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Safflorite

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Formula:
(Co,Ni,Fe)As2
Must to contain Fe and/or Ni replacing Co for structure stabilization.
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Tin-white, tarnishing to ...
Hardness:
4½ - 5
Name:
Named in 1835 by Johann Friedrich August Breithaupt from German, Safflor or Zaffer because it was used in the manufacture of zaffer, an impure oxide of cobalt used as pigment.
Isostructural with:
Löllingite Group.

"Chemical analyses of various natural and synthetic samples reveal that Pnnm safflorite always contains some amounts of Fe and Ni, whereas materials with 80–100% (mole) CoAs2 crystallize in monoclinic P21/c symmetry [= clinosafflorite] (Holmes, 1947; Swanson et al., 1966; Radcliffe & Berry, 1971)." (Yang et al., 2008).


Classification of Safflorite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
2.EB.15a

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
E : Metal Sulfides, M: S <= 1:2
B : M:S = 1:2, with Fe, Co, Ni, PGE, etc.
2.12.2.11

2 : SULFIDES
12 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
3.10.10

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
10 : Sulphides etc. of Co
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First Recorded Occurrence of Safflorite

Year of Discovery:
1817

Occurrences of Safflorite

Geological Setting:
In moderate temperature hydrothermal veins

Physical Properties of Safflorite

Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Tin-white, tarnishing to dark grey
Streak:
Grayish black
Hardness (Mohs):
4½ - 5
Hardness (Vickers):
VHN100=792 - 882 kg/mm2
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
Distinct on {100}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
7.2 g/cm3 (Measured)    7.471 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Safflorite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Pnnm
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.173Å, b = 5.954Å, c = 2.999Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.869 : 1 : 0.504
Unit Cell Volume:
V 92.37 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Prismatic Crystals
Twinning:
As fivelings on {011}, Twin plane {101}

Crystallographic forms of Safflorite

Crystal Atlas:
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Safflorite no.5 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

Optical Data of Safflorite

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Strong
Colour in reflected light:
White
Pleochroism:
Weak

Chemical Properties of Safflorite

Formula:
(Co,Ni,Fe)As2

Must to contain Fe and/or Ni replacing Co for structure stabilization.
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Cu,Ni,S

Relationship of Safflorite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
2.EB.05aAurostibiteAuSb2
2.EB.05bBambollaiteCu(Se,Te)2
2.EB.05aCattieriteCoS2
2.EB.05aErlichmaniteOsS2
2.EB.05aFukuchiliteCu3FeS8
2.EB.05aGeversitePtSb2
2.EB.05aHaueriteMnS2
2.EB.05aInsizwaitePt(Bi,Sb)2
2.EB.05aKrut'aiteCuSe2
2.EB.05aLauriteRuS2
2.EB.05aPenroseite(Ni,Co,Cu)Se2
2.EB.05aPyriteFeS2
2.EB.05aSperrylitePtAs2
2.EB.05aTrogtaliteCoSe2
2.EB.05aVaesiteNiS2
2.EB.05aVillamaninite(Cu,Ni,Co,Fe)S2
2.EB.05aDzharkeniteFeSe2
2.EB.05aGaotaiiteIr3Te8
2.EB.10bAlloclasiteCo1-xFexAsS
2.EB.10dCostibiteCoSbS
2.EB.10aFerroseliteFeSe2
2.EB.10aFrohbergiteFeTe2
2.EB.10cGlaucodot(Co0.50Fe0.50)AsS
2.EB.10aKulleruditeNiSe2
2.EB.10aMarcasiteFeS2
2.EB.10aMattagamiteCoTe2
2.EB.10eParacostibiteCoSbS
2.EB.10ePararammelsbergiteNiAs2
2.EB.10fOeniteCoSbAs
2.EB.15aAnduoite(Ru,Os)As2
2.EB.15aClinosaffloriteCoAs2
2.EB.15aLöllingiteFeAs2
2.EB.15aNisbiteNiSb2
2.EB.15aOmeiite(Os,Ru)As2
2.EB.15cPaxiteCuAs2
2.EB.15aRammelsbergiteNiAs2
2.EB.15bSeinäjokite(Fe,Ni)(Sb,As)2
2.EB.20ArsenopyriteFeAsS
2.EB.20GudmunditeFeSbS
2.EB.20Osarsite(Os,Ru)AsS
2.EB.20Ruarsite(Ru,Os)AsS
2.EB.25CobaltiteCoAsS
2.EB.25GersdorffiteNiAsS
2.EB.25Hollingworthite(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsS
2.EB.25Irarsite(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
2.EB.25JolliffeiteNiAsSe
2.EB.25KrutoviteNiAs2
2.EB.25MaslovitePtBiTe
2.EB.25MicheneritePdBiTe
2.EB.25PadmaitePdBiSe
2.EB.25PlatarsitePtAsS
2.EB.25TestibiopalladitePdTe(Sb,Te)
2.EB.25TolovkiteIrSbS
2.EB.25UllmanniteNiSbS
2.EB.25Willyamite(Co,Ni)SbS
2.EB.25ChangchengiteIrBiS
2.EB.25MayingiteIrBiTe
2.EB.25Hollingsworthite
2.EB.25KalungaitePdAsSe
2.EB.25MilotaitePdSbSe
2.EB.30UrvantsevitePd(Bi,Pb)2
2.EB.35RheniiteReS2
3.10.1Cobaltpentlandite(Co,Ni,Fe)9S8
3.10.2LinnaeiteCo2+Co23+S4
3.10.3CattieriteCoS2
3.10.4FrebolditeCoSe
3.10.5BornhardtiteCo2+Co23+Se4
3.10.6TrogtaliteCoSe2
3.10.7Hastite
3.10.8MattagamiteCoTe2
3.10.9Modderite(Co,Fe)As
3.10.11ClinosaffloriteCoAs2
3.10.12SkutteruditeCoAs3-x
3.10.13CobaltiteCoAsS
3.10.14ParacostibiteCoSbS
3.10.15CostibiteCoSbS
3.10.16AlloclasiteCo1-xFexAsS
3.10.17Glaucodot(Co0.50Fe0.50)AsS
3.10.18CarrolliteCu(Co,Ni)2S4

Other Names for Safflorite

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Safflorite

Reference List:
Breithaupt, A. (1817): Strahliger Weisser Speiskobold.- C.A.S. Hoffmann´s Handbuch der Mineralogie, Vol. 4.1.- Freiberg, Verl. Craz & Gerlach, p. 181-182.

Breithaupt, A. (1835), Journal für praktische Chemie 4, 265.

Flink (1908) Ark. Kemi: 3(11): 73.

Buerger (1937), American Mineralogist: 22: 48.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 307-309.

Radcliffe, D. & Berry, L. G. (1968): Safflorite-loellingite solid solution series. American Minealogist 53, 1856-1881.

Canadian Mineralogist (1971): 10: 877-881.

Bulletin de Minéralogie: 89: 213-215.

Gritzenko, Y. D., Spiridonov, E. M. (2005): Minerals of continuous series rammelsbergite—loellingite and rammelsbergite—safflorite in metamorphic—hydrothermal veins of Norilsk ore field. Zapiski Rossiiskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchetstva, 134 (1), 53-68.

Yang, H., Downs, R.T., Eichler, C. (2008): Safflorite, (Co,Ni,Fe)As2, isomorphous with marcasite. Acta Crystallographica, E64, i62.

Internet Links for Safflorite

Specimens:
The following Safflorite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Safflorite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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