 1974, p. 431-445.
  • Mare Tranquillitatis (Sea of Tranquility)
Proc. Apollo 11 Lunar Sci.Conf.(1970) 1, 55-63
  • Taurus-Littrow Valley
www.union.edu/PUBLIC/GEODEPT/COURSES/petrology/moon_rocks/70017.htm ; Longhi, J., Walker, D., Grove, T. L., Stolper, E. M., & Hays, J. F. (1974) The petrology of the Apollo 17 mare basalts. In: Lunar Science Conference, 5th, Houston, Tex., March 18-22, 1974, Proceedings. Volume 1. (A75-39540 19-91) New York, Pergamon Press, Inc., 1974, p. 447-469.
USA
 
  • Montana
    • Garfield Co.
AmMin 60:566; Journal of Petrology Volume 33 :3 Pages 505-520 1992
  • Texas
    • Uvalde Co.
      • Knippa
R&M 66:3 pp 196-224
  • Utah
    • Piute Co.
Mineralogical Magazine 1998 62 : 265-269
  • Wyoming
    • Sweetwater Co.
http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2002RM/finalprogram/abstract_33540.htm
Zimbabwe
 
  • Masvingo
J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3 (1997), 22
Mineral and/or Locality  
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