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Salammoniac

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Formula:
NH4Cl
System:
Isometric
Colour:
Colourless, White, ...
Hardness:
1 - 2
Name:
From Greek, άλς άμμωυιακός sals ammonikos, salt of Ammon, because of its early manufacture in Egypt.
This page provides mineralogical data about Salammoniac.

Classification of Salammoniac

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
3.AA.25

3 : HALIDES
A : Simple halides, without H2O
A : M:X = 1:1, 2:3, 3:5, etc.
9.1.3.1

9 : NORMAL HALIDES
1 : AX
8.1.7

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
1 : Halides of the alkali metals and ammonium
mindat.org URL:
http://www.mindat.org/min-3507.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Occurrences of Salammoniac

Geological Setting:
Volcanic fumaroles; burning coal seams; guano deposits.

Physical Properties of Salammoniac

Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent
Colour:
Colourless, White, sometimes yellow or brown.
Hardness (Mohs):
1 - 2
Tenacity:
Sectile
Cleavage:
Very Good
Imperfect on {111}.
Parting:
Translation gliding with T{011}, t[001].
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
1.532 g/cm3 (Measured)    1.535 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Salammoniac

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
4 3 2 - Gyroidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 3.859Å
Unit Cell Volume:
V 57.47 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals usually trapezohedral {112} modified by {113} at times; less commonly with gyroidal forms alone, or in combination. Dodecahedral; cubic (rare). Crystals often exhibit curved or stepped faces and may present a tetragnal or rhombohedral appearance due to suppression of faces and distortion. Skeletal or dendritic aggregates. Crusts or stalactitic masses; fibrous, earthy or mealy.
Twinning:
On {111}.

Optical Data of Salammoniac

Type:
Isotropic
Comments:
Weakly birefringent at times, especially after mechanical deformation.

Chemical Properties of Salammoniac

Formula:
NH4Cl
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
CAS Registry number:
12125-02-9

CAS Registry numbers are published by the American Chemical Society
Analytical Data:
Taste salty, astringent. Very plastic

Relationship of Salammoniac to other Species

3.AA.05MarshiteCuI
3.AA.05Miersite(Ag,Cu)I
3.AA.05NantokiteCuCl
3.AA.05UM1999-11:I:CuSCu(I,S)
3.AA.10IodargyriteAgI
3.AA.10Tocornalite(Ag,Hg)I
3.AA.15BromargyriteAgBr
3.AA.15ChlorargyriteAgCl
3.AA.20CarobbiiteKF
3.AA.20GriceiteLiF
3.AA.20HaliteNaCl
3.AA.20SylviteKCl
3.AA.20VilliaumiteNaF
3.AA.25UM1998-03-Cl:TlTlCl
3.AA.25LafossaiteTl(Cl,Br)
3.AA.30Calomel(Hg22+)Cl2
3.AA.30Kuzminite(Hg22+)(Br,Cl)2
3.AA.30Moschelite(Hg22+)I2
3.AA.35NeighboriteNaMgF3
3.AA.40ChlorocalciteKCaCl3
3.AA.45KolaritePbTeCl2
3.AA.50RadhakrishnaitePbTe3(Cl,S)2
3.AA.55ChallacolloiteKPb2Cl5
3.AA.60HephaistositeTlPb2Cl5

Other Names for Salammoniac

Other Information

Other Information:
Water Soluble
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Salammoniac

Reference List:
Model, G. (1758): Versuche und Gedanken über ein natürliches und gewachsenes Salmiak, Leipzig 1758

Klaproth, M.H. (1802): Chemische Untersuchung des natürlichen Salmiaks, Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, Dritter Band, Rottmann Berlin, 89-94

Rammelsberg (1855): 41 (das Chlorammonium).

Scacchi (1875) Acc. Napoli: 67: 28 (as Chlorammonio).

Rammelsberg (1881): 247.

Groth (1906): 1: 182 (as Ammoniumchlorid).

Johnsen (1907) Jb. Min. Beil.-Bd.: 33: 311.

Wyckoff (1922) American Journal of Science: 3: 177.

Wyckoff (1922) American Journal of Science: 4: 469.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 15-18.

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan (1959): 1205.

Internet Links for Salammoniac

Localities for Salammoniac

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Austria
 
  • Styria
    • Köflach
      • Köflach - Voitsberg lignite deposit
        • Zangtal District
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    • Leoben
FREYN, R. (1906): Über einige neue Mineralfunde und Fundorte in Steiermark. Mitteilungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines für Steiermark 42, 283-317.
FREYN, R. (1906): Über einige neue Mineralfunde und Fundorte in Steiermark. Mitteilungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines für Steiermark 42, 283-317.
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Inn valley
        • Innsbruck
          • Hall
            • Hall valley
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
Belgium
 
  • Hainaut Province (Henegouwen; Hennegau)
    • Charleroi
      • Fleurus
        • Soleimont (Soleilmont)
Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M. & van der Meersche, E. (2002): Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Ed., 304 p.
      • Ransart
Rui Nunes collection
  • Liège Province
    • Seraing
      • Ougrée
Hatert, F. et al. Les mineraux de Belgique 2me edition. Brussels 2002
  • Limburg Province
    • Maasmechelen
www.strahlen.org/vp/be/eisden/eisden.htm
Chile
 
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 17.
    • Iquique Province
      • Chanabaya
Collected by Reynaldo Contreira
      • Iquique
        • Puerta Patillos
http://forum.amiminerals.org/viewtopic.php?t=3756&highlight=patache
China
 
  • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
    • Wuhai League (Wuhai Prefecture)
      • Wuda District
        • Wuda Coal mining area
American Mineralogist: 90: 1729-1739.
  • Ningxia Autonomous Region
    • Shizuishan Prefecture
      • Dawukou District
Kuenzer, C., Jianzhong Zhang, Tetzlaff, A., van Dijk, P., Voigt, S., Mehl, H., and Wagner, W. (2007): Applied Geography 27, 42-62.
Kuenzer, C., Jianzhong Zhang, Tetzlaff, A., van Dijk, P., Voigt, S., Mehl, H., and Wagner, W. (2007): Applied Geography 27, 42-62.
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Central Bohemia Region
Zacek, V., Oplustil, S., Mayova, A. & Meyer, F. R. (1995): Die Mineralien von Kladno in Mittelböhmen, Tschechische Republik. Mineralien-Welt 6 (1), 13-30 (in German).
        • Libušin
"Dan Costian" Collection;
    • Hradec Králové Region
      • Trutnov (Trautenau)
        • Radvanice
Žáček, V., Ondruš, P.: Mineralogy of recently formed sublimates from Kateřina colliery in Radvanice, Eastern Bohemia, Czech Republic. Bulletin of the Czech geological survey, 1998, vol. 73, no. 2, s. 289-302.
        • Žacléř
Harapát, L.: Minerály hořících hald dolu Jan Šverma u Žacléře. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 1986, roč. 31, č. 1, s. 99-100.
    • Ústí Region
      • Bílina (Bilin)
Bouška, V., Dvořák, Z.: Nerosty severočeské hěndouhelné pánve. Praha: Severočeské doly, a.s., 160 s.
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • South Moravia Region
      • Hodonín
Kruťa T. (1944): Nález nové recentní síry a salmiaku v Kelčanech na Moravě. Věda přírodní, 23, 61.
France
 
  • Auvergne
    • Allier
      • Montluçon
        • Commentry
"Les minéraux, leurs gisements, leurs associations", P. Bariand, F. Cesbron et J. Geffroy (1977), Editions Minéraux et Fossiles, BRGM
  • Franche-Comté
    • Haute-Saône
      • Ronchamp
Hohl: "Minéraux et Mines du Massif Vosgien", Editions du Rhin (Mulhouse), 1994
  • Midi-Pyrénées
    • Aveyron
      • Decazeville
        • Decazeville coal basin
http://www.pangeaminerals.com/aveyron/houiller/houiller.htm
  • Nord-Pas-de-Calais
    • Pas-de-Calais
Naze-Nancy Masalehdani, M., Mees, F., Dubois, M., Coquinot, Y., Potdevin, J.-L., Fialin, M. & Blanc-Valleron, M.-M. (2009): Condensate minerals from a burning coal-waste heap in Avion, Northern France. Can. Mineral. 47, 573-591.
  • Rhône-Alpes
    • Loire
      • Rive-de-Gier
        • Genilac
Gonnard F. (1906) - Minéralogie des départements du Rhône et de la Loire, p.23
      • Saint-Etienne
Laurent, H. (1995) - Minéralisations des houillères embrasées, Le Règne Minéral,(2), 41-45.
        • La Ricamarie
Laurent, H. (1995) - Minéralisations des houillères embrasées, Le Règne Minéral,(2), 41-45.
French West Indies
 
  • Martinique
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 17.
Germany
 
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Bavaria
      • Bad Reichenhall
        • Berchtesgaden
          • Berchtesgadener Salzberg
  • Brandenburg
    • Bad Freienwalde
Andreas Gerstenberg collection
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Aachen
      • Alsdorf
Blaß, G. and Strehler, H. (1993): Mineralbildungen in einer durch Selbstentzündung brennenden Bergehalde des Aachener Steinkohlenreviers. Mineralien-Welt 4 (4), 35-42. (in German)
    • Ruhr Coal Mining area
      • Oberhausen
Vertacnik, W. (1983): Salmiak von der Abraumhalde der ehemaligen Zeche Alstaden, Rheinland. Aufschluss 34, 177-180.; Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
  • Saarland
    • Saar coal mining area
      • Saarbrücken
        • Dudweiler (Duttweiler)
Ramdohr, Strunz: Klockmann's Lehrbuch der Mineralogie
      • Sulzbach
        • Fischbach
Richard Dale Collection
  • Saxony
    • Dresden
      • Freital
P Haas collection
    • Zwickau
      • Oelsnitz
T. Witzke (1996): Die Minerale der brennenden Halde der Steinkohlengrube "Deutschland-schacht" in Oelsnitz bei Zwickau.- Aufschluss 47, 41-48
  • Thuringia
    • Gera
      • Ronneburg U deposit
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
Hungary
 
  • Baranya Co.
    • Mecsek Mts
      • Komló
Csaba Papp specimen
      • Pécs
Koller G.Own found.
  • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Co.
    • Borsodi Mts
Szakáll & Gatter: hungarian Mineral Species
      • Múcsony
Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary
    • Bükk Mts
      • Miskolc
Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary, 1995
  • Heves Co.
    • Bükk Mts
Szakáll & Jánosi. Minerals of Hungary, 1995
  • Nógrád Co.
    • Mátra Mts
      • Bátonyterenye
Szakáll-Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary
Iceland
 
  • Southern Region
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 17.
  • Vestmannaeyjar archipelago (Westman islands)
    • Heimaey island
      • Heimaey
Mitolo, D., Garavelli, A., Pedersen, L., Balić-Žunić, T., Jakobsson, S.P., Vurro, F. (2008): Mineralogy of actually forming sublimates at Eldfell Volcano, Heimaey (Vestmannaeyjar archipelago), Iceland. Plinius, 34, 322.
Italy
 
  • Campania
    • Naples Province
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 17, 105.
    • Phlegrean Volcanic Complex
      • Naples Province
        • Phlegrean Fields
          • Pozzuoli
Russo, M. (2004): Realgar e pararealgar della Solfatara di Pozzuoli. Micro (notizie mineralogiche), 2004, 25-28
  • Sicily
    • Catania Province
      • Etna Volcanic Complex
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 17; AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
    • Messina Province
      • Eolie Islands (Aeolian Islands)
        • Lipari
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 17; AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
          • Vulcano Island
JERVIS G. (1873): I tesori sotterranei d’Italia. - Ed. Loescher, Torino. AQUILANO D., FRANCHINI ANGELA M., BEDARIDA F. (1984): Crystal habit and growth conditions of NH4(Cl,Br) solid solutions from Vulcano Island (Italy). - Rendiconti della Società Italiana di Mineralogia e Petrografia - 39, 705-710. CORADOSSI N., MAZZI F. (1985): Variazione della costante reticolare a0 con il contenuto di bromo nel cloruro di ammonio naturale (salmiak) di Vulcano (Isole Eolie). - Rendiconti della Società Italiana di Mineralogia e Petrografia - 40, 267-275.
            • Porto Levante
JERVIS G. (1873): I tesori sotterranei d’Italia. - Ed. Loescher, Torino. AQUILANO D., FRANCHINI ANGELA M., BEDARIDA F. (1984): Crystal habit and growth conditions of NH4(Cl,Br) solid solutions from Vulcano Island (Italy). - Rendiconti della Società Italiana di Mineralogia e Petrografia - 39, 705-710. CORADOSSI N., MAZZI F. (1985): Variazione della costante reticolare a0 con il contenuto di bromo nel cloruro di ammonio naturale (salmiak) di Vulcano (Isole Eolie). - Rendiconti della Società Italiana di Mineralogia e Petrografia - 40, 267-275.
Japan
 
  • Hokkaido
    • Sorachi Province
      • Mikasa City
Alfredo Petrov specimen; Shimobayashi, N., Ohnishi, M., Miura, H. (2011) Ammonium sulfate minerals from Mikasa, Hokkaido, Japan: boussingaultite, godovikovite, efremovite and tschermigite. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 106, (in press).
Mexico
 
  • Michoacan
    • Uruapan del Progreso (Uruapan)
Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences Volume 11, Issue 2 Series II, pages 28–33, December 1948
Netherlands
 
  • Limburg
    • Kerkrade
Norway
 
  • Svalbard
    • Spitsbergen
Oftedahl, I (1929): Minerals from the burning coal seam at Mt.Pyramide, Spitsbergen. (part II of Werenskiold, W.and Oftedal, I: A burning coal seam at Mt.Pyramide, Spitsbergen.] in Hoel, A, Editor): Det norske Videnskaps-Akademi i Oslo, Resultater av de norske statsunderstøttede Spitsbergenekspeditioner (Skrifter om Svalbard og Ishavet), Vol I, No 3, 9-14
Peru
 
  • La Libertad Department
    • Trujillo Province
      • Virù
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 17.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 17.
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
    • Kłodzko District
      • Nowa Ruda (Neurode)
Wielogórski Z., Zawidzki P., Koisar B. 1975. Procesy powstawania minerałów w strefach pożarów hałdy kopalni węgla "Słupiec". Przegląd Górniczy, 9, 443-448
  • Upper Silesia (Śląskie)
    • Upper Silesian Coal Basin
      • Katowice area
Parafiniuk, J. and Kruszewski, Ł. (2009): Ammonium minerals from burning coal-dumps of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland). Geol. Quart., 53, 341-356. http://www.pgi.gov.pl/images/stories/G_Q/53_3/parafiniuk.pdf]
        • Łaziska
Lukasz Kruszewski 2005: Minerals arising in cause of underground fires of "Skalny" coal mine dump in Laziska, Upper Silesia.Mag. Thesis (unpublished); Parafiniuk, J. and Kruszewski, Ł. (2009): Ammonium minerals from burning coal-dumps of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland). Geol. Quart., 53, 341-356. http://www.pgi.gov.pl/images/stories/G_Q/53_3/parafiniuk.pdf]
        • Siemianowice Śląskie
Lukasz Kruszewski (visual identification)
      • Rybnik Coal Area
Parafiniuk, J. and Kruszewski, Ł. (2009): Ammonium minerals from burning coal-dumps of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland). Geol. Quart., 53, 341-356. http://www.pgi.gov.pl/images/stories/G_Q/53_3/parafiniuk.pdf]
Parafiniuk, J. and Kruszewski, Ł. (2009): Ammonium minerals from burning coal-dumps of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland). Geol. Quart., 53, 341-356. http://www.pgi.gov.pl/images/stories/G_Q/53_3/parafiniuk.pdf]
Portugal
 
  • Porto District
    • Gondomar
      • São Pedro da Cova
Rui Nunes - Jan/2006
Russia
 
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Kamchatka Oblast'
[Der Aufschluss 1995:4 p163-180]
[Der Aufschluss 1995:4 p.163-180]
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
South Africa
 
  • Free State Province
    • Fezile Dabi District
International Journal of Coal Geology 72 (2007) 124–140
  • Mpumalanga Province
    • Nkangala District
      • Witbank
International Journal of Coal Geology 72 (2007) 124–140
Spain
 
  • Canary Islands
    • Santa Cruz de Tenerife Province
      • Tenerife
        • Santiago del Teide
Agudo, A. y Calvo, M. (2014) Una rareza mineralógica española recuperada: El Salmiac del Chinyero. Revista de Minerales. Vol V núm.5, 55-56.
Switzerland
 
  • Vaud (Waadt)
    • Bex
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 359.
Tajikistan
 
  • Viloyati Sogd (Viloyati Sughd; Viloyati Khodzhent; Viloyati Leninabad)
    • Gissar Range
Lukasz Kruszewski (PXRD, visual identification)
    • Zeravshan Range
      • Yagnob River
Lukasz Kruszewski (visual identification)
No reference listed
UK
 
  • England
    • Staffordshire
Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.
    • Tyne & Wear
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 17; F. Rutley: "Elements of Mineralogy", 12th Ed. (1900)
Ukraine
 
  • L'viv Oblast' (Lviv Oblast'; Lwiw Oblast')
    • L'viv-Volynskii Coal Basin (L'vov-Volynskii Coal Basin)
      • Chervonograd
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Yuma Co.
      • Yuma District
Galbraith, F.W. & Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 43.
  • California
    • Imperial Co.
      • Niland
Le Conte, John Lawrence (1855), Account of some volcanic springs in the desert of the Colorado, in southern California: American Journal of Science, 2nd. series: 19: 5; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 326;Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 193.
    • Inyo Co.
Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 106; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 326; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 193.
    • Los Angeles Co.
      • Pacific Palisades
        • Burning Mountain
Rogers, Austin Flint (1912), Notes on rare minerals from California: Columbia University, School of Mines Quarterly: 33: 373; Clearwater, C.D. (1944), “Burning Canyon”: Palisadian: 16(49): 2; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 326.
    • Santa Barbara Co.
Rogers, Austin Flint (1912), Notes on rare minerals from California: Columbia University, School of Mines Quarterly: 33: 373; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 326.; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 193.
  • Hawaii
    • Hawaii Co. (Hawaii Island)
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 17.
  • Kentucky
    • Perry Co.
      • Bulan
Stracher, G.B., Finkelman, R.B., Hower, J.C., Pone, J.D.N., Prakash, A., Blake, D.R., Schroeder, P.A., Emsbo-Mattingly, S.D., and O'Keefe, J.M.K. (2009): Natural and anthropogenic coal fires. In: Umran Dogan, A., and Cutler, J. (eds.): Encyclopedia of Earth. Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment, Cleveland (Washington, D.C.)
  • Ohio
    • Erie Co.
      • Milan
Dr Pete Richards collection
    • Huron Co.
      • Monroeville
        • West Branch Huron River
Chris Stefano specimens
  • Oklahoma
    • Okmulgee Co.
Rocks & Minerals: 72(4): 252-264.
    • Tulsa Co.
      • Tulsa
Rocks & Min. vol. 72 (1997)
  • Pennsylvania
    • Columbia Co.
    • Schuylkill Co.
      • Shenandoah
Mineralogy Associated with Burning Anthracite Deposits of Eastern Pennsylvania. D. M. Lapham, J. Barns, W. Downey Jr., R. Finkelman; MRR#78 1980
Venezuela
 
  • Bolívar
    • Pedregal city
Journal of South American Earth Sciences Volume 27, Issues 2-3, February-March 2009, Pages 211-218
Mineral and/or Locality  
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