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Rockbridgeite

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Formula:
Fe2+Fe43+(PO4)3(OH)5
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Dark green, olive-green, ...
Hardness:
3½ - 4½
Name:
Named in 1949 by Clifford Frondel for the type locality at the Midvale Mine, South Mountain, Midvale, Rockbridge County, Virginia, USA.
Isostructural with:
Rockbridgeite Group. Frondelite-Rockbridgeite Series.
The Fe2+-analogue of frondelite and plimerite.

A secondary mineral resulting from the alteration of primary phosphates.

Visually similar to dufrénite.

Classification of Rockbridgeite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
8.BC.10

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
B : Phosphates, etc., with additional anions, without H2O
C : With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 > 1:1 and < 2:1
41.9.2.1

41 : ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
9 : (AB)5(XO4)3Zq
19.12.16

19 : Phosphates
12 : Phosphates of Mn
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Type Occurrence of Rockbridgeite

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA - #80600.
Year of Discovery:
1949
Geological Setting of Type Material:
granite pegmatite

Occurrences of Rockbridgeite

Geological Setting:
Also rarely found in limonite iron ore deposits.

Physical Properties of Rockbridgeite

Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy, Greasy, Silky
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent, Opaque
Comment:
The cruss-sections of botryoids is radially fibrous
Colour:
Dark green, olive-green, brown, yellow-brown, greenish black, black
Comment:
Commonly exhibits colour banding. May be bronze-brown or reddish brown when oxidized.
Streak:
Gray green, pale brown
Hardness (Mohs):
3½ - 4½
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Very Good
On {100}, excellent; on {010}, good; on {001}, fair.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
3.45 - 3.6 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.60 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Rockbridgeite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 13.783Å, b = 16.805Å, c = 5.172Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.82 : 1 : 0.308
Unit Cell Volume:
V 1,197.96 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Euhedral crystals rare. Typically fibrous, elongated along [001]; compact radiating in crusts, botryoidal and drusy masses.
Comment:
Bbmm
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
6.87 (40)
4.842 (50)
4.630 (40)
3.573 (50)
3.196 (100)
2.409 (50)
1.5890 (50)

Optical Data of Rockbridgeite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.873 - 1.875 nβ = 1.880 nγ = 1.895 - 1.897
2V:
Measured: 45°
Birefringence:
0.022
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.022
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
r < v, or r>v very strong
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X = Light brown to light yellow-brown
Y = Bluish green
Z = Dark bluish green

Chemical Properties of Rockbridgeite

Formula:
Fe2+Fe43+(PO4)3(OH)5
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Rockbridgeite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Frondelite (see here)
Other Members of Group:
FrondeliteMn2+Fe43+(PO4)3(OH)5
PlimeriteZnFe43+(PO4)3(OH)5
8.BC.05AngelelliteFe43+(AsO4)2O3
8.BC.10FrondeliteMn2+Fe43+(PO4)3(OH)5
8.BC.10PlimeriteZnFe43+(PO4)3(OH)5
8.BC.15AerugiteNi8.5(AsO4)2As5+O8
19.12.1MetaswitzeriteMn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
19.12.2BermaniteMn2+Mn23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
19.12.3NatrophiliteNaMn2+PO4
19.12.4SidorenkiteNa3Mn2+(CO3)(PO4)
19.12.5Niahite(NH4)(Mn2+,Mg)(PO4) · H2O
19.12.6RobertsiteCa3Mn43+(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
19.12.7PararobertsiteCa2Mn33+(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
19.12.8SinkankasiteMn2+Al(PO3OH)2(OH) · 6H2O
19.12.9MangangordoniteMn2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.10Heterosite(Fe3+,Mn3+)PO4
19.12.11Purpurite(Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4
19.12.12Wolfeite(Fe2+,Mn2+)2(PO4)(OH)
19.12.13Triploidite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(OH)
19.12.14LipscombiteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
19.12.15FrondeliteMn2+Fe43+(PO4)3(OH)5
19.12.17Kryzhanovskite(Fe3+,Mn2+)3(PO4)2(OH,H2O)3
19.12.18LandesiteMn2+3-xFex3+(PO4)2(OH)x · (3-x)H2O
19.12.19Phosphoferrite(Fe2+,Mn2+)3(PO4)2 · 3H2O
19.12.20Reddingite(Mn2+,Fe2+)3(PO4)2 · 3H2O
19.12.21EarlshannoniteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
19.12.22Hureaulite(Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
19.12.23Switzerite(Mn,Fe)3(PO4)2 · 7H2O
19.12.24LaueiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.25PseudolaueiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.26StrunziteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
19.12.27StewartiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.28Alluaudite(Na,Ca)Mn2+(Fe3+,Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)2(PO4)3
19.12.29Ferroalluaudite(Na,Ca)Fe2+(Fe3+,Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)3
19.12.30Fillowite{Mn2+}{Na8}{Ca4Na4}{(Mn2+,Fe2+)43}(PO4)36
19.12.31JohnsomervilleiteNa10Ca6Mg18Fe25(PO4)36
19.12.32WicksiteNaCa2(Fe2+,Mn2+)4MgFe3+(PO4)6 · 2H2O
19.12.33Dickinsonite-(KMnNa){KNa}{Mn2+◻}{Ca}{Na3}{Mn132+}{Al}(PO4)12(OH)2
19.12.34Sarcopside(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)3(PO4)2
19.12.35Ludlamite(Fe,Mn,Mg)3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
19.12.36Graftonite(Fe2+,Mn2+,Ca)3(PO4)2
19.12.37WilhelmvierlingiteCaMnFe3+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
19.12.38FairfielditeCa2(Mn2+,Fe2+)(PO4)2 · 2H2O
19.12.39Beusite(Mn2+,Fe2+,Ca,Mg)3(PO4)2
19.12.40MesseliteCa2(Fe2+,Mn2+)(PO4)2 · 2H2O
19.12.41Jahnsite-(CaMnFe){Ca}{Mn2+}{Fe22+}{Fe23+}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.42Jahnsite-(CaMnMn){Ca}{Mn2+}{Mn22+}{Fe23+}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.43Jahnsite-(CaMnMg){Ca}{Mn2+}{(Mg,Fe2+)2}{Fe23+}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.44KeckiteCaMn2+Fe23+Fe23+(PO4)4(OH)3(H2O)7
19.12.45StanfielditeCa7Ca2Mg9(PO4)12
19.12.46Laubmannite(Fe2+,Mn2+,Ca)3Fe63+(PO4)4(OH)12
19.12.47ZodaciteCa4Mn2+Fe43+(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
19.12.48HagendorfiteNaCaMn2+Fe22+(PO4)3
19.12.49Maghagendorfite(□,Na,)(Na,Ca,Fe2+)Mn(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)3(PO4)3
19.12.50VaruliteNaCaMn2+Mn22+(PO4)3
19.12.51GriphiteNa4Li2Ca6(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)19Al8(PO4)24(F,OH)8
19.12.52Attakolite(Ca,Sr)Mn(Al,Fe)4(HPO4,PO4)3(SiO4,PO4)(OH)4
19.12.53Arrojadite-(KFe){KNa}{Fe2+◻}{Ca}{Na2◻}{Fe132+}{Al}(PO4)11(HPO4)(OH)2
19.12.54Lun'okite(Mn,Ca)(Mg,Fe,Mn)Al(PO4)2OH · 4H2O
19.12.55Eosphorite(Mn2+,Fe2+)Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
19.12.56Ernstite(Mn2+,Fe3+)Al(PO4)(OH,O)2 · H2O
19.12.57Childrenite(Fe2+,Mn2+)Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
19.12.58BobfergusoniteNa2Mn5FeAl(PO4)6
19.12.59QingheiiteNaMn3+Mg(Al,Fe3+)(PO4)3
19.12.60Whiteite-(CaFeMg){Ca}{(Fe2+,Mn2+)}{Mg2}{Al2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.61Whiteite-(CaMnMg){Ca}{Mn2+}{Mg2}{Al2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.62Whiteite-(MnFeMg){(Mn2+,Ca)}{(Fe2+,Mn2+)}{Mg2}{Al2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.63Rittmannite{(Mn2+,Ca)}{Mn2+}{(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)2}{(Al,Fe3+)2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.64ZanazziiteCa2Mg5Be4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 6H2O
19.12.65Samuelsonite(Ca,Ba)Ca8Fe22+Mn22+Al2(PO4)10(OH)2

Other Names for Rockbridgeite

Name in Other Languages:
Simplified Chinese:铁锰绿铁矿

Other Information

Not fluorescent in UV
Other Information:
Soluble in HCl, but not in HNO3 or H2SO4.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Rockbridgeite

Reference List:
Massie (1880) Chemical News and Journal of Industrial Science, London: 42: 181.

Campbell (1881) American Journal of Science: 22: 65.

Frondel, C. (1949) American Mineralogist: 34: 513-540.

Lindberg (1949) American Mineralogist: 34: 541.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 867-869.

Moore, P.B. (1970) Crystal chemistry of the basic iron phosphates. American Mineralogist: 55: 135–169.

Redhammer, G.J., Roth, G., Tippelt, G., Bernroider, M., Lottermoser, W., Amthauer, G., Hochleitner, R. (2006): Manganoan rockbridgeite: structure analysis and 57 Mössbauer spectroscopy. Acta Cryst. C62, i24-i28.

Internet Links for Rockbridgeite

Specimens:
The following Rockbridgeite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Rockbridgeite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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