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Rutile

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Formula:
TiO
 
2
System:TetragonalColour:Blood red, brownish ...
Lustre:Adamantine, MetallicHardness:6 - 6½
Member of:Rutile Group
Name:Named in 1800 by Abraham Gottlob Werner from the Latin "rutilus", meaning "reddish."
Polymorph of:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, TiO2 II


Rutile Group.

Rutile is one of the five forms of titanium dioxide found in nature.

Sellaite (magnesium fluoride, MgF2) also has a rutile-type structure.


Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Rutile. Currently in public beta-test.

Classification of Rutile

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/D.02-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.DB.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
B : With medium-sized cations; chains of edge-sharing octahedra
Dana 8th edition ID:4.4.1.1

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
4 : AX2
Hey's CIM Ref.:7.9.2

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
9 : Oxides of Ti
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Type Occurrence of Rutile

Type Locality:Rutile locality, Horcajuelo de la Sierra, Madrid, Spain
Year of Discovery:1803

Occurrences of Rutile

Geological Setting:As an accessory mineral in high pressure, high temperature igneous rocks, in placers.

Physical Properties of Rutile

Lustre:Adamantine, Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:Blood red, brownish yellow, brown-red, yellow, greyish-black, black, brown, bluish or violet
Streak:Greyish black, pale brown, light yellow
Hardness (Mohs):6 - 6½
Hardness (Vickers):VHN100=894 - 974 kg/mm2
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Distinct/Good
{110} distinct, {100} less distinct; and, {111} in traces.
Parting:On {092} due to twin gliding; also on {011}.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal, Sub-Conchoidal
Density (measured):4.23(2) g/cm3
Density (calculated):4.25 g/cm3

Crystallography of Rutile

Crystal System:Tetragonal
Class (H-M):4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:P42/mnm
Cell Parameters:a = 4.5937Å, c = 2.9587Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 0.644
Unit Cell Volume:V 62.43 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Commonly prismatic, often slender to acicular [001]. Prism zone vertically striated or furrowed. Usually terminated by {101} or {111}; {001} rare. Rarely pyramidal. Granular massive.
Twinning:On {011} common. Often geniculated; also contact twins of very varied habit. Sixlings and eightlings at times, occasionally polysynthetic. The twins are sometimes distorted by extension of a pair of faces on {011}. Twin gliding observed on this plane as well. Also on {031}, rare. On {092}, as twin gliding plane.
Crystal Atlas:
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Rutile no.26 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Rutile no.28 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Rutile no.52 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Rutile no.62 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Rutile no.107 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Epitaxial Relationships of Rutile

Epitaxial Minerals:
Magnetite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
Ilmenite
Fe
2+
 
TiO
 
3
Hematite
Fe
 
2
O
 
3
Brookite
TiO
 
2
Anatase
TiO
 
2
Epitaxi Comments:Oriented microscopic needles of rutile are frequently observed in corundum, pseudobrookite, phlogopite, and quartz.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Rutile

Type:Uniaxial (+)
RI values: nω = 2.605 - 2.613 nε = 2.899 - 2.901
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.294

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Type:Anisotropic
Anisotropism:Strong
Dispersion:Strong
Pleochroism:Visible
Comments:Shades of red, brown, yellow and green.

Chemical Properties of Rutile

Formula:
TiO
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:TiO2
Essential elements:O, Ti
All elements listed in formula:O, Ti
Common Impurities:Fe,Ta,Nb,Cr,V,Sn

Relationship of Rutile to other Species

Member of:Rutile Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Argutite
GeO
 
2
Cassiterite
SnO
 
2
Paratellurite
TeO
 
2
Plattnerite
PbO
 
2
Pyrolusite
MnO
 
2
Stishovite
SiO
 
2
Tripuhyite
Fe
3+
 
Sb
5+
 
O
 
4
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.DB.05Argutite
GeO
 
2
4.DB.05Cassiterite
SnO
 
2
4.DB.05Plattnerite
PbO
 
2
4.DB.05Pyrolusite
MnO
 
2
4.DB.05Tripuhyite
Fe
3+
 
Sb
5+
 
O
 
4
4.DB.05Tugarinovite
MoO
 
2
4.DB.05Varlamoffite
(Sn,Fe)(O,OH)
 
2
4.DB.10Byströmite
MgSb
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.10Tapiolite-(Fe)
(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.10Tapiolite-(Mn)
(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.10Ordoñezite
ZnSb
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.15bAkhtenskite
ε-Mn
4+
 
O
 
2
4.DB.15cNsutite
(Mn
4+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)(O,OH)
 
2
4.DB.15aParamontroseite
V
4+
 
O
 
2
4.DB.15aRamsdellite
Mn
4+
 
O
 
2
4.DB.20Scrutinyite
alpha-PbO
 
2
4.DB.25Ishikawaite
U
4+
 
Fe
2+
 
Nb
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.25Ixiolite
(Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)
 
4
O
 
8
4.DB.25Samarskite-(Y)
(Y,Fe
3+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,U,Th,Ca)
 
2
(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.25Srilankite
ZrTi
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.25Yttrocolumbite-(Y)
Y(U
4+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)Nb
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.25Calciosamarskite
(Ca,Fe
3+
 
,Y)
 
2
(Nb,Ta,Ti)
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.25Samarskite-(Yb)
(Yb,Y,Fe
3+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,U,Th,Ca)
 
2
(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.30Ferberite
FeWO
 
4
4.DB.30Hübnerite
MnWO
 
4
4.DB.30Sanmartinite
(Zn,Fe)WO
 
4
4.DB.30Krasnoselskite
CoWO
 
4
4.DB.30Heftetjernite
ScTaO
 
4
4.DB.30Huanzalaite
MgWO
 
4
4.DB.35Columbite-(Fe)
FeNb
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Fe)
FeTa
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.35Columbite-(Mn)
(Mn,Fe)(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Mn)
MnTa
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.35Columbite-(Mg)
(Mg,Fe,Mn)(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.35Qitianlingite
(Fe,Mn)
 
2
(Nb,Ta)
 
2
WO
 
10
4.DB.35Magnocolumbite
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Mg)
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)(Ta,Nb)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.40Ferrowodginite
FeSnTa
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.40Lithiotantite
Li(Ta,Nb)
 
3
O
 
8
4.DB.40Lithiowodginite
LiTa
 
3
O
 
8
4.DB.40Titanowodginite
MnTiTa
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.40Wodginite
Mn(Sn,Ta)Ta
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.40Ferrotitanowodginite
Fe
2+
 
TiTa
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.40Wolframowodginite
Mn(Mn,Sn,Fe,Ta)(W,Ta,Nb)
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.45Tivanite
V
3+
 
TiO
 
3
(OH)
4.DB.50Carmichaelite
(Ti,Cr,Fe)[O
 
2-x
(OH)
 
x
]
4.DB.55Alumotantite
AlTaO
 
4
4.DB.60Biehlite
((Sb,As)O)
 
2
[MoO
 
4
]
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
7.9.1Hongquiite
TiO
7.9.3Anatase
TiO
 
2
7.9.4Brookite
TiO
 
2
7.9.5Geikielite
MgTiO
 
3
7.9.6Perovskite
CaTiO
 
3
7.9.7Kassite
CaTi
 
2
O
 
4
(OH)
 
2
7.9.8Tausonite
SrTiO
 
3
7.9.9Crichtonite
(Sr,La,Ce,Y)(Ti,Fe
3+
 
,Mn)
 
21
O
 
38
7.9.10Lucasite-(Ce)
CeTi
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
7.9.11Hibonite
(Ca,Ce)Al
 
12
O
 
19
7.9.12Yttrocrasite-(Y)
(Y,Th,Ca,U)(Ti,Fe)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
7.9.13Pyrophanite
Mn
2+
 
TiO
 
3
7.9.14Iwakiite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
7.9.15Ilmenite
Fe
2+
 
TiO
 
3
7.9.16Pseudobrookite
Fe
 
2
TiO
 
5
7.9.17Ulvöspinel
Fe
 
2
TiO
 
4
7.9.18Pseudorutile
Fe
 
2
Ti
 
3
O
 
9
7.9.19Freudenbergite
Na
 
2
(Ti,Fe)
 
8
O
 
16
7.9.20Kennedyite
MgFe
3+
2
Ti
 
3
O
 
10
7.9.21Armalcolite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Ti
 
2
O
 
5
7.9.22Högbomite
(Mg,Fe)
 
2
(Al,Ti)
 
5
O
 
10
7.9.23Qandilite
(Mg,Fe)
 
2
(Ti,Fe,Al)O
 
4
7.9.24Cafetite
(Ca,Mg)(Fe,Al)
 
2
Ti
 
4
O
 
12
· 4H
 
2
O
7.9.25Loveringite
(Ca,Ce,La)(Zr,Fe)(Mg,Fe)
 
2
(Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)
 
18
O
 
38
7.9.26Lindsleyite
(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)
 
2
(Ti,Cr,Fe)
 
18
O
 
38
7.9.27Priderite
K(Ti
4+
7
Fe
3+
 
)O
 
16
7.9.28Jeppeite
(K,Ba)
 
2
(Ti,Fe)
 
6
O
 
13
7.9.29Ankangite
Ba(Ti,V
3+
 
,Cr)
 
8
O
 
16
7.9.30Ecandrewsite
(Zn,Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)TiO
 
3
7.9.31Landauite
NaMnZn
 
2
(Ti,Fe)
 
6
Ti
 
12
O
 
38

Other Names for Rutile

Synonyms:
CajueliteCrispiteDicksbergiteEdisoniteflèches d'amour
GallitziniteLove ArrowsNaumannite (of Koksharov)ParaedriteRed Schorl
Rother SchorlSchorl RougeTitane oxydéTitane oxydé chromifèreTitanite (of Kirwan)
TitankalkTitanschorl
Other Languages:
German:Cajuelit
Dicksbergit
Edisonit
Gallitzinit
Paraedrit
Rutil
Rutilit
Italian:Rutilo
Russian:Рутил
Simplified Chinese:金红石
Spanish:Cajuelita
Dicksbergita
Edisonita
Gallitzinita
Paraedrita
Rutilita
Varieties:
Gel-RutileIlmenorutileIserite (of Janovsky)LusteriteNigrine
Niobian RutileSagenite (of Saussure)Strüverite

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Rutile

Reference List:

- +
Miller (1840), Phil. Mag.: 17: 268.

Hidden (1888), American Journal of Science: 36: 272 (as edisonite).

Prior and Zambonini (1908), Mineralogical Magazine: 15: 78.

Lacroix (1912), Bull. soc. min.: 35: 185.

Ungemach (1916), Bull. soc. min.: 39: 5.

Gliszczynski (1940), Zbl. Min.: 181.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 554-561.

Canadian Mineralogist (1979): 17: 77.

Foord, E.E., Chirnside, W., Davis, A.M., Lichte, F.E., Esposito, K.J. (1995): A new U–Ti–Ca–HREE hydrated oxide and associated niobian rutile from Topaz Valley, Utah. Mineralogical Record, 26, 122-128.

Smith, D.C. and Perseil, E.-A. (1997): Sb-rich rutile in the manganese concentrations at St. Marcel-Praborna, Aosta Valley, Italy: petrology and crystal-chemistry. Mineralogical Magazine 61, 655-669.

Maldener, J., Rauch, F., Gavranic, M., and Beran, A. (2001): OH absorption coefficients of rutile and cassiterite deduced from nuclear reaction analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. Mineralogy and Petrology 71, 21-29.

Withers, Anthony C., Eric J. Essene, and Youxue Zhang (2003): Rutile/TiO2 II phase equilibria: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 145, 199-204.

Bauer, W. H. (2007): The rutile type and its derivatives. Crystallography Reviews, 13, 65-113.

Best Localities for Rutile

Best of Species:Rutile

Internet Links for Rutile

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    Localities for Rutile

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