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Rutile

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Formula:
TiO2
System:
Tetragonal
Colour:
Blood red, brownish ...
Lustre:
Adamantine, Metallic
Hardness:
6 - 6½
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1800 by Abraham Gottlob Werner from the Latin "rutilus", meaning "reddish."
Rutile Group.

Rutile is one of the five forms of titanium dioxide found in nature.

Sellaite (magnesium fluoride, MgF2) also has a rutile-type structure.


Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Rutile.

Classification of Rutile

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.DB.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
B : With medium-sized cations; chains of edge-sharing octahedra
4.4.1.1

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
4 : AX2
7.9.2

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
9 : Oxides of Ti
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Type Occurrence of Rutile

Occurrences of Rutile

Geological Setting:
As an accessory mineral in high pressure, high temperature igneous rocks, in placers.

Physical Properties of Rutile

Adamantine, Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent
Colour:
Blood red, brownish yellow, brown-red, yellow, greyish-black, black, brown, bluish or violet
Streak:
Greyish black, pale brown, light yellow
Hardness (Mohs):
6 - 6½
Hardness (Vickers):
VHN100=894 - 974 kg/mm2
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
{110} distinct, {100} less distinct; and, {111} in traces.
Parting:
On {092} due to twin gliding; also on {011}.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
4.23(2) g/cm3 (Measured)    4.25 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Rutile

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
P42/mnm
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.5937Å, c = 2.9587Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.644
Unit Cell Volume:
V 62.43 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Commonly prismatic, often slender to acicular [001]. Prism zone vertically striated or furrowed. Usually terminated by {101} or {111}; {001} rare. Rarely pyramidal. Granular massive.
Twinning:
On {011} common. Often geniculated; also contact twins of very varied habit. Sixlings and eightlings at times, occasionally polysynthetic. The twins are sometimes distorted by extension of a pair of faces on {011}. Twin gliding observed on this plane as well. Also on {031}, rare. On {092}, as twin gliding plane.

Crystallographic forms of Rutile

Crystal Atlas:
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Rutile no.26 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Rutile no.28 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Rutile no.52 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Rutile no.62 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Rutile no.107 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Epitaxial Relationships of Rutile

Epitaxial Minerals:
MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
HematiteFe2O3
BrookiteTiO2
AnataseTiO2
Epitaxy Comments:
Oriented microscopic needles of rutile are frequently observed in corundum, pseudobrookite, phlogopite, and quartz.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Rutile

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 2.605 - 2.613 nε = 2.899 - 2.901
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.294
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Strong
Dispersion:
Strong
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
Shades of red, brown, yellow and green.

Chemical Properties of Rutile

Formula:
TiO2
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Fe,Ta,Nb,Cr,V,Sn

Relationship of Rutile to other Species

Member of:
Other Members of Group:
4.DB.05ArgutiteGeO2
4.DB.05CassiteriteSnO2
4.DB.05PlattneritePbO2
4.DB.05PyrolusiteMnO2
4.DB.05TripuhyiteFe3+Sb5+O4
4.DB.05TugarinoviteMoO2
4.DB.05Varlamoffite(Sn,Fe)(O,OH)2
4.DB.10ByströmiteMgSb2O6
4.DB.10Tapiolite-(Fe)(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6
4.DB.10Tapiolite-(Mn)(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6
4.DB.10OrdoñeziteZnSb2O6
4.DB.15bAkhtenskiteε-Mn4+O2
4.DB.15cNsutite(Mn4+,Mn2+)(O,OH)2
4.DB.15aParamontroseiteV4+O2
4.DB.15aRamsdelliteMn4+O2
4.DB.20Scrutinyiteα-PbO2
4.DB.25IshikawaiteU4+Fe2+Nb2O8
4.DB.25Ixiolite(Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)4O8
4.DB.25Samarskite-(Y)(Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8
4.DB.25SrilankiteZrTi2O6
4.DB.25Yttrocolumbite-(Y)Y(U4+,Fe2+)Nb2O8
4.DB.25Calciosamarskite(Ca,Fe3+,Y)2(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O8
4.DB.25Samarskite-(Yb)(Yb,Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8
4.DB.30FerberiteFeWO4
4.DB.30HübneriteMnWO4
4.DB.30Sanmartinite(Zn,Fe)WO4
4.DB.30KrasnoselskiteCoWO4
4.DB.30HeftetjerniteScTaO4
4.DB.30HuanzalaiteMgWO4
4.DB.35Columbite-(Fe)FeNb2O6
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Fe)FeTa2O6
4.DB.35Columbite-(Mn)(Mn,Fe)(Nb,Ta)2O6
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Mn)MnTa2O6
4.DB.35Columbite-(Mg)(Mg,Fe,Mn)(Nb,Ta)2O6
4.DB.35Qitianlingite(Fe,Mn)2(Nb,Ta)2WO10
4.DB.35Magnocolumbite
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Mg)(Mg,Fe2+)(Ta,Nb)2O6
4.DB.40FerrowodginiteFe2+Sn4+Ta2O8
4.DB.40LithiotantiteLiTa3O8
4.DB.40LithiowodginiteLiTa3O8
4.DB.40TitanowodginiteMn2+TiTa2O8
4.DB.40WodginiteMn2+Sn4+Ta2O8
4.DB.40FerrotitanowodginiteFe2+TiTa2O8
4.DB.40WolframowodginiteMn(Mn,Sn,Fe,Ta)(W,Ta,Nb)2O8
4.DB.45TivaniteV3+TiO3(OH)
4.DB.50Carmichaelite(Ti,Cr,Fe)[O2-x(OH)x]
4.DB.55AlumotantiteAlTaO4
4.DB.60Biehlite((Sb,As)O)2[MoO4]
7.9.1HongquiiteTiO
7.9.3AnataseTiO2
7.9.4BrookiteTiO2
7.9.5GeikieliteMgTiO3
7.9.6PerovskiteCaTiO3
7.9.7KassiteCaTi2O4(OH)2
7.9.8TausoniteSrTiO3
7.9.9CrichtoniteSr(Mn,Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH)38
7.9.10Lucasite-(Ce)CeTi2(O,OH)6
7.9.11Hibonite(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19
7.9.12Yttrocrasite-(Y)(Y,Th,Ca,U)(Ti,Fe)2(O,OH)6
7.9.13PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3
7.9.14IwakiiteMn2+Fe23+O4
7.9.15IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
7.9.16PseudobrookiteFe2TiO5
7.9.17UlvöspinelFe2TiO4
7.9.18PseudorutileFe2Ti3O9
7.9.19FreudenbergiteNa2(Ti,Fe)8O16
7.9.20Kennedyite
7.9.21Armalcolite(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5
7.9.22Högbomite(Mg,Fe)2(Al,Ti)5O10
7.9.23Qandilite(Mg,Fe)2(Ti,Fe,Al)O4
7.9.24CafetiteCaTi2O5 · H2O
7.9.25Loveringite(Ca,Ce,La)(Zr,Fe)(Mg,Fe)2(Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)18O38
7.9.26Lindsleyite(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)2(Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
7.9.27PrideriteK(Ti74+Fe3+)O16
7.9.28Jeppeite(K,Ba)2(Ti,Fe)6O13
7.9.29AnkangiteBa(Ti,V3+,Cr)8O16
7.9.30Ecandrewsite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)TiO3
7.9.31LandauiteNaMnZn2(Ti,Fe)6Ti12O38

Other Names for Rutile

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Rutile

Reference List:
Miller (1840) Phil. Mag.: 17: 268.

Hidden, W.E. (1888) On edisonite, a fourth form of titanic acid. American Journal of Science: 36: 272.

Prior, G.T., Zambonini, F.Dr. (1908) On Strüverite and Its Relation to Ilmenorutile. Mineralogical Magazine: 15: 78-89.

Lacroix (1912) Bull. soc. min.: 35: 185.

Ungemach (1916) Bull. soc. min.: 39: 5.

Gliszczynski, S. (1940) Die struktur-geometrische Deutung der Rutil-, Anatas- und Brookitzwillinge. Zentralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie. Abt. A.: Mineralogie und Petrographie: 9: 181.

Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 554-561.

Meagher, E.P., Lager, G.A. (1979) Polyhedral thermal expansion in the TiO2 polymorphs; refinement of the crystal structures of rutile and brookite at high temperature. The Canadian Mineralogist: 17: 77-85.

Foord, E.E., Chirnside, W., Davis, A.M., Lichte, F.E., Esposito, K.J. (1995) A new U–Ti–Ca–HREE hydrated oxide and associated niobian rutile from Topaz Valley, Utah. Mineralogical Record: 26: 122-128.

Smith, D.C., Perseil, E.-A. (1997) Sb-rich rutile in the manganese concentrations at St. Marcel-Praborna, Aosta Valley, Italy: petrology and crystal-chemistry. Mineralogical Magazine: 61: 655-669.

Maldener, J., Rauch, F., Gavranic, M., Beran, A. (2001) OH absorption coefficients of rutile and cassiterite deduced from nuclear reaction analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. Mineralogy and Petrology: 71: 21-29.

Withers, A.C., Essene, E.J., Zhang, Y. (2003) Rutile/TiO2 II phase equilibria. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 145: 199-204.

Bauer, W.H. (2007) The rutile type and its derivatives. Crystallography Reviews: 13: 65-113.

Rečnik, A., Stanković, N., Daneu, N. (2015) Topotaxial reactions during the genesis of oriented rutile/hematite intergrowths from Mwinilunga (Zambia). Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 169: 19. http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs00410-015-1107-x.pdf

Internet Links for Rutile

Specimens:
The following Rutile specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Rutile

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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