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Riebeckite

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Emil Riebeck
Formula:
◻[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
Riebeckite is defined as a member of the riebeckite group with Fe2+>Mg in the C2+ position and (OH) dominant in the W position.
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Usually black, also ...
Lustre:
Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous
Hardness:
5 - 5½
Name:
For Emil Riebeck [June 11, 1853 Preuslitz, Germany - June 22, 1885), German explorer, ethnologist, and mineralogist. Noted author and field collector of artifacts.
Chemically closely related to arfvedsonite.


Classification of Riebeckite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.DE.25

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
E : Inosilicates with 2-periodic double chains, Si4O11; Clinoamphiboles
14.20.6

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
20 : Silicates of Fe and alkali metals

Riebeckite in petrology

An essential component of (items highlighted in red)
Common component of (items highlighted in red)

Occurrences of Riebeckite

Type Occurrence of Riebeckite

Physical Properties of Riebeckite

Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent, Opaque
Colour:
Usually black, also commonly light blue to blue-black, gray-blue, gray, brown
Streak:
Pale gray to bluish-grey.
Hardness (Mohs):
5 - 5½
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {110}
Fracture:
Splintery

Crystallography of Riebeckite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
B2/m
Space Group Setting:
C2/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.76Å, b = 18.04Å, c = 5.33Å
β = 103.59°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.541 : 1 : 0.295
Unit Cell Volume:
V 912.18 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Prismatic {110}, frequently very elongated. May be acicular, especially in late cavities. Sometimes is very acicular in fine-grained, light colored aggregates. Well-terminated crystals are uncommon.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
8.40 (100)
4.51 (20)
3.42 (10)
3.27 (10)
3.12 (60)
2.80 (20)
2.73 (40)
2.18 (20)
Comments:
ICDD 19-1061

Optical Data of Riebeckite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.680 - 1.698 nβ = 1.683 - 1.700 nγ = 1.685 - 1.706
2V:
Measured: 68° to 85°, Calculated: 62° to 78°
Birefringence:
0.008
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.005 - 0.008
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
strong
Pleochroism:
Strong
Comments:
X dark blue Z blue gray to yellow green

Chemical Properties of Riebeckite

Formula:
◻[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2

Riebeckite is defined as a member of the riebeckite group with Fe2+>Mg in the C2+ position and (OH) dominant in the W position.
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Fe,Ti,Mg,Al,Mn

Relationship of Riebeckite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
Fluoro-riebeckite◻{Na2}{Fe32+Fe23+}(Si8O22)F2
Magnesio-fluoro-riebeckite◻{Na2}{Mg3Fe23+}(Si8O22)F2
Magnesio-riebeckite◻{Na2}{Mg3Fe23+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Anthophyllite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Cummingtonite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Clino-holmquistite Root Name☐{Li2}{Z32+Z23+}(Si8O22)(OH,F,Cl)2
9.DE.05Grunerite☐{Fe22+}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Manganocummingtonite☐{Mn22+}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Manganogrunerite☐{Mn22+}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Permanganogrunerite☐{Mn22+}{Mn52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Ferro-fluoro-pedrizite{Na}{Li2}{Fe2Al2Li}(Al2Si6O22)F2
9.DE.05Ferri-fluoro-leakeite{Na}{Na2}{Mg2Fe23+Li}(Si8O22)F2
9.DE.10Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Ferri-tschermakite☐{Ca2}{Mg3Fe23+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Ferro-actinolite☐{Ca2}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Ferro-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Fe42+Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Ferro-tschermakite☐{Ca2}{Fe32+Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Joesmithite{Pb}{Ca2}{Mg3Fe23+}(Be2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Tschermakite☐(Ca2)(Mg3Al2)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10CannilloiteCa(Ca2)(Mg4Al)(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Fluoro-cannilloite{Ca}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al3Si5O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.10Parvo-manganotremolite☐{CaMn2+}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Fluoro-tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)F2
9.DE.10Potassic-fluoro-pargasite{K}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)F2
9.DE.15Edenite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Ferro-edenite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe52+}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Ferro-kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe32+AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
9.DE.15Ferro-pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe42+Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe42+Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
9.DE.15Magnesio-hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Sadanagaite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3Al2}(Si5Al3O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Fluoro-edenite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-ferri-sadanagaite{K}{Ca2}{Fe32+Fe23+}(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-sadanagaite{K}{Ca2}{Mg3Al2}(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-pargasite{K}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-sadanagaite{K}{Ca2}{Fe32+Al2}(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Magnesio-fluoro-hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)F2
9.DE.15Potassic-fluoro-hastingsite{K}{Ca2}{Fe42+Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-chloro-hastingsite{K}{Ca2}{Fe42+Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(Cl,OH)2
9.DE.15Fluoro-pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.15Parvo-mangano-edenite{Na}{CaMn2+}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-chloro-pargasite{K}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(Cl,OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-chloro-edenite{K}{Ca2}{Fe52+}(AlSi7O22)(Cl,OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-magnesio-hastingsite{K}{Ca2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-pargasite{K}{Ca2}{Fe42+Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Chromio-pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Cr3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-taramiteNa(CaNa)(Fe32+Al2)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Barroisite☐{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-barroisite☐(CaNa)(Fe32+Fe23+)(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-winchite☐[CaNa][Fe42+(Fe3+,Al)]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferri-barroisite☐(CaNa)(Mg3Fe23+)(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-taramiteNa(CaNa)(Fe32+Fe23+)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-katophoriteNa(NaCa)(Fe42+Fe3+)(Si7Al)O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-barroisite☐{CaNa}{Fe32+Al2}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-richterite{Na}{CaNa}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-winchite ☐{CaNa}{Fe42+Al}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-katophorite{Na}{CaNa}{Fe42+Al}[(AlSi7)O22](OH)2
9.DE.20Ferri-taramiteNa(CaNa)(Mg3Fe23+)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Magnesiotaramite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg3AlFe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Winchite☐{CaNa}{Mg4Al}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Taramite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Fluoro-richterite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.20Katophorite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg4Al}[(AlSi7)O22](OH)2
9.DE.20Potassic-fluoro-richterite{K}{CaNa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.20Potassic-richteriteK[CaNa][Mg5]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferri-ghoseite☐[Mn2+Na][Mg4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferri-winchite☐[CaNa][Mg4(Fe3+,Al)]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Fluoro-taramite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)F2
9.DE.25Arfvedsonite[Na][Na2][Fe42+Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25EckermanniteNaNa2(Mg4Al}Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-eckermanniteNaNa2(Fe42+Al)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-glaucophane◻[Na2][Fe32+Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Glaucophane◻[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Potassic-mangani-leakeite[(Na,K)][Na2][Mg2Mn23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Mangano-ferri-eckermannite[Na][Na2][Mn42+(Fe3+)]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferri-leakeite[Na][Na2][Mg2Fe23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Magnesio-riebeckite◻{Na2}{Mg3Fe23+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Magnesio-arfvedsonite{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25NybøiteNaNa2(Mg3Al2)(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Mangano-mangani-ungarettiiteNaNa2(Mn22+Mn33+)(Si8O22)O2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-nybøiteNaNa2[(Fe32+,Mg)Fe23+](AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Clino-ferro-ferri-holmquistite◻{Li2}{Fe32+Fe23+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferri-nybøiteNaNa2(Mg3Fe23+](AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-leakeite[Na][Na2][Fe22+Fe23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-fluoro-leakeiteNa(Na2)(Fe22+Fe23+Li)(Si8O22)(F)2
9.DE.25Sodic-ferri-clinoferroholmquistiteNa0.5{Li2}{Fe32+Fe23+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite[Na][Na2][Mg4Fe3+][Si8O22](F,OH)2
9.DE.25Ferri-pedrizite[Na][Li2][Mg2Fe23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Potassic-ferri-leakeite[K][Na2][Mg2Fe23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Fluoro-nybøiteNaNa2(Mg3Al2)(AlSi7O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.25Mangani-dellaventuraite{Na}{Na2}{MgMn23+LiTi4+}Si8O22O2
9.DE.25Fluoro-pedriziteNaLi2(Mg2Al2Li)(Si8O22)F2
9.DE.25Potassic-arfvedsonite[(K,Na)][Na2][Fe42+Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Mangani-obertiiteNa(Na2)(Mg3Mn3+Ti)(Si8O22)O2
9.DE.25Potassic-magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite[(K,Na)][Na2][Mg4Fe3+][Si8O22][(F,OH)2]
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-pedrizite[Na][Li2][Fe22+Fe23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Potassic-magnesio-arfvedsonite[K][Na2][Mg4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25PedriziteNaLi2(LiMg2Al2)(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-pedriziteNaLi2(Fe22+Al2Li)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Fluoro-leakeiteNaNa2(Mg2Al2Li)(Si8O22)F2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-obertiiteNaNa2(Fe32+Fe3+Ti)Si8O22O2
14.20.1EmeleusiteLi2Na4Fe2Si12O30
14.20.2AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
14.20.4WilkinsoniteNa2Fe42+Fe23+(Si6O18)O2
14.20.5TuperssuatsiaiteNa2Fe3Si8O20(OH)2 · 4H2O
14.20.7 Ferri-anniteKFe32+((Fe3+,Al)Si3O10)(OH)2
14.20.8Fenaksite(K,Na)4(Fe,Mn)2(Si4O10)2(OH,F)
14.20.9Montdorite(K,Na)2(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)5(Si4O10)2(OH,F)4

Other Names for Riebeckite

Other Information

Health Risks:
If in fibrous form the fibers, if breathed in, can cause serious and irreversable lung damage. Avoid exposure to dust.

References for Riebeckite

Reference List:
Addison, C.C., Addison, W.E., Neal, G.H., Sharp, J.H. (1962) Amphiboles. I. The oxidation of crocidolite. Journal of the Chemical Society: 1468-1471.

Hanisch, K. (1966) Messung des Ultrarot-Pleochroismus von Mineralien. VI. Der Pleochroismus des OH-Streckfrequenz in Riebeckit. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte: 109-112.

Borg, I.Y. (1967) Optical properties and cell parameters in the glaucophane-riebeckite series. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 15: 67-92.

Mandarino, J.A. (1998) The Second List of Additions and Corrections to the Glossary of Mineral Species (1995). The Amphibole Group. Mineralogical Record: 29: 169-174.

Hawthorne, F.C. (1978) The crystal chemistry of the amphiboles; VIII, The crystal structure and site chemistry of fluor-riebeckite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 16: 187-194.

Hawthorne, F.C. (1983) The crystal chemistry of the amphiboles.The Canadian Mineralogist: 21: 173-480.

Hawthorne, F.C., Oberti, R. (2006) On the classification of amphiboles. The Canadian Mineralogist: 44: 1-21.

Hawthorne, F.C., Oberti, R., Harlow, G.E., Maresch, W.V., Martin, R.F., Schumacher, J.C., Welch, M.D. (2012) Nomenclature of the amphibole supergroup. American Mineralogist: 97: 2031-2048.

Internet Links for Riebeckite

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http://www.mindat.org/min-3418.html
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Specimens:
The following Riebeckite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Riebeckite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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