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Richterite

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Formula:
{Na}{CaNa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
The richterite group minerals are defined as sodium-calcium amphiboles with 0,5 apfu < A(Na+K+ 2Ca) where Na or K is dominant, and with C(Al+Fe3++2Ti)<0,5 apfu. The W position may contain (OH),F or Cl.

Richterite is defined with
A position: Na dominant
C position: Mg dominant
W position: (OH) dominant.
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Brown to brownish-red, ...
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
5 - 6
Name:
Named in 1865 by Johann Friedrich August Breithaupt in honor of Hieronymus Theodor Richter [November 21, 1824 Dresden, Germany – September 25, 1898 Freiberg, Saxony, Germany], professor of chemistry at Freiberg University of Mining and Technology. He was the co-discoverer of indium.
This page provides mineralogical data about Richterite.

Classification of Richterite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
9.DE.20

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
E : Inosilicates with 2-periodic double chains, Si4O11; Clinoamphiboles
66.1.3b.9

66 : INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
1 : Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
14.18.31

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
18 : Silicates of Mn and Na, K, Mg, Ca or Fe
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http://www.mindat.org/min-3416.html
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Type Occurrence of Richterite

Year of Discovery:
1865

Physical Properties of Richterite

Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent
Colour:
Brown to brownish-red, rose-red, or yellow, grey-brown, and also pale to dark green. dark green blue and grey blue
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
5 - 6

Crystallography of Richterite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.9Å, b = 17.97Å, c = 5.26Å
β = 104.25°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.551 : 1 : 0.293
Unit Cell Volume:
V 906.98 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Richterite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.615 nβ = 1.629 nγ = 1.636
2V:
Measured: 68° , Calculated: 70°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.021
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
r < v strong

Chemical Properties of Richterite

Formula:
{Na}{CaNa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2

The richterite group minerals are defined as sodium-calcium amphiboles with 0,5 apfu < A(Na+K+ 2Ca) where Na or K is dominant, and with C(Al+Fe3++2Ti)<0,5 apfu. The W position may contain (OH),F or Cl.

Richterite is defined with
A position: Na dominant
C position: Mg dominant
W position: (OH) dominant.
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Ti,Al,Cr,Mn,Ni,Sr,K,F,Cl,H2O

Relationship of Richterite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
Ferro-fluoro-richterite{Na}{CaNa}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)F2
Ferro-richterite{Na}{CaNa}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fluoro-richterite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(F,OH)2
Potassic-ferro-richterite[K][CaNa][Fe52+]Si8O22(OH)2
Potassic-fluoro-richterite{K}{CaNa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(F,OH)2
Potassic-richteriteK[CaNa][Mg5]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.05Anthophyllite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Cummingtonite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Clino-holmquistite Root Name☐{Li2}{Z32+Z23+}(Si8O22)(OH,F,Cl)2
9.DE.05Grunerite☐{Fe22+}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Manganocummingtonite☐{Mn22+}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Manganogrunerite☐{Mn22+}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Permanganogrunerite☐{Mn22+}{Mn52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Ferro-fluoro-pedrizite{Na}{Li2}{Fe2Al2Li}(Al2Si6O22)F2
9.DE.05Ferri-fluoro-leakeite{Na}{Na2}{Mg2Fe23+Li}(Si8O22)F2
9.DE.10Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Ferri-tschermakite☐{Ca2}{Mg3Fe23+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Ferro-actinolite☐{Ca2}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Ferro-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Fe42+Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Ferro-tschermakite☐{Ca2}{Fe32+Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Joesmithite{Pb}{Ca2}{Mg3Fe23+}(Be2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Tschermakite☐(Ca2)(Mg3Al2)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10CannilloiteCa(Ca2)(Mg4Al)(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Fluoro-cannilloite{Ca}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al3Si5O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.10Parvo-manganotremolite☐{CaMn2+}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Fluoro-tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)F2
9.DE.10Potassic-fluoro-pargasite{K}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)F2
9.DE.15Edenite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Ferro-edenite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe52+}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Ferro-kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe32+AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
9.DE.15Ferro-pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe42+Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe42+Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
9.DE.15Magnesio-hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Sadanagaite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3Al2}(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Fluoro-edenite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-ferri-sadanagaite{K}{Ca2}{Fe32+Fe23+}(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-sadanagaite{K}{Ca2}{Mg3Al2}(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-pargasite{K}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-sadanagaite{K}{Ca2}{Fe32+Al2}(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Fluoro-magnesio-hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)F2
9.DE.15Potassic-fluoro-hastingsite{K}{Ca2}{Fe42+Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-chloro-hastingsite{K}{Ca2}{Fe42+Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(Cl,OH)2
9.DE.15Fluoro-pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.15Parvo-mangano-edenite{Na}{CaMn2+}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-chloro-pargasite{K}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(Cl,OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-chloro-edenite{K}{Ca2}{Fe52+}(AlSi7O22)(Cl,OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-magnesio-hastingsite{K}{Ca2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-pargasite{K}{Ca2}{Fe42+Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Chromio-pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Cr3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-taramiteNa(CaNa)(Fe32+Al2)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Barroisite☐{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-barroisite☐(CaNa)(Fe32+Fe23+)(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-winchite☐[CaNa][Fe42+(Fe3+,Al)]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferri-barroisite☐(CaNa)(Mg3Fe23+)(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-taramiteNa(CaNa)(Fe32+Fe23+)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-katophoriteNaCaNaFe42+(Fe3+)[(AlSi7)O22](OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-barroisite☐{CaNa}{Fe32+Al2}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-richterite{Na}{CaNa}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-winchite ☐{CaNa}{Fe42+Al}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-katophorite{Na}{CaNa}{Fe42+Al}[(AlSi7)O22](OH)2
9.DE.20Ferri-taramiteNa(CaNa)(Mg3Fe23+)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Magnesiotaramite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg3AlFe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Winchite☐{CaNa}{Mg4Al}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Taramite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Fluoro-richterite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.20Katophorite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg4Al}[(AlSi7)O22](OH)2
9.DE.20Potassic-fluoro-richterite{K}{CaNa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.20Potassic-richteriteK[CaNa][Mg5]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferri-ghoseite☐[Mn2+Na][Mg4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferri-winchite☐[CaNa][Mg4(Fe3+,Al)]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Fluoro-taramite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)F2
9.DE.25Arfvedsonite[Na][Na2][Fe42+Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25EckermanniteNaNa2(Mg4Al}Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-eckermanniteNaNa2(Fe2+,4Al)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-glaucophane◻[Na2][Fe32+Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Glaucophane◻[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Potassic-mangani-leakeite[(Na,K)][Na2][Mg2Mn23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Mangano-ferri-eckermannite[Na][Na2][Mn42+(Fe3+)]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferri-leakeite[Na][Na2][Mg2Fe23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Magnesio-riebeckite◻{Na2}{Mg3Fe23+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Magnesio-arfvedsonite{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25NybøiteNaNa2(Mg3Al2)(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Mangano-mangani-ungarettiiteNaNa2(Mn22+Mn33+)(Si8O22)O2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-nybøiteNaNa2[(Fe32+,Mg)Fe23+](AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Clino-ferro-ferri-holmquistite◻{Li2}{Fe32+Fe23+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferri-nybøiteNaNa2(Mg3Fe23+](AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-leakeite[Na][Na2][Fe22+Fe23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-fluoro-leakeiteNa(Na2)(Fe22+Fe23+Li)(Si8O22)(F)2
9.DE.25Sodic-ferri-clinoferroholmquistiteNa0.5{Li2}{Fe32+Fe23+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite[Na][Na2][Mg4Fe3+][Si8O22](F,OH)2
9.DE.25Ferri-pedrizite[Na][Li2][Mg2Fe23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Potassic-ferri-leakeite[K][Na2][Mg2Fe23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Fluoro-nybøiteNaNa2(Mg3Al2)(AlSi7O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.25Mangani-dellaventuraite{Na}{Na2}{MgMn23+LiTi4+}Si8O22O2
9.DE.25Fluoro-pedriziteNaLi2(Mg2Al2Li)(Si8O22)F2
9.DE.25Potassic-arfvedsonite[(K,Na)][Na2][Fe42+Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Mangani-obertiiteNa(Na2)(Mg3Mn3+Ti)(Si8O22)O2
9.DE.25Potassic-magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite[(K,Na)][Na2][Mg4Fe3+][Si8O22][(F,OH)2]
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-pedrizite[Na][Li2][Fe22+Fe23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Potassic-magnesio-arfvedsonite[K][Na2][Mg4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25PedriziteNaLi2(LiMg2Al2)(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-pedriziteNaLi2(Fe22+Al2Li)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Fluoro-leakeiteNaNa2(Mg2Al2Li)(Si8O22)F2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-obertiiteNaNa2(Fe32+Fe3+Ti)Si8O22O2
14.18.1Nambulite(Li,Na)Mn4Si5O14(OH)
14.18.2Natronambulite(Na,Li)(Mn,Ca)4Si5O14OH
14.18.3ZakharoviteNa4Mn5Si10O24(OH)6 · 6H2O
14.18.4NorrishiteKLiMn23+(Si4O10)O2
14.18.5Shafranovskite(Na,K)6(Mn,Fe)3Si9O24 · 6H2O
14.18.6AbswurmbachiteCuMn63+(SiO4)O8
14.18.7Donpeacorite(Mn2+,Mg)Mg[SiO3]2
14.18.8KanoiteMn2+(Mg,Mn2+)Si2O6
14.18.9Caryopilite(Mn,Mg)3(Si2O5)(OH)4
14.18.10Gonyerite(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
14.18.11Tirodite
14.18.12Manganhumite(Mn2+,Mg)7(SiO4)3(OH)2
14.18.13BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)
14.18.14GlaucochroiteCaMn2+SiO4
14.18.15Truscottite(Ca,Mn)14Si24O58(OH)8 · 2H2O
14.18.16SantaclaraiteCaMn4[Si5O14OH](OH) · H2O
14.18.17FerrobustamiteCaFe2+(Si2O6)
14.18.18JohannseniteCaMn2+Si2O6
14.18.19NeltneriteCaMn63+(SiO4)O8
14.18.20OrlymaniteCa4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
14.18.21InesiteCa2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
14.18.22OrientiteCa8Mn103+(SiO4)3(Si3O10)3(OH)10 · 4H2O
14.18.23RuiziteCa2Mn23+[(OH)2|H2Si4O13] · 2H2O
14.18.24BostwickiteCaMn6Si3O16 · 7H2O
14.18.25KittatinnyiteCa2Mn2Mn(SiO4)2(OH)4 · 9H2O
14.18.26LithiomarsturiteLiCa2Mn2Si5O14(OH)
14.18.27SéranditeNa(Mn2+,Ca)2(HSi3O9)
14.18.28KvanefjelditeNa4(Ca,Mn)(Si3O7)2(OH)2
14.18.29MarsturiteNaCaMn3Si5O14(OH)
14.18.30RaiteNa4Mn32+Ti0.25Si8O20(OH)2 · 10H2O
14.18.32Byelorussite-(Ce)NaBa2Ce2MnTi2[Si4O12]2O2(F,OH) · H2O
14.18.33Deerite(Fe,Mn)6(Fe,Al)3[Si6O17]O3(OH)5
14.18.34Calderite(Mn2+,Ca)3(Fe3+,Al)2(SiO4)3
14.18.35PyroxmangiteMnSiO3
14.18.36Dannemorite
14.18.37Neotocite(Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2O
14.18.38BabingtoniteCa2(Fe,Mn)FeSi5O14(OH)
14.18.39ManganbabingtoniteCa2(Mn,Fe)FeSi5O14(OH)
14.18.40ÖrebroiteMn32+(Sb5+,Fe3+)(SiO4)(O,OH)3

Other Names for Richterite

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Richterite

Reference List:
Breithaupt, A. (1865): Mineralogische Studien. 25. Ricterit. 32 Scheffferit. Berg- und Huettenmænnische Zeitung. 24, 364-364 [PDF: http://rruff.info/uploads/Berg_und_huttenmannische_Zeitung24_364a.pdf]

Mottana, A., Paris, E., Della Ventura, G., and Robert, J.-L. (1990) Spectroscopic evidence for tetrahedrally-coordinated titanium in richteritic amphiboles. Rend. Fis. Accad. Lincei: 1: 387-392.

Oberti, R., Ungaretti, L., Cannillo, E., and Hawthorne, F.C. (1992) The behaviour of Ti in amphiboles. I. Four- and six-coordnate Ti in richterite. European Journal of Mineralogy: 4: 425-439.

Ishida, K. and Hawthorne, F.C. (2001) Assignment of infrared OH-stretching bands in mangano-arfvedsonite and richterite through heat-treatment. American Mineralogist: 86: 965-972.

Hawthorne, Frank C., and Roberta Oberti (2006), On the classification of amphiboles: Canadian Mineralogist:
44(1): 1-21.

Frank C. Hawthorne, Roberta Oberti, George E. Harlow, Walter V. Maresch, Robert F. Martin, John C. Schumacer, Mark D. Welch (2012): Nomenclature of the amphibole supergroup, American Mineralogist, Volume 97, pages 2031–2048

Internet Links for Richterite

Specimens:
The following Richterite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Richterite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Afghanistan
 
  • Badakhshan Province (Badakshan Province; Badahsan Province)
    • Khash & Kuran Wa Munjan Districts
Dipl. Min. M. Schaeffer, Detmold, 2003; RRUFF Project Specimen ID: R050414
Richard Dale collection & earlier mindat photos
        • Sar-e Sang (Sar Sang; Sary Sang)
Rob Woodside collection
Dudley Blauwet (2008) Private Communication
Australia
 
  • Victoria
    • Macedon Ranges Shire
      • Mount Macedon
Museum Victoria Mineralogy Collection
  • Western Australia
    • Derby-West Kimberley Shire
      • Ellendale
The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.
The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.
The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.
      • Fitzroy Crossing
The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.
The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.
      • Noonkanbah Station
Mineralogical Magazine 1984 48 : 263-266
The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.
The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.
The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.
The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.
The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.
    • Wyndham-East Kimberley Shire
      • Lake Argyle area
[MinRec 21:561]
Austria
 
  • Lower Austria
    • Waldviertel
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
Brazil
 
  • São Paulo
    • Cajati
MinRec 15:261-270
Bulgaria
 
www.bgd.bg/summanual_2003_2.htm.
Burma (Myanmar)
 
  • Kachin State
    • Mohnyin District (Moe Hnyin District)
      • Hpakant Township (Hpakan; Phakant; Phakan)
Shi, G. H., Zhu, X. K., Deng, J., Mao, Q., Liu, Y. X., & Li, G. W. (2011). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75(6), 1608-1620 Guanghai Shi, George E. Harlow, Jing Wang, Jun Wang, Enoch Ng, Xia Wang, ShuMin Cao and Wenyuan CUI(2012): Mineralogy of jadeitite and related rocks from Myanmar: a review with new data. European Journal of mineralogy, Vol 24, pp 345-380; Shi, G., Harlow, G.E., Wang, J. Wang, J., Ng, E., Wang, X., Cao, G. & Cui, W. (2012): Mineralogy of jadeitite and related rocks from Myanmar:a review with new data. Eur. J. Mineral. 24, 345–370
Shi, G., Harlow, G. E., Wang, J., Wang, J., Ng, E., Wang, X., ... & Cui, W. (2012). Mineralogy of jadeitite and related rocks from Myanmar: a review with new data. European Journal of Mineralogy, 24(2), 345-370.
Jing Wang, Guanghai Shi, Jun Wang, Ye Yuan, and Mengchu Yang (2013): Acta Petrologica Sinica 29(4), 1450-1460
C. Mével and J.R. Kiénast, Bull. Minéral. , 109, 6, 1986, pp. 617-633.; Nyunt, T. T. (2009). Petrological and geochemical contribution to the origin of jadeitite and associated rocks of the Tawmaw Area, Kachin State, Myanmar.
Canada
 
  • Alberta
    • Abee
Mason, B. H. (1972). The Mineralogy of Meteorites. Meteoritics 7 (3): 309-326.
  • British Columbia
    • Kamloops Mining Division
      • Blue River
        • Verity claim
Blue River Carbonatites, British Columbia- Primary Exploration Targets for Tantalum, G.J. Simandle,P.C. Jones, M. Rotella Exploration and Mining in British Columbia - 2001, B. C. Mines Report, pg 123-131 (http://www.commerceresources.com/i/pdf/05-BCGOVRREPORT.pdf)
    • Omenica Mining Division
      • Williston Lake
Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139; Jennifer Pell (1994) Carbonatites, Nepheline Syenites, Kimberlites and Related Rocks in British Columbia. Brithish Columbia Ministry of Energy Bulletin 88.
  • Ontario
    • Algoma District
      • McMurray Township
Sage (1988) Ont. Geol. Survey Study 47.
    • Haliburton Co.
      • Monmouth Township
Hawthorne, F.C., Oberti, R., Martin, R.F. (2006): Short-range order in amphiboles from the Bear Lake Diggings, Ontario. Canadian Mineralogist, 44, 1171-1179.
Reiner Mielke
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • Témiscamingue RCM
        • Les Lacs-du-Témiscamingue
http://rruff.info/richterite/chemistry/asc/R060471; Kenneth L. Currie and Otto van Breemen (1996)The origin of rare minerals in the Kipawa syenite complex, western Quebec. Can Mineral 34:435-451
    • Laurentides
      • Deux-Montagnes RCM
        • Oka
Gaston Pouliot (1970) Study of carbonatitic calcites from Oka, Quebec. Can Mineral 10:511-540
Self collected specimen with analysis by Frank Hawthorne: (Na0.88K0.09) (Ca1.04Mn0.04Na0.92) (Mg4.46Mn0.06Fe0.38Ti0.04Al0.06) (Si7.84Al0.16)O22(OH1.55F0.45); Gaston Pouliot (1970) Study of carbonatitic calcites from Oka, Quebec. Can Mineral 10:511-540
    • Montérégie
      • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
        • Mont Saint-Hilaire
Horváth, L and Gault, R.A. (1990), The mineralogy of Mont Saint-Hilaire Quebec. Mineralogical Record: 21: 284-359.
China
 
  • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
    • Baotou League (Baotou Prefecture)
      • Bayan Obo Mining District
        • Bayan Obo
Jinsha Xu, Guaming Yang, Guowu Li, Zhilan Wu, Ganfu Shen (2008): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 28(3), 237-243; Qingchang Meng (1981): Geology and Prospecting 17(3), 10-17
  • Liaoning Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
    • Dandong Prefecture
      • Fengcheng Co.
        • Saima complex
Yiming Zhao and Daxin Li (2003): Mineral Deposits 22(4), 345-359
  • Shaanxi Province
    • Hanzhong Prefecture
      • Ningqiang Co.
Jiuling Zhang (1982): Geology and Prospecting 18(2), 26-40
Finland
 
  • Eastern Finland Region
Hugh E. O'Brien and Matti Tyni (1999) Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Kimberlites and Related Rocks from Finland. Proceedings of the 7th International Kimberlite Conference, 1999, p.625-636.
    • Siilinjärvi
Information of mine geologist given to Yves Heroes in 1995 (http://www.mindat.org/mesg-105-240534.html); Puustinen, K. A. U. K. O. (1973). Tetraferriphlogopite from the Siilinjärvi carbonatite complex, Finland. Bull. Geol. Soc. Finland, 45, 35-42.
  • Lapland Region
    • Savukoski
      • Tulppio
Vartiainen, H. 1980 The petrography, mineralogy and petrochemistry of the Sokli carbonative massif, northern Finland. Geological Survey of Finland, Bulletin, 313
    • Sodankylä
Geological Survey of Finland 2008 Pahtavaara - Gold Database
  • Western and Inner Finland Region
    • Pirkkala
http://www.geologinenseura.fi/bulletin/Volume69/sgs_bt_069_pages_005_030.pdf
France
 
  • Corsica
    • Haute-Corse
      • Bastia
Mineralogical Magazine 1968 36 : 867-870.
  • Midi-Pyrénées
    • Haute-Garonne
Brearley, A. J. & Jones, R. H. (1998): Chondritic Meteorites. In: Planetary Materials (Papike, J. J., Editor): Chapter 3, 398 pages. Mineralogical Society of America: Washington, DC, USA. (1998)
Germany
 
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Eifel
      • Andernach
        • Nickenich
Hand Egon Künzel, Günter Blaß, Willi Schüller (2011) Mineralien - Bomben - Grottensteine: Der Nickenicher Weinberg. Lapis, 36, #7-8, 55-66
Greenland
 
  • Qaasuitsup
http://www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/green.htm
  • Qeqqata
    • Isortoq Fjord (Søndre Isortoq)
      • Sarfartoq region
Petersen, O.V., Secher, K. (1984): Grönland, Der Karbonatit-Komplex von Sarfartoq, Magma, 6/1984
India
 
  • Andhra Pradesh
    • Nalgonda District
Rao, N. C., & Madhavan, V. (1996). Some observations on the geochemistry of Ramannapeta-Ustapalle lamproitic body, Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh. Bulletin-Geological Society of India, 47(4), 409-418.
  • Madhya Pradesh
    • Balaghat District
Babu, S.K., and Nayak, V.K. (1961): Proc. Natl. Inst. Sci. India 27A, 161-166.
  • West Bengal
    • Purulia District
      • Beldih village
Mineral. Petrol. 95 (2009) 105-112. ; Chakrabarty, A., & Sen, A. K. (2010). Enigmatic association of the carbonatite and alkali-pyroxenite along the Northern Shear Zone, Purulia, West Bengal: A saga of primary magmatic carbonatite. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 76(4), 403-413.
Italy
 
  • Aosta Valley
    • Bard
Ch. Wagner and D. Velde, Bull. Minéral. , 1985, 108, pp. 173-187.
    • Saint-Marcel
Castello P. (1982) - Il giacimento manganesifero di Praborna (St. Marcel - AO) - Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, Fasc. 3, pp. 87-92 Castello P. (1982) - Il giacimento manganesifero di Praborna (St. Marcel - AO) - Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, Fasc. 3, pp. 87-92 Castello P. (1982) - Il giacimento manganesifero di Praborna (St. Marcel - AO) - Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, Fasc. 3, pp. 87-92
    • Valtournanche Valley
      • Valtournanche
        • Breuil-Cervinia
Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
  • Latium
    • Rome Province
Caponera I., Fiori S., Pucci R., 2003. Fluoborite, piombo nativo, richterite ed altri interessanti ritrovamenti nei Colli Albani. Il Cercapietre, 1-2.
      • Rome
Fiori, S., Gorga, R., Pucci, R., (2001): Richterite nei proietti metamorfosati di Stracciacappe, Complesso Vulcanico Sabatino (Roma, Italia). Il Cercapietre, n. 1/2, 29-32
    • Viterbo Province
      • Làtera volcano
        • Onano
Signoretti, E., Pucci, R., (2007): Gita sociale e ricerca mineralogica sul terreno nella cava di Montenero, Onano (VT), Il Cercapietre, 1-2/2007, 61-67
  • Liguria
    • La Spezia Province
      • Vara Valley
        • Borghetto Vara
Palenzona A., Di Giovanni F., Borgo E. (1988) - La miniera di Manganese di Cerchiara (SP) - Rivista Miner. Ital., Milano, fasc. 4, pp.209-218
  • Lombardy
    • Sondrio Province
      • Valtellina
        • Malenco Valley
          • Lanterna Valley
            • Lanzada
              • Scerscen Valley
Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
  • Piedmont
    • Torino Province
      • Canavese District
        • Léssolo
          • Cálea
P Haas collection
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Chubu Region
      • Aichi Prefecture
        • Kita-Shidara-gun
          • Shidara-cho
Mineral. Journal, Japan, 1973, 7, pp. 159-168.
    • Kanto Region
      • Tochigi Prefecture
        • Kanuma City
Matsubara, S., Kato, A., Miyawaki, R., Komuro, Y. and Okada, Y. (2007) Natronambulite from the Dohnoiri mine, Kanuma City, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. Bulletin of the National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ser. C. 33, 1-5.
    • Kinki Region
      • Kyoto Prefecture
        • Kizugawa City
Dr. Yohachiro Okamoto collection (curated at Geological Survey museum, Japan)
    • Tohoku Region
      • Iwate Prefecture
        • Kunohe-gun
          • Noda-mura
Watanabe, T. (1959) Mineralogical Journal, 2, 6, 408-421; Okamoto collection (curated at the Geological Survey museum, Japan)
        • Shimohei-gun
          • Tanohata-mura
H. Momoi (1964) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 15, #1, 39-63.
Kenya
 
  • Nyanza Province
Sutherland, D.S. (1969): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 24, 114-135.
Madagascar
 
  • Fianarantsoa Province
A. M. I. Martins collection
Namibia
 
  • Otjozondjupa Region
    • Grootfontein District
      • Kombat
Dunn, P.J. (1991), Rare minerals of the Kombat Mine, Mineralogical Record: 22(6): 421-425.
New Zealand
 
  • North Island
    • Bay of Plenty
      • Rotorua
        • Mt Ngongotaha
http://www.abdn.ac.uk/geology/profiles/analysis/software.htm recalc of http://www.abdn.ac.uk/geology/profiles/analysis/software.htm recalc of ferrikatophorite data
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
    • Sudetes Mts
www.geo.uw.edu.pl/AM/VOL54/wierzcholowski.pdf.
Republic of Macedonia
 
  • Veles
    • Nežilovo
      • Jakupica Mts
        • Babuna Valley
Chukanov, Nikita V., Jančev, Simeon., Pekov, Igor V. (2015): The association of Oxygen-bearing minerals of the chalcophile elements in the orogenetic zone related to the “mixed series” complex near Nežilovo, Republic of Macedonia. Macedonian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 115–124
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Krasnoyarsk Territory (Krasnoyarsk Kray; Krasnoyarskii Krai)
      • Enisei Range (Yenisei Ridge; Enisei Ridge)
        • Tatarka Range
Pavel M. Kartashov data
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
      • Aldan Shield
        • Aldan
          • Inagli Massif
http://geo.web.ru/druza/l-Inagli.htm
        • Chara and Tokko Rivers Confluence
[Lapis 1993:4 p.13-20]
    • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
      • Buriatia Republic (Buryatia)
        • Ulan-Ude
Ripp, G.S. (2002): Lithology and Mineral Resources 37(4), 386-389.
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaja Oblast'
      • Kola Peninsula
        • Afrikanda
Chakhmouradian A.R., Zaitsev A.N. (2002) Calcite–Amphibole–Clinopyroxene rock from the Afrikanda complex, Kola peninsula, Russia: mineralogy and a possible link to carbonatites. III. Silicate minerals. - Can. Miner., Vol.40, pp. 1347-1374.
        • Khibiny Massif
Konopleva, N.G., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Korchak, Y.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 720-731.
Konopleva, N.G., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Korchak, Y.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 720-731.
Konopleva, N.G., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Korchak, Y.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 720-731.
Yakovenchuk, V.N., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Men’shikov, Y.P., Konopleva, N.G., and Korchak, Y.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 732-745.
Konopleva, N.G., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Korchak, Y.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 720-731.
        • Kovdor Massif
N. I. Krasnova (2001): The Kovdor phlogopite deposit, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Canadian Mineralogist, 39, 33–44.
        • Turii Cape
Keith Bell, Elizabeth Ann Dunworth, Andrei G. Bulakh, and Valeriy V. Ivanikov (1996) Alkaline rocks of the Turiy Peninsula, Russia, including type-locality turjaite and turjite; a review. Can Mineral, v. 34, p. 265-280
      • Northern Karelia
www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/vuori.htm
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
        • Vishnevye Mts (Vishnyovye; Cherry)
Nedosekova, I.L. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(2), 129-146.
Slovakia
 
  • Prešov Region
    • Vranov nad Topľou Co.
Ďuďa,R., et al., 1981: Mineralógia severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovaca, Monografia 2, 98s
South Africa
 
  • Northern Cape Province
    • Kalahari manganese field
      • Hotazel
Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
      • Kuruman
        • N'Chwaning Mines
Minerals of South Africa
Spain
 
  • Canary Islands
    • Las Palmas Province
      • Gran Canaria (Grand Canary)
H.U. Schmincke and M. Sumita : "Tephra Event Stratigraphy and Emplacement of Volcanoclastic Sediments, Mogan and Fataga Stratigraphic Intervals, Part II : Origin and Emplacement of Volcanoclastic Layers", LEG 157—SCIENTIFIC RESULTS (ISSN: 1096-7451), Gran Canaria and Madeira Abyssal Plain, Sites 950-956, http://www-odp.tamu.edu/publications/157_SR/Abstract/15.HTM
  • Castile-La Mancha
    • Albacete
      • Hellín
        • Cancarix
E. Salvioli-mariani et al. , Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, pp. 1027-1039.
  • Murcia
    • Jumilla
      • La Celia
E. Salvioli-mariani et al. , Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, pp. 1027-1039.
Sweden
 
  • Dalarna
    • Hedemora
      • Garpenberg
Grensman, F., Kalinowski, M.P. and Sandström, F. (2001): Garpenberg Norra. Litofilen. 18 (2), 26-46.
  • Lappland
    • Ultevis
  • Medelpad
    • Sundsvall
Sandström, F., Binett, T., Wiklund, C. & Vikström, J. (2010): Alnöområdets geologi och mineralogi. Litiofilen. 27 (2) :14-42
    • Timrå
Sandström, F., Binett, T., Wiklund, C. & Vikström, J. (2010): Alnöområdets geologi och mineralogi. Litiofilen. 27 (2) :14-42
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
[var: Astochite] Sjögren, H. (1891): Bidrag til Sveriges mineralogi. 2. Astochit, en ny led af amfibolgruppen. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar. 13, 604-607.
      • Nordmark district
        • Jakobsberg ore field
K.Gatedal
      • Persberg district
        • Pajsberg
Hamberg, A. (1888): Om kristalliseradt bly från Harstigsgrufvan vid Pajsberg i Värmland. Översigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar 1888. 45, 483-490; Nysten, P. (2004): Harstigen ett mineralogisk eldorado i Bergslagen. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 28: 5-13
No reference listed
  • Västmanland
    • Hällefors
      • Grythyttan
No reference listed
    • Lindesberg
      • Nyberget ore field
Holtstam, D. (1994): Senaite from Mangruvan, Örebro, Sweden. GFF. 116, 17–21
Koark, H. (1970): Zur Geologie des Neuentdeckten Jakobsit-Braunit-Hämatit-Mangansilikatlagers Slöjdartorp im Nybergetfelde in Zentralschweden. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar (GFF). 92, 388-401
    • Norberg
Switzerland
 
  • Grischun (Grisons; Graubünden)
    • Engadin
      • Maloja
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 64
    • Poschiavo Valley
      • Poschiavo (Puschlav)
        • Selva
Romani E. (2000): Andar per cristalli - Tesori nascosti. Centro studi del Museo mineralogico naturalistico di Bormio, 151 p.
Uganda
 
  • Tororo District
Sutherland, D.S. (1969): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 24, 114-135.
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Coconino Co.
      • Winslow
        • Meteor Crater and vicinity
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 171-172, 354; Olsen, E. & L. Fuchs (1968), Krinovite, NaMg2CrSi3O10 = a new meteorite mineral, Science 161: 786-787.
  • Arkansas
    • Pike Co.
      • Murfreesboro
Am. Mineral. 83:1323-1329 (1998); B. H, Scott Smith & EMW Skinner (1984) A new look at the Prairie Creek, Arkansas 3rd International Kimberlite Conference pp 255-283
  • California
    • Humboldt Co.
      • Coastal Range
www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/usa.htm.
  • Colorado
    • Fremont Co.
USGS Bull 2192
    • Grand Co.
      • Middle Park
        • Rabbit Ears Pass
Thompson, R. N., Velde, D., Leat, P. T., Morrison, M. A., Mitchell, J. G., Dickin, A. P., and Gibson, S. A., 1997. Oligocene lamproite containing an Al-poor, Ti-rich biotite, Middle Park, northwest Coloroado, USA. Mineralogical Magazine 61: 557-572.
    • Gunnison Co.
      • White Earth District (Powderhorn District)
"Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; USGS Bull 2192
    • Larimer Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
  • Hawaii
    • Maui Co.
      • Maui
Velde, D. (1978): An aenigmatite-richterite-olivine trachyte from Puu Koae, West Maui, Hawaii, American Mineralogist, Vol. 63, 771-778
  • Kansas
Woolley (1987), Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World.
Mitchell, Roger H. and Chakhmouradian (1999):Sr-Bearing Perovskite and Loparite from Lamproite and Agpaitic Nepheline Syenite Pegmatites (Canadian Mineralogist 37:99-112).
  • Montana
    • Garfield Co.
www.minsocam.org/msa/Handbook/Davanite.PDF.
    • Lincoln Co.
      • Libby District (Snowshoe District)
        • Libby
American Mineralogist, Volume 88, pages 1955–1969, 2003; Lowers, H.A., Wilson, S.A., Hoefen, T.M., Benzel, W.M., and Meeker, G.P., 2012, Preparation and characterization of “Libby Amphibole” toxicological testing material: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012–1012, 20 p.; Gobla, M. J. (2012) Montana Mineral Locality Index. Rocks and Minerals 87:208-240.
      • Rainy Creek District
Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240.
    • Meagher Co.
www.cseg.ca/conferences/2000/376.PDF.
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
Dunn(1995):Pt3:443-449.
  • North Carolina
    • Haywood Co.
Anderson,Eric Douglas and Moecher,David P. (2009) Formation Of High -Pressure Metabasites In The Southern Appalachians Blue Ridge via Taconic Continental Subduction Beneath The Laurentian Margin :Tectonic Vol.28(5) October
  • Texas
    • Hudspeth Co.
R&M 66:3 pp 196-224
BEG Min Res Circ 73
BEG Min Res Circ 73
BEG Min Res Circ 73
BEG Min Res Circ 73
    • Wichita Co.
Olsen, E. in Science 156.:61 - 62 (7 April 1967)
  • Utah
    • Summit Co.
      • Woodland
Am Min 53:1041-1048
  • Wyoming
    • Sweetwater Co.
Rocks & Minerals 76:390
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