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Rutherfordine

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Formula:
(UO
 
2
)CO
 
3
System:OrthorhombicColour:Pale brownish-yellow, ...
Lustre:Silky, Dull
Name:
For British atomic physicist, Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937)
This page provides mineralogical data about Rutherfordine.

Classification of Rutherfordine

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:5/F.01-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:5.EB.05

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
E : Uranyl Carbonates
B : UO2:CO3 = 1:1
Dana 8th edition ID:14.1.4.1

14 : ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
1 : A(XO3)
Hey's CIM Ref.:11.11.2

11 : Carbonates
11 : Carbonates of Cr and U
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Type Occurrence of Rutherfordine

Type Locality:Lukwengule, Uluguru Mts (Uruguru Mts), Morogoro Region, Tanzania
General Appearance of Type Material:Pulverulent masses composed of minute matted fibers, pseudomorphic after uraninite.
Place of Conservation of Type Material:Smithsonian
Year of Discovery:1906

Occurrences of Rutherfordine

Geological Setting:Secondary mineral formed by weathering of uraninite.

Physical Properties of Rutherfordine

Lustre:Silky, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Comment:Silky if fibrous
Colour:Pale brownish-yellow, yellow to orange, yellowish green
Streak:White
Cleavage:Perfect
Perfect on {010}
less perfect on {001}
Density (measured):5.7 g/cm3
Density (calculated):5.682 g/cm3

Crystallography of Rutherfordine

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mm2 - Pyramidal
Space Group:Imm2
Cell Parameters:a = 4.840Å, b = 9.273Å, c = 4.298Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.522 : 1 : 0.463
Unit Cell Volume:V 192.90 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Acicular needles.

Optical Data of Rutherfordine

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.700 - 1.723 nβ = 1.716 - 1.730 nγ = 1.755 - 1.795
2V:Calculated: 53°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.055 - 0.072

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:High
Dispersion:relatively strong
Pleochroism:Visible
Comments:X= colorless
Y= pale yellow
Z= pale greenish yellow

Chemical Properties of Rutherfordine

Formula:
(UO
 
2
)CO
 
3
Simplified for copy/paste:(UO2)CO3
Essential elements:C, O, U
All elements listed in formula:C, O, U

Relationship of Rutherfordine to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
5.EB.10Blatonite
(UO
 
2
)CO
 
3
· H
 
2
O
5.EB.15Joliotite
(UO
 
2
)CO
 
3
· nH
 
2
O
5.EB.20Bijvoetite-(Y)
(Y,Dy)
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(OH)
 
6
· 11H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
11.11.1Stichtite
Mg
 
6
Cr
 
2
(OH)
 
16
[CO
 
3
] · 4H
 
2
O
11.11.3Joliotite
(UO
 
2
)CO
 
3
· nH
 
2
O
11.11.4Grimselite
K
 
3
Na(UO
 
2
)(CO
 
3
)
 
3
· H
 
2
O
11.11.5Bayleyite
Mg
 
2
(UO
 
2
)(CO
 
3
)
 
3
· 18H
 
2
O
11.11.6Metazellerite
Ca(UO
 
2
)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
11.11.7Zellerite
Ca(UO
 
2
)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 5H
 
2
O
11.11.8Wyartite
CaU
5+
 
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)O
 
4
(OH) · 7H
 
2
O
11.11.9Urancalcarite
Ca(UO
 
2
)
 
3
(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
6
· 3H
 
2
O
11.11.10Sharpite
Ca(UO
 
2
)
 
6
(CO
 
3
)
 
5
(OH)
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
11.11.11Voglite
Ca
 
2
Cu(UO
 
2
)(CO
 
3
)
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
11.11.12Andersonite
Na
 
2
Ca(UO
 
2
)(CO
 
3
)
 
3
· 6H
 
2
O
11.11.13Swartzite
MgCa(UO
 
2
)(CO
 
3
)
 
3
· 12H
 
2
O
11.11.14Rabbittite
Ca
 
3
Mg
 
3
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
6
(OH)
 
4
· 18H
 
2
O
11.11.15Kamotoite-(Y)
Y
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
3
O
 
4
· 14H
 
2
O
11.11.16Shabaite-(Nd)
Ca(Nd,Sm,Y)
 
2
(UO
 
2
)(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
11.11.17Astrocyanite-(Ce)
Cu
 
2
(Ce,Nd,La)
 
2
(UO
 
2
)(CO
 
3
)
 
5
(OH)
 
2
· 1.5H
 
2
O
11.11.18Bijvoetite-(Y)
(Y,Dy)
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(OH)
 
6
· 11H
 
2
O
11.11.19Widenmannite
Pb
 
2
(UO
 
2
)(CO
 
3
)
 
3
11.11.20Znucalite
Zn
 
12
Ca(UO
 
2
)(CO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
22
· 4H
 
2
O

Other Names for Rutherfordine

Synonyms:
Diderichite
Other Languages:
German:Diderichit
Rutherfordin
Russian:Рутерфордин
Spanish:Diderichita

Other Information

Other Information:Soluble in acids.
Health Warning:Radioactive

References for Rutherfordine

Reference List:

- +
Marckwald (1906) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 761.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 129.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 274-275.

American Mineralogist (1956): 41: 127-133.

Finch, R.J., M. Cooper, F.C. Hawthorne, and R.C. Ewing (1999b) Refinement of the crystal structure of rutherfordine. Canadian Mineralogist (1999): 37: 929.

Kubatko, Karrie-Ann, Katheryn Helean, Alexandra Navrotsky, and Peter C. Burns (2005), Thermodynamics of uranyl minerals: Enthalpies of formation of rutherfordine, UO2CO3, andersonite, Na2CaUO2(CO3)3(H2O)5, and grimselite, K3NaUO2(CO3)3H2O: American Mineralogist: 90: 1284-1290.

Burns, P.C. (2005) U 6+ minerals and inorganic compounds: insights into an expanded structural hierarchy of crystal structures. Canadian Mineralogist: 43: 1839-1894.

Internet Links for Rutherfordine

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
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  • Rutherfordine details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Rutherfordine

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • Northern Territory
      • Alligator Rivers Region
    Econ Geol (1987)82:1152-1168; Angela Giblin (2004) Alligator Rivers Uranium deposits (Koongarra, Nabarlek and Ranger One) Northern Territory. CRC LEME
        • South Alligator River
    Henry, D.A., Pogson, R.E. and Williams, P.A. (2005) Threadgoldite from the South Alligator Valley uranium field, Northern Territory, Australia: second world occurrence. , Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 11, 7-11
    • South Australia
      • Central North
        • Peake and Denison Ranges
    No reference listed
      • Flinders Ranges
        • North Flinders Ranges
          • Arkaroola Region (Arkaroola Station)
            • Mt Painter area
    J. Brugger at al.: Austral. J. Mineral. 9(1):15-31 (2003); J. Brugger et al.: Amer. Min. 89:339-347 (2004); Lapis 29(3):41 (2004)
    Austria
     
    • Carinthia
      • Koralpe
        • Waldenstein
          • Übelskogel
    G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
    Brazil
     
    • Minas Gerais
      • Doce valley
        • Galiléia
          • Sapucaia do Norte
    Cassedanne, J.P. & Baptista, A. (1999): Famous Mineral Localities: The Sapucaia Pegmatite Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mineralogical Record, 30: 347-360 + 365
    Canada
     
    • Saskatchewan
      • Athabasca Basin
    WATKINSON, D.H., HESLOP, J.B. & EWERT, W.D. (1975) Nickel sulphide-arsenide assemblages associated with uranium mineralization, Zimmer Lake area, Northern Saskatchewan. Canadian Mineralogist 13, 198-204.
      • Beaverlodge Region
        • Goldfields District
          • Beaverlodge Lake
    Jeremy Zolan
    China
     
    • Hunan Province
    Aizhen Wang and Jingyi Zhang (1988): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 8(3), 272-275
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Karlovy Vary Region
    Pauliš P., Kopecký S., Černý P. 2007: Uranové minerály České Republiky a jejich naleziště. 1. část. (Kutna Hora, issue 1)
    Plašil J, Sejkora J, Ondruš P, Veselovský F, Beran P, Goliáš V (2006): Supergene minerals in the Horní Slavkov uranium ore district, Czech Republic. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 51, 149-158. ; Sejkora, J. & Plasil, J. (2009): Mineralien aus dem Uranrevier Horni Slavkov. Lapis 34 (7-8), 63-67; 70 (in German).
        • Krušné Hory Mtns (Erzgebirge)
          • Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal)
    Sejkora, J., Čejka, J., Bureš, B.: Nález vzácného karbonátu uranylu (rutherfordinu) v jáchymovském rudním revíru. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 2004, roč. 12, s. 163-166.
    Skala, R., et al. Min.Petrol. 103,167 (2011)
    Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
     
    • Katanga (Shaba)
      • Katanga Copper Crescent
        • Kolwezi District
          • Kolwezi
    No reference listed
    Rob Lavinsky specimen
        • Shinkolobwe
    V.D.C. Daltry (1992) The Type Mineralogy Of Africa : Zaire pp 33-62
    • Sud-Kivu
      • Lusungu River District
    France
     
    • Auvergne
      • Puy-de-Dôme
        • Saint-Amant-Tallende
          • Olloix
    Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV (1998)
    • Languedoc-Roussillon
      • Hérault
    Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV, 1998
        • Lodève
    Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV (1998)
    [Le Règne Minéral 1997, 13, p.5-18]
    Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV (1998)
      • Lozère
        • Marvejols
          • St Léger-de-Peyre
    Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV, 1998
    • Poitou-Charentes
      • Deux-Sèvres
        • La Chapelle Largeau
    Le Cahier des micromonteurs, 2002, N°75, pp 8-25
        • Saint-Amand-sur-Sèvre
    Le Cahier des micromonteurs, 2002, N°75, pp 8-25
    Gabon
     
    • Haut-Ogooué Province
      • Franceville
    Janusz Janeczek (1999) Mineralogy and geochemistry of natural fission reactors in Gabon. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, MSA, v. 38, p. 321-392
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Black Forest
        • Haslach
          • Schnellingen
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001; Schmeltzer, H. (1993): Die Grube Segen Gottes bei Schnellingen - ein polymetallisches Mineralvorkommen. Der Erzgräber, 7 (2), 34-35.
        • Menzenschwand
    Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
        • Schenkenzell
          • Wittichen
            • Böckelsbach valley
    No reference listed
    • Bavaria
      • Upper Palatinate
        • Schwandorf
          • Wölsendorf Fluorite mining District
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Hunsrück
        • Birkenfeld
          • Ellweiler
    Aufschluss 69/(7+8), Lapis 79/(7+8)
    • Saxony
      • Erzgebirge
    Lapis 30(7/8):78-80 (2005)
    Italy
     
    • Trentino-Alto Adige
      • Trento Province
        • Daone
          • Limes
    Campostrini, I., Demartin, F., Gramaccioli, C.M. (2005): Val Daone. Minerali secondari del giacimento uranifero presso Limes, Daone (TN). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2005, 228-240.
    New Zealand
     
    • South Island
      • Buller River
    Christie & Brathwaite, (2000) NZ Mineral Commodity Report 19 - Beryllium, Gallium, Lithium, Magnesium, Uranium and Zirconium
    Norway
     
    • Buskerud
      • Krødsherad
        • Krøderen Lake
    Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 103
    • Østfold
      • Sarpsborg
        • Skjeberg
          • Setreåsen
    Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 103.
    Switzerland
     
    • Wallis (Valais)
      • Le Trient Valley
        • Les Marécottes
    - Meisser, N. (2012): La minéralogie de l'uranium dans le massif des Aiguilles Rouges. Matér. Géol. Suisse, Sér. géotech. 96, 183 p.
    Tanzania
     
    • Morogoro Region
      • Uluguru Mts (Uruguru Mts)
    Centr.Min.(1906) p. 761-764; J. Geffroy, J.A. Sarcia, J. Chervet : "Les Minéraux Uranifères Français", 1960, Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucléaires / Saclay - PUF.
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cornwall
        • St Austell District
          • St Stephen-in-Brannel
            • St Stephen
    Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
        • St Just District
          • St Just
            • Botallack
              • Wheal Owles
    [Journal of the Russell Society, 6(1), 17-26 (1995)]
    USA
     
    • Colorado
      • Eagle Co.
        • McCoy District
    Minerals of Colorado (1997)
      • Moffat Co.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    • Connecticut
      • Fairfield Co.
        • Danbury
    Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut: 192-201.
    • Maine
      • Oxford Co.
        • Newry
    King, V. and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, V. 1; King, V. (ed), 2000, Mineralogy of Maine, V. 2.
    • Michigan
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    • Nevada
      • Lander Co.
        • Reese River District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada; Jensen, M. and J. Herrmann (2012) Uranium mineralization at the Apex Mine, Lander County, Nevada. Rocks and Minerals 87:270-276
    • New Hampshire
      • Grafton Co.
        • Groton
    Rocks & Min. 80:256 (2005)
      • Sullivan Co.
        • Acworth
    Januzzi, R.E. and Seaman, David M. (1976) Mineral Localities Of Connecticut and Southern New York State and Pegmatite Minerals of the World.
    • New Mexico
      • McKinley Co.
    Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
          • Ambrosia Lake area
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • North Carolina
      • Burke Co.
        • Brindletown
    Rocks & Min.:60:86.
    • Utah
      • Emery Co.
        • San Rafael District (San Rafael Swell)
          • Delta
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah; Page, L. R.; Stocking, H. E.; Smith, H. B. (1956) Contributions to the geology of uranium and thorium by the United States Geological Survey and Atomic Energy Commission for the United Nations International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, Switzerland, 1955. USGS Professional Paper 300 pp263-279
      • San Juan Co.
        • Interriver District
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
        • White Canyon District
          • White Canyon
    Min Rec 30 pp231-238
    • Washington
      • Stevens Co.
        • Benjamin Lake
    Charles Creekmur collection
    • Wyoming
      • Fremont Co.
    Rocks & Minerals 76:386
    Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols; Page, L. R.; Stocking, H. E.; Smith, H. B. (1956) Contributions to the geology of uranium and thorium by the United States Geological Survey and Atomic Energy Commission for the United Nations International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, Switzerland, 1955. USGS Professional Paper 300 pp361-370.
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