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Riebeckite

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Formula:
◻[Na
 
2
][Fe
2+
3
Fe
3+
2
]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
Riebeckite is defined as a member of the riebeckite group with Fe2+>Mg in the C2+ position and (OH) in the W position.
System:MonoclinicColour:Usually black, also ...
Lustre:Vitreous, Sub-VitreousHardness:5 - 5½
Member of:Riebeckite Group > Sodium Amphibole Subgroup > w(OH, F, Cl)-dominant Amphibole Group > Amphibole Supergroup
Name:For Emil Riebeck [June 11, 1853 Preuslitz, Germany - June 22, 1885), German explorer, ethnologist, and mineralogist. Noted author and field collector of artifacts.
Isostructural with:Amphibole Supergroup
This page provides mineralogical data about Riebeckite.

Classification of Riebeckite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/F.08-50
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.DE.25

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
E : Inosilicates with 2-periodic double chains, Si4O11; Clinoamphiboles
Hey's CIM Ref.:14.20.6

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
20 : Silicates of Fe and alkali metals
mindat.org URL:http://www.mindat.org/min-3418.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Type Occurrence of Riebeckite

Type Locality:Socotra Island, Adan Governorate, Yemen
Year of Discovery:1888

Occurrences of Riebeckite

Geological Setting:Syenite and undersaturated rocks

Physical Properties of Riebeckite

Lustre:Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent, Opaque
Colour:Usually black, also commonly light blue to blue-black, gray-blue, gray, brown
Streak:Pale gray to bluish-grey.
Hardness (Mohs):5 - 5½
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
Perfect on {110}
Fracture:Splintery

Crystallography of Riebeckite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:B2/m {B1 1 2/m} {C2/m} {C1 2/m 1}
Space Group Setting:C2/m
Cell Parameters:a = 9.76Å, b = 18.04Å, c = 5.33Å
β = 103.59°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.541 : 1 : 0.295
Unit Cell Volume:V 912.18 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Prismatic {110}, frequently very elongated. May be acicular, especially in late cavities. Sometimes is very acicular in fine-grained, light colored aggregates. Well-terminated crystals are uncommon.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
8.40 (100)
4.51 (20)
3.42 (10)
3.27 (10)
3.12 (60)
2.80 (20)
2.73 (40)
2.18 (20)
Comments:ICDD 19-1061

Optical Data of Riebeckite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.680 - 1.698 nβ = 1.683 - 1.700 nγ = 1.685 - 1.706
2V:Measured: 68° to 85°, Calculated: 62° to 78°
Birefringence:0.008
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.005 - 0.008

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:High
Dispersion:strong
Pleochroism:Strong
Comments:X dark blue Z blue gray to yellow green

Chemical Properties of Riebeckite

Formula:
◻[Na
 
2
][Fe
2+
3
Fe
3+
2
]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2


Riebeckite is defined as a member of the riebeckite group with Fe2+>Mg in the C2+ position and (OH) in the W position.
Simplified for copy/paste:◻[Na2][Fe2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(
Essential elements:Fe, H, Na, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Fe, H, Na, O, Si
Common Impurities:Fe,Ti,Mg,Al,Mn

Relationship of Riebeckite to other Species

Member of:Riebeckite Group > Sodium Amphibole Subgroup > w(OH, F, Cl)-dominant Amphibole Group > Amphibole Supergroup
Other Members of Group:

- +
Fluoro-riebeckite
◻{Na
 
2
}{Fe
2+
3
Fe
3+
2
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)F
 
2
Magnesio-fluoro-riebeckite
◻{Na
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
2
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)F
 
2
Magnesio-riebeckite
◻{Na
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
2
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.DE.05Anthophyllite
☐{Mg
 
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.05Cummingtonite
☐{Mg
 
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.05Clino-holmquistite Group
☐{Li
 
2
}{Z
2+
3
Z
3+
2
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH,F,Cl)
 
2
9.DE.05Grunerite
☐{Fe
2+
2
}{Fe
2+
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.05Manganocummingtonite
☐{Mn
2+
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.05Manganogrunerite
☐{Mn
2+
2
}{Fe
2+
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.05Permanganogrunerite
☐{Mn
2+
2
}{Mn
2+
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.05Ferro-fluoro-pedrizite
{Na}{Li
 
2
}{Fe
 
2
Al
 
2
Li}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)F
 
2
9.DE.05Ferri-fluoro-leakeite
{Na}{Na
 
2
}{Mg
 
2
Fe
3+
2
Li}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)F
 
2
9.DE.10Actinolite
☐{Ca
 
2
}{(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Ferri-tschermakite
☐{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
2
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Ferro-actinolite
☐{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Ferro-hornblende
☐{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
4
Al}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Ferro-tschermakite
☐{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Joesmithite
{Pb}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
2
}(Be
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Magnesio-hornblende
☐{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Al}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Tremolite
☐{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Tschermakite
☐(Ca
 
2
)(Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
)(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Cannilloite
Ca(Ca
 
2
)(Mg
 
4
Al)(Al
 
3
Si
 
5
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Fluoro-cannilloite
{Ca}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Al}(Al
 
3
Si
 
5
O
 
22
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Parvo-manganotremolite
☐{CaMn
2+
 
}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Fluoro-tremolite
☐{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)F
 
2
9.DE.10Potassic-fluoro-pargasite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Al}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)F
 
2
9.DE.15Edenite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Ferro-edenite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
5
}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Ferro-kaersutite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
3
AlTi}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)O
 
2
9.DE.15Ferro-pargasite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
4
Al}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Hastingsite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
4
Fe
3+
 
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Kaersutite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
AlTi}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)O
 
2
9.DE.15Magnesio-hastingsite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Fe
3+
 
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Pargasite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Al}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Sadanagaite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
}(Al
 
3
Si
 
5
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Fluoro-edenite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-ferri-sadanagaite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
3
Fe
3+
2
}(Al
 
3
Si
 
5
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Potassic-sadanagaite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
}(Al
 
3
Si
 
5
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Potassic-pargasite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Al}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-sadanagaite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
}(Al
 
3
Si
 
5
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Magnesio-fluoro-hastingsite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Fe
3+
 
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)F
 
2
9.DE.15Potassic- fluoro-hastingsite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
4
Fe
3+
 
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Potassic-chloro-hastingsite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
4
Fe
3+
 
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(Cl,OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Fluoro-pargasite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Al}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Parvo-mangano-edenite
{Na}{CaMn
2+
 
}{Mg
 
5
}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Potassic-chloro-pargasite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Al}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(Cl,OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-chloro-edenite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
5
}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(Cl,OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Potassic-magnesio-hastingsite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Fe
3+
 
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-pargasite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
4
Al}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Chromio-pargasite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Cr
3+
 
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferro-taramite
Na(CaNa)(Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
)(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Barroisite
☐{CaNa}{Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-barroisite
☐(CaNa)(Fe
2+
3
Fe
3+
2
)(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-winchite
☐[CaNa][Fe
2+
4
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferri-barroisite
☐(CaNa)(Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
2
)(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-taramite
Na(CaNa)(Fe
2+
3
Fe
3+
2
)(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-katophorite
NaCaNaFe
2+
4
(Fe
3+
 
)[(AlSi
 
7
)O
 
22
](OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferro-barroisite
☐{CaNa}{Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferro-richterite
{Na}{CaNa}{Fe
2+
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferro-winchite
☐{CaNa}{Fe
2+
4
Al}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferro-katophorite
{Na}{CaNa}{Fe
2+
4
Al}[(AlSi
 
7
)O
 
22
](OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferri-taramite
Na(CaNa)(Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
2
)(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Magnesiotaramite
{Na}{CaNa}{Mg
 
3
AlFe
3+
 
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Richterite
{Na}{CaNa}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Winchite
☐{CaNa}{Mg
 
4
Al}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Taramite
{Na}{CaNa}{Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Fluoro-richterite
{Na}{CaNa}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Katophorite
{Na}{CaNa}{Mg
 
4
Al}[(AlSi
 
7
)O
 
22
](OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Potassic-fluoro-richterite
{K}{CaNa}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Potassic-richterite
K[CaNa][Mg
 
5
]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferri-ghoseite
☐[Mn
2+
 
Na][Mg
 
4
Fe
3+
 
]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferri-winchite
☐[CaNa][Mg
 
4
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Fluoro-taramite
{Na}{CaNa}{Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)F
 
2
9.DE.25Arfvedsonite
[Na][Na
 
2
][Fe
2+
4
Fe
3+
 
]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Eckermannite
NaNa
 
2
(Mg
 
4
Al}Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Ferro-eckermannite
NaNa
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,
 
4
Al)Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Ferro-glaucophane
◻[Na
 
2
][Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Glaucophane
◻[Na
 
2
][Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Potassic-mangani-leakeite
[(Na,K)][Na
 
2
][Mg
 
2
Mn
3+
2
Li]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Mangano-arfvedsonite
[Na][Na
 
2
][Mn
2+
4
(Fe
3+
 
)]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Ferri-leakeite
[Na][Na
 
2
][Mg
 
2
Fe
3+
2
Li]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Magnesio-riebeckite
◻{Na
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
2
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Magnesio-arfvedsonite
{Na}{Na
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Fe
3+
 
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Nybøite
NaNa
 
2
(Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
)(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Mangano-mangani-ungarettiite
NaNa
 
2
(Mn
2+
2
Mn
3+
3
)(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)O
 
2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-nybøite
NaNa
 
2
[(Fe
2+
3
,Mg)Fe
3+
2
](AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Clino-ferro-ferri-holmquistite
◻{Li
 
2
}{Fe
2+
3
Fe
3+
2
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Ferri-nybøite
NaNa
 
2
(Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
2
](AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-leakeite
[Na][Na
 
2
][Fe
2+
2
Fe
3+
2
Li]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-fluoro-leakeite
Na(Na
 
2
)(Fe
2+
2
Fe
3+
2
Li)(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(F)
 
2
9.DE.25Sodic-ferri-clinoferroholmquistite
Na
 
0
· 5{Li
 
2
}{Fe
2+
3
Fe
3+
2
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite
[Na][Na
 
2
][Mg
 
4
Fe
3+
 
][Si
 
8
O
 
22
](F,OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Ferri-pedrizite
[Na][Li
 
2
][Mg
 
2
Fe
3+
2
Li]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Potassic-ferri-leakeite
[K][Na
 
2
][Mg
 
2
Fe
3+
2
Li]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Fluoro-nybøite
NaNa
 
2
(Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
)(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Mangani-dellaventuraite
{Na}{Na
 
2
}{MgMn
3+
2
LiTi
4+
 
}Si
 
8
O
 
22
O
 
2
9.DE.25Fluoro-pedrizite
NaLi
 
2
(Mg
 
2
Al
 
2
Li)(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)F
 
2
9.DE.25Potassic-arfvedsonite
[(K,Na)][Na
 
2
][Fe
2+
4
Fe
3+
 
]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Ferri-obertiite
Na(Na
 
2
)(Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
 
Ti)(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)O
 
2
9.DE.25Potassic-magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite
[(K,Na)][Na
 
2
][Mg
 
4
Fe
3+
 
][Si
 
8
O
 
22
][(F,OH)
 
2
]
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-pedrizite
[Na][Li
 
2
][Fe
2+
2
Fe
3+
2
Li]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Potassic-magnesio-arfvedsonite
[K][Na
 
2
][Mg
 
4
Fe
3+
 
]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Pedrizite
NaLi
 
2
(LiMg
 
2
Al
 
2
)(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Ferro-pedrizite
NaLi
 
2
(LiFe
2+
2
Al
 
2
)Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Fluoro-leakeite
NaNa
 
2
(Mg
 
2
Al
 
2
Li)(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)F
 
2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-obertiite
NaNa
 
2
(Fe
2+
3
Fe
3+
 
Ti)Si
 
8
O
 
22
O
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
14.20.1Emeleusite
Li
 
2
Na
 
4
Fe
 
2
Si
 
12
O
 
30
14.20.2Aegirine
NaFe
3+
 
Si
 
2
O
 
6
14.20.4Wilkinsonite
Na
 
2
Fe
2+
4
Fe
3+
2
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)O
 
2
14.20.5Tuperssuatsiaite
Na
 
2
Fe
 
3
Si
 
8
O
 
20
(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
14.20.7 Ferri-annite
14.20.8Fenaksite
(K,Na)
 
4
(Fe,Mn)
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)
 
2
(OH,F)
14.20.9Montdorite
(K,Na)
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
5
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)
 
2
(OH,F)
 
4

Other Names for Riebeckite

Synonyms:
OrthoriebeckiteOsaniteOsannite
Other Languages:
German:Abriachanit
Orthoriebeckit
Osanit
Osannit
Riebeckit
Russian:Рибекит
Simplified Chinese:钠闪石
Spanish:Abriachanita
Orthoriebeckita
Osanita
Osannita
Riebeckita
Traditional Chinese:鈉閃石

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Not fluorescent
Health Warning:If in fibrous form the fibers, if breathed in, can cause serious and irreversable lung damage. Avoid exposure to dust.

References for Riebeckite

Reference List:

- +
Addison, C.C., Addison, W.E., Neal, G.H., and Sharp, J.H. (1962) Amphiboles. I. The oxidation of crocidolite. Journal Chem. Soc.: 1468-1471.

Hanisch, K. (1966) Messung des Ultrarot-Pleochroismus von Mineralien. VI. Der Pleochroismus des OH-Streckfrequenz in Riebeckit. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1966: 109-112.

Borg, Iris Y. (1967), Optical properties and cell parameters in the glaucophane-riebeckite series: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 15: 67-92.

Mineralogical Record: 29: 169-174.

Canadian Mineralogist (1978): 16: 187-194.

Canadian Mineralogist (1983): 21: 173.

Hawthorne, Frank C., and Roberta Oberti (2006), On the classification of amphiboles: Canadian Mineralogist:44(1): 1-21.

Frank C. Hawthorne, Roberta Oberti, George E. Harlow, Walter V. Maresch, Robert F. Martin, John C. Schumacer, Mark D. Welch (2012): Nomenclature of the amphibole supergroup, American Mineralogist, Volume 97, pages 2031–2048

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Best of Species:Riebeckite

Internet Links for Riebeckite

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    Localities for Riebeckite

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