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Robertsite

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Willard "Bill" Lincoln Roberts
Formula:
Ca3Mn43+(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Red, red-brown, deep ...
Hardness:
Name:
Named in 1974 by Paul Brian Moore and Jun Ito in honor of Willard "Bill" Lincoln Roberts [February 12, 1923 Epworth, Iowa, USA - March 23, 1987 Rapid City, South Dakota, USA], professor of mineralogy and curator of the South Dakota School of Mines mineral museum. Bill was strongly influenced by the phosphate mineral bearing granite pegmatites of the nearby Black Hill and collaborated with many mineralogists, including Mary Mrose, Paul Moore, and Jun Ito and through this collaboration about 15-20 phosphates minerals were described by various authors. Bill was senior author of both the Mineralogy of the Black Hills and the Encyclopedia of Minerals (first edition).
Dimorph of:
Isostructural with:
Brown to dark brown coatings, usually fine-grained, but sometimes crystallized with densely packed pseudohexagonal platy, columnar, or fibrous crystals.

Classification of Robertsite

Approved 1973
8.DH.30

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
D : Phosphates, etc. with additional anions, with H2O
H : With large and medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 < 1:1
42.8.4.2

42 : HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
8 : (AB)5(XO4)3Zq·xH2O
19.12.6

19 : Phosphates
12 : Phosphates of Mn
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http://www.mindat.org/min-3431.html
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Type Occurrence of Robertsite

Year of Discovery:
1973
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Late stage mineralization in granite pegmatites.

Physical Properties of Robertsite

Waxy, Greasy, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent
Comment:
Bright relections on basal sections
Colour:
Red, red-brown, deep red, bronzy brown, black
Streak:
Red-brown
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:
Waxy
Cleavage:
Very Good
{100}
Fracture:
Micaceous
Density:
3.13 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.05 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Robertsite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
m - Domatic
Space Group:
Bb
Space Group Setting:
Bb
Cell Parameters:
a = 17.3400(9) Å, b = 19.4464(10) Å, c = 11.2787(6) Å
β = 96.634(3)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.892 : 1 : 0.58
Unit Cell Volume:
V 3,777.72 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
12
Morphology:
Frequently earthy in coatings. Not rarely scaly or in densely packed crystals in subparallel groupings. Crystals frequently show corrugations and deep striations or notches.
Twinning:
Multiple rotation twins (π/3) perpendicular to {100}
Comment:
Aa non-standard cell chosen
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
8.63 (100)
5.61 (50)
3.27 (40)
2.88 (30)
2.75 (60)
2.59 (40)
2.16 (30)
1.623 (50)
Comments:
26-1067

Optical Data of Robertsite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.775 nβ = 1.820 nγ = 1.820
2V:
Measured: 8°
Birefringence:
0.045
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.045
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
relatively weak
Optical Extinction:
X ~ ⊥ {100}
Pleochroism:
Strong
Comments:
X pale red to pink Y,Z deep red brown

Chemical Properties of Robertsite

Formula:
Ca3Mn43+(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Robertsite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Arseniosiderite (see here)
Other Members of Group:
ArseniosideriteCa2Fe33+(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
KolfaniteCa2Fe33+O2(AsO4)3 · 2H2O
MitridatiteCa2Fe33+(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
8.DH.05MinyuliteKAl2(PO4)2(OH,F) · 4H2O
8.DH.10LeucophosphiteKFe23+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
8.DH.10Spheniscidite(NH4,K)(Fe3+,Al)2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
8.DH.10TinsleyiteKAl2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
8.DH.15Jahnsite-(CaMnFe){Ca}{Mn2+}{Fe22+}{Fe23+}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DH.15Jahnsite-(CaMnMg){Ca}{Mn2+}{(Mg,Fe2+)2}{Fe23+}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DH.15Jahnsite-(CaMnMn){Ca}{Mn2+}{Mn22+}{Fe23+}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DH.15KeckiteCaMn2+Fe23+Fe23+(PO4)4(OH)3(H2O)7
8.DH.15Rittmannite{(Mn2+,Ca)}{Mn2+}{(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)2}{(Al,Fe3+)2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DH.15Whiteite-(CaFeMg){Ca}{(Fe2+,Mn2+)}{Mg2}{Al2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DH.15Whiteite-(CaMnMg){Ca}{Mn2+}{Mg2}{Al2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DH.15Whiteite-(MnFeMg){(Mn2+,Ca)}{(Fe2+,Mn2+)}{Mg2}{Al2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DH.15Jahnsite-(MnMnMn){Mn2+}{Mn2+}{Mn22+}{Fe23+}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DH.15Kaluginite(Mn2+,Ca)MgFe3+(PO4)2(OH) · 4H2O
8.DH.15Jahnsite-(CaFeFe){Ca}{Fe2+}{Fe22+}{Fe23+}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DH.15Jahnsite-(NaFeMg)NaFe3+Mg2Fe23+(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DH.15Jahnsite-(NaMnMg){Na}{Mn3+}{Mg2}{Fe23+}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DH.15Jahnsite-(CaMgMg){Ca}{Mg}{Mg2}{Fe23+}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DH.20Manganosegelerite(Mn2+,Ca)(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)Fe3+(PO4)2(OH) · 4H2O
8.DH.20OveriteCaMgAl(PO4)2(OH) · 4H2O
8.DH.20SegeleriteCa2 Mg2 Fe23+(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DH.20WilhelmvierlingiteCaMnFe3+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
8.DH.20JuonniiteCaMgSc(PO4)2(OH) · 4H2O
8.DH.25CalcioferriteCa2Fe23+(PO4)3(OH) · 7H2O
8.DH.25KingsmountiteCa4(Fe2+,Mn2+)Al4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
8.DH.25MontgomeryiteCa4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
8.DH.25ZodaciteCa4Mn2+Fe43+(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
8.DH.30ArseniosideriteCa2Fe33+(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
8.DH.30KolfaniteCa2Fe33+O2(AsO4)3 · 2H2O
8.DH.30MitridatiteCa2Fe33+(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
8.DH.30PararobertsiteCa2Mn33+(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
8.DH.30Sailaufite(Ca,Na,☐)2Mn33+(AsO4)2(CO3)O2 · 3H2O
8.DH.35MantienneiteKMg2Al2Ti(PO4)4(OH)3 · 15H2O
8.DH.35PaulkerriteK(Mg,Mn2+)2(Fe3+,Al,Ti,Mg)2Ti(PO4)4(OH)3 · 15H2O
8.DH.35Benyacarite(H2O,K)2(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(Fe3+,Ti)2Ti(PO4)4(O,F)2 · 14H2O
8.DH.40XanthoxeniteCa4Fe23+(PO4)4(OH)2 · 3H2O
8.DH.45MahnertiteNaCu3(AsO4)2Cl · 5H2O
8.DH.50AndyrobertsiteKCdCu5(AsO4)4(H2AsO4) · 2H2O
8.DH.50CalcioandyrobertsiteKCaCu5(AsO4)4(H2AsO4) · 2H2O
8.DH.55EnglishiteK3Na2Ca10Al15(PO4)21(OH)7 · 26H2O
8.DH.60BouazzeriteBi6(Mg,Co)11Fe143+(AsO4)18(OH)4O12 · 86H2O
19.12.1MetaswitzeriteMn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
19.12.2BermaniteMn2+Mn23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
19.12.3NatrophiliteNaMn2+PO4
19.12.4SidorenkiteNa3Mn2+(CO3)(PO4)
19.12.5Niahite(NH4)(Mn2+,Mg)(PO4) · H2O
19.12.7PararobertsiteCa2Mn33+(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
19.12.8SinkankasiteMn2+Al(PO3OH)2(OH) · 6H2O
19.12.9MangangordoniteMn2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.10Heterosite(Fe3+,Mn3+)PO4
19.12.11Purpurite(Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4
19.12.12Wolfeite(Fe2+,Mn2+)2(PO4)(OH)
19.12.13Triploidite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(OH)
19.12.14LipscombiteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
19.12.15FrondeliteMn2+Fe43+(PO4)3(OH)5
19.12.16RockbridgeiteFe2+Fe43+(PO4)3(OH)5
19.12.17Kryzhanovskite(Fe3+,Mn2+)3(PO4)2(OH,H2O)3
19.12.18LandesiteMn2+3-xFex3+(PO4)2(OH)x · (3-x)H2O
19.12.19Phosphoferrite(Fe2+,Mn2+)3(PO4)2 · 3H2O
19.12.20Reddingite(Mn2+,Fe2+)3(PO4)2 · 3H2O
19.12.21EarlshannoniteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
19.12.22Hureaulite(Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
19.12.23Switzerite(Mn,Fe)3(PO4)2 · 7H2O
19.12.24LaueiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.25PseudolaueiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.26StrunziteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
19.12.27StewartiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.28Alluaudite(Na,Ca)Mn2+(Fe3+,Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)2(PO4)3
19.12.29Ferroalluaudite(Na,Ca)Fe2+(Fe3+,Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)3
19.12.30Fillowite{Mn2+}{Na8}{Ca4Na4}{(Mn2+,Fe2+)43}(PO4)36
19.12.31JohnsomervilleiteNa10Ca6Mg18Fe25(PO4)36
19.12.32WicksiteNaCa2(Fe2+,Mn2+)4MgFe3+(PO4)6 · 2H2O
19.12.33Dickinsonite-(KMnNa){KNa}{Mn2+◻}{Ca}{Na3}{Mn132+}{Al}(PO4)12(OH)2
19.12.34Sarcopside(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)3(PO4)2
19.12.35Ludlamite(Fe,Mn,Mg)3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
19.12.36Graftonite(Fe2+,Mn2+,Ca)3(PO4)2
19.12.37WilhelmvierlingiteCaMnFe3+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
19.12.38FairfielditeCa2(Mn2+,Fe2+)(PO4)2 · 2H2O
19.12.39Beusite(Mn2+,Fe2+,Ca,Mg)3(PO4)2
19.12.40MesseliteCa2(Fe2+,Mn2+)(PO4)2 · 2H2O
19.12.41Jahnsite-(CaMnFe){Ca}{Mn2+}{Fe22+}{Fe23+}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.42Jahnsite-(CaMnMn){Ca}{Mn2+}{Mn22+}{Fe23+}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.43Jahnsite-(CaMnMg){Ca}{Mn2+}{(Mg,Fe2+)2}{Fe23+}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.44KeckiteCaMn2+Fe23+Fe23+(PO4)4(OH)3(H2O)7
19.12.45StanfielditeCa7Ca2Mg9(PO4)12
19.12.46Laubmannite(Fe2+,Mn2+,Ca)3Fe63+(PO4)4(OH)12
19.12.47ZodaciteCa4Mn2+Fe43+(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
19.12.48HagendorfiteNaCaMn2+Fe22+(PO4)3
19.12.49Maghagendorfite(□,Na,)(Na,Ca,Fe2+)Mn(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)3(PO4)3
19.12.50VaruliteNaCaMn2+Mn22+(PO4)3
19.12.51GriphiteNa4Li2Ca6(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)19Al8(PO4)24(F,OH)8
19.12.52Attakolite(Ca,Sr)Mn(Al,Fe)4(HPO4,PO4)3(SiO4,PO4)(OH)4
19.12.53Arrojadite-(KFe){KNa}{Fe2+◻}{Ca}{Na2◻}{Fe132+}{Al}(PO4)11(HPO4)(OH)2
19.12.54Lun'okite(Mn,Ca)(Mg,Fe,Mn)Al(PO4)2OH · 4H2O
19.12.55Eosphorite(Mn2+,Fe2+)Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
19.12.56Ernstite(Mn2+,Fe3+)Al(PO4)(OH,O)2 · H2O
19.12.57Childrenite(Fe2+,Mn2+)Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
19.12.58BobfergusoniteNa2Mn5FeAl(PO4)6
19.12.59QingheiiteNaMn3+Mg(Al,Fe3+)(PO4)3
19.12.60Whiteite-(CaFeMg){Ca}{(Fe2+,Mn2+)}{Mg2}{Al2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.61Whiteite-(CaMnMg){Ca}{Mn2+}{Mg2}{Al2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.62Whiteite-(MnFeMg){(Mn2+,Ca)}{(Fe2+,Mn2+)}{Mg2}{Al2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.63Rittmannite{(Mn2+,Ca)}{Mn2+}{(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)2}{(Al,Fe3+)2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.64ZanazziiteCa2Mg5Be4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 6H2O
19.12.65Samuelsonite(Ca,Ba)Ca8Fe22+Mn22+Al2(PO4)10(OH)2

Other Names for Robertsite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Robertsit
Spanish:Robertsita

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Robertsite

Reference List:
Moore, Paul B. and Ito, Jun (1974), Jahnsite, segelerite, and robertsite, three new transition metal phosphates species: American Mineralogist: 59: 48-60.

Mineralogical Magazine: 52: 505-508.

M. B. Andrade, S. M. Morrison, A. J. Di Domizio, M. N. Feinglos and R. T. Downs (2012): Robertsite, Ca3Mn3+4(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O. Acta Crystallographica E68, i74-i75.

Internet Links for Robertsite

Localities for Robertsite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • South Australia
    • Eyre Peninsula
      • Middleback Range
        • Iron Knob
Minerals of Iron Monarch, Glyn L. Francis
    • Mt Lofty Ranges
      • North Mt Lofty Ranges
        • Kapunda
Francis, G.L., Peisley, V., 2012. Minerals from Tom's phosphate deposit, Kapunda, South Australia. (self published).
  • Western Australia
    • Port Hedland Shire
      • Wodgina Mine (Wodgina pegmatite)
Pegmatites of Western Australia; M Jacobson, M Calderwood, B Grguric; Hesperian Press, Perth, 2007.
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
    • Doce valley
      • Conselheiro Pena
Sergio Varvello collection
Baijot, M., Hatert, F., Dal Rio, F. & Philipo, S. (2014) Mineralogy and petrography of phosphate mineral association from the Jocão pegmatite, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Canadian Mineralogist 52, 373-397.
      • Galiléia
        • Sapucaia do Norte
Roberto Bosi collection
Ethiopia
 
  • Sidamo-Borana Province
    • Lake Rudolf (Lake Turkana)
      • Lower Omo Valley
American Mineralogist, Vol. 64, 1979, pp. 169-171.
France
 
  • Auvergne
    • Allier
      • Ébreuil
        • Échassières
J.M. Boisson et al. : "Filon Sainte Barbe, Commune d'Echassières, Allier, France", Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 2000, 4, 3-46
  • Languedoc-Roussillon
    • Pyrénées-Orientales
Berbain,C., Riley, T., Favreau, G., (2012): Phosphates des pegmatites du massif des Albères (Pyrénées-Orientales). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs. 117, 121-172
        • Collioure (Cotlliure)
BERBAIN. C, RILEY. T, FAVREAU. G, (2012) Phosphates des pegmatites du massif des Albères. Ed Association Française de Microminéralogie
Germany
 
  • Bavaria
    • Lower Bavaria
      • Zwiesel
        • Rabenstein
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Waidhaus
        • Hagendorf
Mineralogical Magazine 1988 52 : 505-508; http://www.berthold-weber.de/h_miner.htm
Morocco
 
  • Marrakech-Tensift-El Haouz Region
    • El Kelaâ des Sraghna Province
      • Sidi Bou Othmane
Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109
  • Souss-Massa-Draâ Region
    • Ouarzazate Province
      • Tazenakht
Favreau, G. (2012): Les minéralisations à phosphates de la pegmatite d'Angarf-Sud (Maroc).Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 3-70.
Namibia
 
  • Erongo Region
    • Karibib District
      • Okongava Ost Farm 72
- Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2007): Namibia. Mineralien und Fundstellen. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag, Haltern, 411 pp. (in English)
      • Usakos
Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. 409 (in English).
Keller, P. (1974): Phosphatmineralien aus Pegmatiten Sudwestafrikas, Der Aufschluss 25,577-591(1974)
  • Karas Region
    • Bethanie District
Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2008): Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern, 603 pp. (in English)
    • Karasburg District
Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2008): Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern, 384 pp. (in English)
Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2008): Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern, 384 pp. (in English)
Portugal
 
  • Guarda District
    • Gouveia
      • Folgosinho
Martins da Pedra collection
  • Viana do Castelo District
    • Caminha
      • Arga de Baixo
self-find. Pedro Alves collection
    • Ponte da Barca
      • São Lourenço de Touvedo
Self-find by Nuno Afonso; optical and XRD analysed
  • Viseu District
    • Mangualde
Romania
 
  • Maramureș Co.
    • Baia Mare (Nagybánya)
Mineralogical Record 7:139-140
Spain
 
  • Castile and Leon
    • Zamora
      • Villar del Buey
        • Pinilla de Fermoselle
Thailand
 
  • Lamphun Province
Mineralogical Magazine 1988 52 : 505-508
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Yavapai Co.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 355; Jahns, Richard H. (1952), Pegmatite Deposits of the White Picacho District, Maricopa and Yavapai Counties, Arizona, Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 162.
        • Independence Gulch
London, D. and Burt, D., 1982, Alteration of spodumene, Montebrasite and Lithiophilite in Pegmatites of the White Picacho District, Arizona, American Mineralogist, v 67, p. 97-113
  • California
    • San Diego Co.
      • Jacumba District
        • Jacumba
          • Tule Mountain (Mount Tule; Tulley Mountain)
Mineralogical Record 33(5):363-407
  • Maine
    • Oxford Co.
      • Greenwood
        • Uncle Tom Mountain
No reference listed
  • North Carolina
    • Cleveland Co.
      • Kings Mountain District
  • South Dakota
    • Custer Co.
      • Custer District
        • Custer
Mineralogical Magazine 1988 52 : 505-508
        • Fourmile
Moore, P. B. (1974) American Mineralogist: 59: 48-60.
        • Pringle
          • Cicero Peak
Mineralogical Magazine 1988 52 : 505-508
    • Pennington Co.
      • Keystone District
        • Glendale
Rocks & Minerals: 75(3): 156-169.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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