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Rutherfordine

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Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson
Formula:
(UO2)CO3
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Pale brownish-yellow, ...
Lustre:
Silky, Dull
Name:
For British atomic physicist, Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937)
This page provides mineralogical data about Rutherfordine.

Classification of Rutherfordine

Approved
5.EB.05

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
E : Uranyl Carbonates
B : UO2:CO3 = 1:1
14.1.4.1

14 : ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
1 : A(XO3)
11.11.2

11 : Carbonates
11 : Carbonates of Cr and U
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First Recorded Occurrence of Rutherfordine

General Appearance of First Recorded Material:
Pulverulent masses composed of minute matted fibers, pseudomorphic after uraninite.
Place of Conservation of First Recorded Material:
Smithsonian
Year of Discovery:
1906

Occurrences of Rutherfordine

Geological Setting:
Secondary mineral formed by weathering of uraninite.

Physical Properties of Rutherfordine

Silky, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent
Comment:
Silky if fibrous
Colour:
Pale brownish-yellow, yellow to orange, yellowish green
Streak:
White
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {010}
less perfect on {001}
Density:
5.7 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.682 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Rutherfordine

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mm2 - Pyramidal
Space Group:
Imm2
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.840Å, b = 9.273Å, c = 4.298Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.522 : 1 : 0.463
Unit Cell Volume:
V 192.90 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Acicular needles.

Optical Data of Rutherfordine

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.700 - 1.723 nβ = 1.716 - 1.730 nγ = 1.755 - 1.795
2V:
Calculated: 53°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.055 - 0.072
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
relatively strong
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X= colorless
Y= pale yellow
Z= pale greenish yellow

Chemical Properties of Rutherfordine

Formula:
(UO2)CO3
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Rutherfordine to other Species

5.EB.10Blatonite(UO2)CO3 · H2O
5.EB.15Joliotite(UO2)CO3 · nH2O
5.EB.20Bijvoetite-(Y)(Y,Dy)2(UO2)4(CO3)4(OH)6 · 11H2O
11.11.1StichtiteMg6Cr2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2O
11.11.3Joliotite(UO2)CO3 · nH2O
11.11.4GrimseliteK3Na(UO2)(CO3)3 · H2O
11.11.5BayleyiteMg2(UO2)(CO3)3 · 18H2O
11.11.6MetazelleriteCa(UO2)(CO3)2 · 3H2O
11.11.7ZelleriteCa(UO2)(CO3)2 · 5H2O
11.11.8WyartiteCaU5+(UO2)2(CO3)O4(OH) · 7H2O
11.11.9UrancalcariteCa(UO2)3(CO3)(OH)6 · 3H2O
11.11.10SharpiteCa(UO2)6(CO3)5(OH)4 · 6H2O
11.11.11VogliteCa2Cu(UO2)(CO3)4 · 6H2O
11.11.12AndersoniteNa2Ca(UO2)(CO3)3 · 6H2O
11.11.13SwartziteMgCa(UO2)(CO3)3 · 12H2O
11.11.14RabbittiteCa3Mg3(UO2)2(CO3)6(OH)4 · 18H2O
11.11.15Kamotoite-(Y)Y2(UO2)4(CO3)3O4 · 14H2O
11.11.16Shabaite-(Nd)Ca(Nd,Sm,Y)2(UO2)(CO3)4(OH)2 · 6H2O
11.11.17Astrocyanite-(Ce)Cu2(Ce,Nd,La)2(UO2)(CO3)5(OH)2 · 1.5H2O
11.11.18Bijvoetite-(Y)(Y,Dy)2(UO2)4(CO3)4(OH)6 · 11H2O
11.11.19WidenmannitePb2(OH)2[(UO2)(CO3)2]
11.11.20ZnucaliteZn12Ca(UO2)(CO3)3(OH)22 · 4H2O

Other Names for Rutherfordine

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Other Information:
Soluble in acids.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Rutherfordine

Reference List:
Marckwald (1906) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 761.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 129.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 274-275.

American Mineralogist (1956): 41: 127-133.

Finch, R.J., M. Cooper, F.C. Hawthorne, and R.C. Ewing (1999b) Refinement of the crystal structure of rutherfordine. Canadian Mineralogist (1999): 37: 929.

Kubatko, Karrie-Ann, Katheryn Helean, Alexandra Navrotsky, and Peter C. Burns (2005), Thermodynamics of uranyl minerals: Enthalpies of formation of rutherfordine, UO2CO3, andersonite, Na2CaUO2(CO3)3(H2O)5, and grimselite, K3NaUO2(CO3)3H2O: American Mineralogist: 90: 1284-1290.

Burns, P.C. (2005) U 6+ minerals and inorganic compounds: insights into an expanded structural hierarchy of crystal structures. Canadian Mineralogist: 43: 1839-1894.

Internet Links for Rutherfordine

Localities for Rutherfordine

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • Northern Territory
    • West Arnhem Region
Econ Geol (1987)82:1152-1168; Angela Giblin (2004) Alligator Rivers Uranium deposits (Koongarra, Nabarlek and Ranger One) Northern Territory. CRC LEME
      • South Alligator River
Henry, D.A., Pogson, R.E. and Williams, P.A. (2005) Threadgoldite from the South Alligator Valley uranium field, Northern Territory, Australia: second world occurrence. , Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 11, 7-11
  • South Australia
    • Central North
      • Peake and Denison Ranges
No reference listed
    • Flinders Ranges
      • North Flinders Ranges
        • Arkaroola Region (Arkaroola Station)
          • Mt Painter area
J. Brugger at al.: Austral. J. Mineral. 9(1):15-31 (2003); J. Brugger et al.: Amer. Min. 89:339-347 (2004); Lapis 29(3):41 (2004)
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Koralpe
      • Waldenstein
        • Übelskogel
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
    • Doce valley
      • Galiléia
        • Sapucaia do Norte
Cassedanne, J.P. & Baptista, A. (1999): Famous Mineral Localities: The Sapucaia Pegmatite Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mineralogical Record, 30: 347-360 + 365
Canada
 
  • Saskatchewan
    • Athabasca Basin
WATKINSON, D.H., HESLOP, J.B. & EWERT, W.D. (1975) Nickel sulphide-arsenide assemblages associated with uranium mineralization, Zimmer Lake area, Northern Saskatchewan. Canadian Mineralogist 13, 198-204.
    • Beaverlodge Region
      • Goldfields District
        • Beaverlodge Lake
Jeremy Zolan
China
 
  • Hunan Province
Aizhen Wang and Jingyi Zhang (1988): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 8(3), 272-275
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Karlovy Vary Region
Pauliš P., Kopecký S., Černý P. 2007: Uranové minerály České Republiky a jejich naleziště. 1. část. (Kutna Hora, issue 1)
Plašil J, Sejkora J, Ondruš P, Veselovský F, Beran P, Goliáš V (2006): Supergene minerals in the Horní Slavkov uranium ore district, Czech Republic. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 51, 149-158. ; Sejkora, J. & Plasil, J. (2009): Mineralien aus dem Uranrevier Horni Slavkov. Lapis 34 (7-8), 63-67; 70 (in German).
      • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
        • Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal)
Sejkora, J., Čejka, J., Bureš, B.: Nález vzácného karbonátu uranylu (rutherfordinu) v jáchymovském rudním revíru. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 2004, roč. 12, s. 163-166.
Skala, R., et al. Min.Petrol. 103,167 (2011)
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
 
  • Katanga (Shaba)
    • Katanga Copper Crescent
      • Kolwezi District
        • Kolwezi
No reference listed
Rob Lavinsky specimen
      • Shinkolobwe
V.D.C. Daltry (1992) The Type Mineralogy Of Africa : Zaire pp 33-62
  • Sud-Kivu
    • Mwenga
France
 
  • Auvergne
    • Puy-de-Dôme
      • Saint-Amant-Tallende
        • Olloix
Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV (1998)
  • Languedoc-Roussillon
    • Hérault
      • Lodève
Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV (1998)
[Le Règne Minéral 1997, 13, p.5-18]
Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV (1998)
      • Saint Martin du Bosc
Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV, 1998
    • Lozère
      • Marvejols
        • St Léger-de-Peyre
Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV, 1998
  • Poitou-Charentes
    • Deux-Sèvres
      • La Chapelle Largeau
Le Cahier des micromonteurs, 2002, N°75, pp 8-25
      • Saint-Amand-sur-Sèvre
Le Cahier des micromonteurs, 2002, N°75, pp 8-25
Gabon
 
  • Haut-Ogooué Province
    • Franceville
Janusz Janeczek (1999) Mineralogy and geochemistry of natural fission reactors in Gabon. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, MSA, v. 38, p. 321-392
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Haslach
        • Schnellingen
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001; Schmeltzer, H. (1993): Die Grube Segen Gottes bei Schnellingen - ein polymetallisches Mineralvorkommen. Der Erzgräber, 7 (2), 34-35.
      • Menzenschwand
Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
      • Schenkenzell
        • Wittichen
          • Böckelsbach valley
No reference listed
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Wölsendorf Fluorite Mining District
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Hunsrück
      • Birkenfeld
        • Ellweiler
Aufschluss 69/(7+8), Lapis 79/(7+8)
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge
Lapis 30(7/8):78-80 (2005)
Italy
 
  • Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-Südtirol)
    • Trento Province
      • Giudicarie Valleys
        • Chiese Valley
          • Daone
            • Daone Valley
              • Limes
Campostrini, I., Demartin, F., Gramaccioli, C.M. (2005): Val Daone. Minerali secondari del giacimento uranifero presso Limes, Daone (TN). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2005, 228-240.
New Zealand
 
  • South Island
    • Buller River
Christie & Brathwaite, (2000) NZ Mineral Commodity Report 19 - Beryllium, Gallium, Lithium, Magnesium, Uranium and Zirconium
Norway
 
  • Buskerud
    • Krødsherad
      • Krøderen Lake
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 103
  • Østfold
    • Sarpsborg
      • Skjeberg
        • Setreåsen
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 103.
Switzerland
 
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Le Trient Valley
      • Les Marécottes
- Meisser, N. (2012): La minéralogie de l'uranium dans le massif des Aiguilles Rouges. Matér. Géol. Suisse, Sér. géotech. 96, 183 p.
Tanzania
 
  • Morogoro Region
    • Uluguru Mts (Uruguru Mts)
Centr.Min.(1906) p. 761-764; J. Geffroy, J.A. Sarcia, J. Chervet : "Les Minéraux Uranifères Français", 1960, Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucléaires / Saclay - PUF.
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • St Austell District
        • St Stephen-in-Brannel
          • St Stephen
Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
      • St Just District
        • St Just
          • Botallack
            • Wheal Owles
[Journal of the Russell Society, 6(1), 17-26 (1995)]
USA
 
  • Colorado
    • Eagle Co.
      • McCoy District
Minerals of Colorado (1997)
    • Moffat Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
  • Connecticut
    • Fairfield Co.
      • Danbury
Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut: 192-201.
  • Maine
    • Oxford Co.
      • Newry
King, V. and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, V. 1; King, V. (ed), 2000, Mineralogy of Maine, V. 2.
  • Michigan
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
  • Nevada
    • Lander Co.
      • Reese River District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada; Jensen, M. and J. Herrmann (2012) Uranium mineralization at the Apex Mine, Lander County, Nevada. Rocks and Minerals 87:270-276
  • New Hampshire
    • Grafton Co.
      • Groton
Rocks & Min. 80:256 (2005)
    • Sullivan Co.
      • Acworth
Januzzi, R.E. and Seaman, David M. (1976) Mineral Localities Of Connecticut and Southern New York State and Pegmatite Minerals of the World.
  • New Mexico
    • McKinley Co.
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
        • Ambrosia Lake area
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
  • North Carolina
    • Burke Co.
      • Brindletown
Rocks & Min.:60:86.
  • Utah
    • Emery Co.
      • San Rafael District (San Rafael Swell)
        • Delta
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah; Page, L. R.; Stocking, H. E.; Smith, H. B. (1956) Contributions to the geology of uranium and thorium by the United States Geological Survey and Atomic Energy Commission for the United Nations International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, Switzerland, 1955. USGS Professional Paper 300 pp263-279
    • San Juan Co.
      • Interriver District
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • White Canyon District
        • White Canyon
Min Rec 30 pp231-238
  • Washington
    • Stevens Co.
      • Benjamin Lake
Charles Creekmur collection
  • Wyoming
    • Fremont Co.
Rocks & Minerals 76:386
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols; Page, L. R.; Stocking, H. E.; Smith, H. B. (1956) Contributions to the geology of uranium and thorium by the United States Geological Survey and Atomic Energy Commission for the United Nations International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, Switzerland, 1955. USGS Professional Paper 300 pp361-370.
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