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Salammoniac

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Formula:
NH
 
4
Cl
System:IsometricColour:Colourless, White, ...
Hardness:1 - 2
Name:From Greek, άλς άμμωυιακός sals ammonikos, salt of Ammon, because of its early manufacture in Egypt.
This page provides mineralogical data about Salammoniac.

Classification of Salammoniac

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:3/A.04-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:3.AA.25

3 : HALIDES
A : Simple halides, without H2O
A : M:X = 1:1, 2:3, 3:5, etc.
Dana 8th edition ID:9.1.3.1

9 : NORMAL HALIDES
1 : AX
Hey's CIM Ref.:8.1.7

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
1 : Halides of the alkali metals and ammonium
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Occurrences of Salammoniac

Geological Setting:Volcanic fumaroles; burning coal seams; guano deposits.

Physical Properties of Salammoniac

Lustre:Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:Colourless, White, sometimes yellow or brown.
Hardness (Mohs):1 - 2
Tenacity:Sectile
Cleavage:Very Good
Imperfect on {111}.
Parting:Translation gliding with T{011}, t[001].
Fracture:Conchoidal
Density (measured):1.532 g/cm3
Density (calculated):1.535 g/cm3

Crystallography of Salammoniac

Crystal System:Isometric
Class (H-M):4 3 2 - Gyroidal
Cell Parameters:a = 3.859Å
Unit Cell Volume:V 57.47 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Crystals usually trapezohedral {112} modified by {113} at times; less commonly with gyroidal forms alone, or in combination. Dodecahedral; cubic (rare). Crystals often exhibit curved or stepped faces and may present a tetragnal or rhombohedral appearance due to suppression of faces and distortion. Skeletal or dendritic aggregates. Crusts or stalactitic masses; fibrous, earthy or mealy.
Twinning:On {111}.

Optical Data of Salammoniac

Type:Isotropic
Comments:Weakly birefringent at times, especially after mechanical deformation.

Chemical Properties of Salammoniac

Formula:
NH
 
4
Cl
Simplified for copy/paste:NH4Cl
Essential elements:Cl, H, N
All elements listed in formula:Cl, H, N
CAS Registry number:12125-02-9

CAS Registry numbers are published by the American Chemical Society
Analytical Data:Taste salty, astringent. Very plastic

Relationship of Salammoniac to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
3.AA.05Marshite
CuI
3.AA.05Miersite
(Ag,Cu)I
3.AA.05Nantokite
CuCl
3.AA.05UM1999-11:I:CuS
Cu(I,S)
3.AA.10Iodargyrite
AgI
3.AA.10Tocornalite
(Ag,Hg)I
3.AA.15Bromargyrite
AgBr
3.AA.15Chlorargyrite
AgCl
3.AA.20Carobbiite
KF
3.AA.20Griceite
LiF
3.AA.20Halite
NaCl
3.AA.20Sylvite
KCl
3.AA.20Villiaumite
NaF
3.AA.25UM1998-03-Cl:Tl
TlCl
3.AA.25Lafossaite
Tl(Cl,Br)
3.AA.30Calomel
(Hg
+
2
)Cl
 
2
3.AA.30Kuzminite
(Hg
+
2
)(Br,Cl)
 
2
3.AA.30Moschelite
(Hg
+
2
)I
 
2
3.AA.35Neighborite
NaMgF
 
3
3.AA.40Chlorocalcite
KCaCl
 
3
3.AA.45Kolarite
PbTeCl
 
2
3.AA.50Radhakrishnaite
PbTe
 
3
(Cl,S)
 
2
3.AA.55Challacolloite
KPb
 
2
Cl
 
5
3.AA.60Hephaistosite
TlPb
 
2
Cl
 
5
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
8.1.1Griceite
LiF
8.1.2Villiaumite
NaF
8.1.3Halite
NaCl
8.1.4Hydrohalite
NaCl · 2H
 
2
O
8.1.5Carobbiite
KF
8.1.6Sylvite
KCl

Other Names for Salammoniac

Synonyms:
ChlorammoniumChloride of AmmoniumMuriate of AmmoniaSal-AmmoniacSal Ammoniac
Other Languages:
French:Chlorure d'ammonium
Sel ammoniac
German:Salmiak
Ammoniumchlorid
Natürliches Salmiak
Salammoniak
Salmiac
Italian:Chlorammonio
Latin:Sal ammoniacus
Norwegian (Bokmål):Salmiakk
Russian:Нашатырь

Other Information

Other Information:Water Soluble
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
External LinksSearch for toxicity information at the United States National Library of Medicine

References for Salammoniac

Reference List:

- +
Model, G. (1758): Versuche und Gedanken über ein natürliches und gewachsenes Salmiak, Leipzig 1758

Klaproth, M.H. (1802): Chemische Untersuchung des natürlichen Salmiaks, Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, Dritter Band, Rottmann Berlin, 89-94

Rammelsberg (1855): 41 (das Chlorammonium).

Scacchi (1875) Acc. Napoli: 67: 28 (as Chlorammonio).

Rammelsberg (1881): 247.

Groth (1906): 1: 182 (as Ammoniumchlorid).

Johnsen (1907) Jb. Min. Beil.-Bd.: 33: 311.

Wyckoff (1922) American Journal of Science: 3: 177.

Wyckoff (1922) American Journal of Science: 4: 469.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 15-18.

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan (1959): 1205.

Internet Links for Salammoniac

Search Engines:
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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Sal Ammoniac details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Search for Salammoniac on Well-Arranged Molecules
  • Localities for Salammoniac

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Austria
     
    • Styria
      • Köflach
        • Köflach - Voitsberg lignite deposit
          • Zangtal District
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
      • Leoben
    FREYN, R. (1906): Über einige neue Mineralfunde und Fundorte in Steiermark. Mitteilungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines für Steiermark 42, 283-317.
    FREYN, R. (1906): Über einige neue Mineralfunde und Fundorte in Steiermark. Mitteilungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines für Steiermark 42, 283-317.
    • Tyrol
      • North Tyrol
        • Inn valley
          • Innsbruck
            • Hall
              • Hall valley
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    Belgium
     
    • Hainaut Province (Henegouwen; Hennegau)
      • Charleroi
        • Fleurus
          • Soleimont (Soleilmont)
    Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M. & van der Meersche, E. (2002): Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Ed., 304 p.
        • Ransart
    Rui Nunes collection
    • Liège Province
      • Seraing
        • Ougrée
    Hatert, F. et al. Les mineraux de Belgique 2me edition. Brussels 2002
    • Limburg Province
      • Maasmechelen
    www.strahlen.org/vp/be/eisden/eisden.htm
    Chile
     
    Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 17.
      • Iquique Province
        • Chanabaya
    Collected by Reynaldo Contreira
        • Iquique
          • Puerta Patillos
    http://forum.amiminerals.org/viewtopic.php?t=3756&highlight=patache
    China
     
    • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
      • Wuhai League (Wuhai Prefecture)
        • Wuda District
          • Wuda Coal mining area
    American Mineralogist: 90: 1729-1739.
    • Ningxia Autonomous Region
      • Shizuishan Prefecture
        • Dawukou District
    Kuenzer, C., Jianzhong Zhang, Tetzlaff, A., van Dijk, P., Voigt, S., Mehl, H., and Wagner, W. (2007): Applied Geography 27, 42-62.
    Kuenzer, C., Jianzhong Zhang, Tetzlaff, A., van Dijk, P., Voigt, S., Mehl, H., and Wagner, W. (2007): Applied Geography 27, 42-62.
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Central Bohemia Region
    Zacek, V., Oplustil, S., Mayova, A. & Meyer, F. R. (1995): Die Mineralien von Kladno in Mittelböhmen, Tschechische Republik. Mineralien-Welt 6 (1), 13-30 (in German).
          • Libušin
    "Dan Costian" Collection;
      • Hradec Králové Region
        • Trutnov (Trautenau)
          • Radvanice
    Žáček, V., Ondruš, P.: Mineralogy of recently formed sublimates from Kateřina colliery in Radvanice, Eastern Bohemia, Czech Republic. Bulletin of the Czech geological survey, 1998, vol. 73, no. 2, s. 289-302.
          • Žacléř
    Harapát, L.: Minerály hořících hald dolu Jan Šverma u Žacléře. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 1986, roč. 31, č. 1, s. 99-100.
      • Ústí Region
        • Bílina (Bilin)
    Bouška, V., Dvořák, Z.: Nerosty severočeské hěndouhelné pánve. Praha: Severočeské doly, a.s., 160 s.
    • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
      • South Moravia Region
        • Hodonín
    Kruťa T. (1944): Nález nové recentní síry a salmiaku v Kelčanech na Moravě. Věda přírodní, 23, 61.
    France
     
    • Auvergne
      • Allier
        • Montluçon
          • Commentry
    "Les minéraux, leurs gisements, leurs associations", P. Bariand, F. Cesbron et J. Geffroy (1977), Editions Minéraux et Fossiles, BRGM
    • Franche-Comté
      • Haute-Saône
        • Ronchamp
    Hohl: "Minéraux et Mines du Massif Vosgien", Editions du Rhin (Mulhouse), 1994
    • Midi-Pyrénées
      • Aveyron
        • Decazeville
          • Decazeville coal basin
    http://www.pangeaminerals.com/aveyron/houiller/houiller.htm
    • Nord-Pas-de-Calais
      • Pas-de-Calais
    Naze-Nancy Masalehdani, M., Mees, F., Dubois, M., Coquinot, Y., Potdevin, J.-L., Fialin, M. & Blanc-Valleron, M.-M. (2009): Condensate minerals from a burning coal-waste heap in Avion, Northern France. Can. Mineral. 47, 573-591.
    • Rhône-Alpes
      • Loire
        • Rive-de-Gier
          • Genilac
    Gonnard F. (1906) - Minéralogie des départements du Rhône et de la Loire, p.23
        • Saint-Etienne
    Laurent, H. (1995) - Minéralisations des houillères embrasées, Le Règne Minéral,(2), 41-45.
          • La Ricamarie
    Laurent, H. (1995) - Minéralisations des houillères embrasées, Le Règne Minéral,(2), 41-45.
    French West Indies
     
    • Martinique
    Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 17.
    Germany
     
    • Bavaria
      • Upper Bavaria
        • Bad Reichenhall
          • Berchtesgaden
            • Berchtesgadener Salzberg
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Aachen
        • Alsdorf
    Blaß, G. and Strehler, H. (1993): Mineralbildungen in einer durch Selbstentzündung brennenden Bergehalde des Aachener Steinkohlenreviers. Mineralien-Welt 4 (4), 35-42. (in German)
      • Ruhr Coal Mining area
        • Oberhausen
    Vertacnik, W. (1983): Salmiak von der Abraumhalde der ehemaligen Zeche Alstaden, Rheinland. Aufschluss 34, 177-180.; Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
    • Saarland
      • Saar coal mining area
        • Saarbrücken
          • Dudweiler (Duttweiler)
    Ramdohr, Strunz: Klockmann's Lehrbuch der Mineralogie
        • Sulzbach
          • Fischbach
    Richard Dale Collection
    • Saxony
      • Dresden
        • Freital
    P Haas collection
      • Zwickau
        • Oelsnitz
    T. Witzke (1996): Die Minerale der brennenden Halde der Steinkohlengrube "Deutschland-schacht" in Oelsnitz bei Zwickau.- Aufschluss 47, 41-48
    • Thuringia
      • Gera
        • Ronneburg U deposit
    T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
    Hungary
     
    • Baranya Co.
      • Mecsek Mtns
        • Komló
    Csaba Papp specimen
        • Pécs
    Koller G.Own found.
    • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Co.
      • Borsodi Mtns
    Szakáll & Gatter: hungarian Mineral Species
        • Múcsony
    Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary
      • Bükk Mtns
        • Miskolc
    Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary, 1995
    • Heves Co.
      • Bükk Mtns
    Szakáll & Jánosi. Minerals of Hungary, 1995
    • Nógrád Co.
      • Mátra Mtns
        • Bátonyterenye
    Szakáll-Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary
    Iceland
     
    • Southern Region
    Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 17.
    • Vestmannaeyjar archipelago (Westman islands)
      • Heimaey island
        • Heimaey
    Mitolo, D., Garavelli, A., Pedersen, L., Balić-Žunić, T., Jakobsson, S.P., Vurro, F. (2008): Mineralogy of actually forming sublimates at Eldfell Volcano, Heimaey (Vestmannaeyjar archipelago), Iceland. Plinius, 34, 322.
    Italy
     
    • Campania
      • Naples Province
        • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
    Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 17, 105.
      • Phlegrean Volcanic Complex
        • Naples Province
          • Phlegrean Fields
            • Pozzuoli
    Russo, M. (2004): Realgar e pararealgar della Solfatara di Pozzuoli. Micro (notizie mineralogiche), 2004, 25-28
    • Sicily
      • Catania Province
        • Etna Volcanic Complex
    Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 17; AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
      • Messina Province
        • Eolie Islands (Aeolian Islands)
          • Lipari
    Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 17; AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
            • Vulcano Island
    JERVIS G. (1873): I tesori sotterranei d’Italia. - Ed. Loescher, Torino. AQUILANO D., FRANCHINI ANGELA M., BEDARIDA F. (1984): Crystal habit and growth conditions of NH4(Cl,Br) solid solutions from Vulcano Island (Italy). - Rendiconti della Società Italiana di Mineralogia e Petrografia - 39, 705-710. CORADOSSI N., MAZZI F. (1985): Variazione della costante reticolare a0 con il contenuto di bromo nel cloruro di ammonio naturale (salmiak) di Vulcano (Isole Eolie). - Rendiconti della Società Italiana di Mineralogia e Petrografia - 40, 267-275.
              • Porto Levante
    JERVIS G. (1873): I tesori sotterranei d’Italia. - Ed. Loescher, Torino. AQUILANO D., FRANCHINI ANGELA M., BEDARIDA F. (1984): Crystal habit and growth conditions of NH4(Cl,Br) solid solutions from Vulcano Island (Italy). - Rendiconti della Società Italiana di Mineralogia e Petrografia - 39, 705-710. CORADOSSI N., MAZZI F. (1985): Variazione della costante reticolare a0 con il contenuto di bromo nel cloruro di ammonio naturale (salmiak) di Vulcano (Isole Eolie). - Rendiconti della Società Italiana di Mineralogia e Petrografia - 40, 267-275.
    Japan
     
    • Hokkaido
      • Sorachi Province
        • Mikasa City
    Alfredo Petrov specimen; Shimobayashi, N., Ohnishi, M., Miura, H. (2011) Ammonium sulfate minerals from Mikasa, Hokkaido, Japan: boussingaultite, godovikovite, efremovite and tschermigite. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 106, (in press).
    Mexico
     
    • Michoacan
      • Uruapan del Progreso (Uruapan)
    Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences Volume 11, Issue 2 Series II, pages 28–33, December 1948
    Netherlands
     
    • Limburg
      • Kerkrade
    Norway
     
    • Svalbard
      • Spitsbergen
    Oftedahl, I (1929): Minerals from the burning coal seam at Mt.Pyramide, Spitsbergen. (part II of Werenskiold, W.and Oftedal, I: A burning coal seam at Mt.Pyramide, Spitsbergen.] in Hoel, A, Editor): Det norske Videnskaps-Akademi i Oslo, Resultater av de norske statsunderstøttede Spitsbergenekspeditioner (Skrifter om Svalbard og Ishavet), Vol I, No 3, 9-14
    Peru
     
    • La Libertad Department
      • Trujillo Province
        • Virù
    Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 17.
    Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 17.
    Poland
     
    • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
      • Kłodzko District
        • Nowa Ruda (Neurode)
    Wielogórski Z., Zawidzki P., Koisar B. 1975. Procesy powstawania minerałów w strefach pożarów hałdy kopalni węgla "Słupiec". Przegląd Górniczy, 9, 443-448
    • Upper Silesia (Śląskie)
      • Upper Silesian Coal Basin
        • Katowice area
    Parafiniuk, J. and Kruszewski, Ł. (2009): Ammonium minerals from burning coal-dumps of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland). Geol. Quart., 53, 341-356. http://www.pgi.gov.pl/images/stories/G_Q/53_3/parafiniuk.pdf]
          • Łaziska
    Lukasz Kruszewski 2005: Minerals arising in cause of underground fires of "Skalny" coal mine dump in Laziska, Upper Silesia.Mag. Thesis (unpublished); Parafiniuk, J. and Kruszewski, Ł. (2009): Ammonium minerals from burning coal-dumps of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland). Geol. Quart., 53, 341-356. http://www.pgi.gov.pl/images/stories/G_Q/53_3/parafiniuk.pdf]
          • Siemianowice Śląskie
    Lukasz Kruszewski (visual identification)
        • Rybnik Coal Area
    Parafiniuk, J. and Kruszewski, Ł. (2009): Ammonium minerals from burning coal-dumps of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland). Geol. Quart., 53, 341-356. http://www.pgi.gov.pl/images/stories/G_Q/53_3/parafiniuk.pdf]
    Parafiniuk, J. and Kruszewski, Ł. (2009): Ammonium minerals from burning coal-dumps of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland). Geol. Quart., 53, 341-356. http://www.pgi.gov.pl/images/stories/G_Q/53_3/parafiniuk.pdf]
    Portugal
     
    • Porto District
      • Gondomar
        • São Pedro da Cova
    Rui Nunes - Jan/2006
    Russia
     
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Kamchatka Oblast'
    [Der Aufschluss 1995:4 p163-180]
    [Der Aufschluss 1995:4 p.163-180]
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
    Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
    South Africa
     
    • Free State Province
      • Fezile Dabi District
    International Journal of Coal Geology 72 (2007) 124–140
    • Mpumalanga Province
      • Nkangala District
        • Witbank
    International Journal of Coal Geology 72 (2007) 124–140
    Spain
     
    • Canary Islands
      • Santa Cruz de Tenerife Province
        • Tenerife
          • Santiago del Teide
    Agudo, A. y Calvo, M. (2014) Una rareza mineralógica española recuperada: El Salmiac del Chinyero. Revista de Minerales. Vol V núm.5, 55-56.
    Switzerland
     
    • Vaud (Waadt)
      • Bex
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 359.
    Tajikistan
     
    • Viloyati Sogd (Viloyati Sughd; Viloyati Khodzhent; Viloyati Leninabad)
      • Gissar Range
    Lukasz Kruszewski (PXRD, visual identification)
      • Zeravshan Range
        • Yagnob River
    Lukasz Kruszewski (visual identification)
    No reference listed
    UK
     
    • England
      • Staffordshire
    Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.
      • Tyne & Wear
    Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 17; F. Rutley: "Elements of Mineralogy", 12th Ed. (1900)
    Ukraine
     
    • L'viv Oblast' (Lviv Oblast'; Lwiw Oblast')
      • L'viv-Volynskii Coal Basin (L'vov-Volynskii Coal Basin)
        • Chervonograd
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Yuma Co.
        • Yuma District
    Galbraith, F.W. & Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 43.
    • California
      • Imperial Co.
        • Niland
    Le Conte, John Lawrence (1855), Account of some volcanic springs in the desert of the Colorado, in southern California: American Journal of Science, 2nd. series: 19: 5; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 326;Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 193.
      • Inyo Co.
    Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 106; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 326; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 193.
      • Los Angeles Co.
        • Pacific Palisades
          • Burning Mountain
    Rogers, Austin Flint (1912), Notes on rare minerals from California: Columbia University, School of Mines Quarterly: 33: 373; Clearwater, C.D. (1944), “Burning Canyon”: Palisadian: 16(49): 2; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 326.
      • Santa Barbara Co.
    Rogers, Austin Flint (1912), Notes on rare minerals from California: Columbia University, School of Mines Quarterly: 33: 373; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 326.; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 193.
    • Hawaii
      • Hawaii Co. (Hawaii Island)
    Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 17.
    • Kentucky
      • Perry Co.
        • Bulan
    Stracher, G.B., Finkelman, R.B., Hower, J.C., Pone, J.D.N., Prakash, A., Blake, D.R., Schroeder, P.A., Emsbo-Mattingly, S.D., and O'Keefe, J.M.K. (2009): Natural and anthropogenic coal fires. In: Umran Dogan, A., and Cutler, J. (eds.): Encyclopedia of Earth. Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment, Cleveland (Washington, D.C.)
    • Ohio
      • Erie Co.
        • Milan
    Dr Pete Richards collection
      • Huron Co.
        • Monroeville
          • West Branch Huron River
    Chris Stefano specimens
    • Oklahoma
      • Okmulgee Co.
    Rocks & Minerals: 72(4): 252-264.
      • Tulsa Co.
        • Tulsa
    Rocks & Min. vol. 72 (1997)
    • Pennsylvania
      • Columbia Co.
      • Schuylkill Co.
        • Shenandoah
    Mineralogy Associated with Burning Anthracite Deposits of Eastern Pennsylvania. D. M. Lapham, J. Barns, W. Downey Jr., R. Finkelman; MRR#78 1980
    Venezuela
     
    • Bolívar
      • Pedregal city
    Journal of South American Earth Sciences Volume 27, Issues 2-3, February-March 2009, Pages 211-218
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