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Samarskite-(Y)

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Formula:
(Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Black internally, pale ...
Hardness:
5 - 6
Name:
Named for Colonel Vasilii Yevgrafovich Samarskii-Bykhovets (1803-1870), Chief of Staff of the Russian Corps of Mining Engineers.
Samarskite Group.
The Y analogue of Samarskite-(Yb).

Classification of Samarskite-(Y)

Approved 1980
Explanation of status:
(Chemical data are inconsistent, and it is possible that "samarskite-(Y)" includes more than one species.)
4.DB.25

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
B : With medium-sized cations; chains of edge-sharing octahedra
8.1.11.1

8 : MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
1 : ABO4
18.4.12

18 : Niobates and Tantalates
4 : Niobates and tantalates containing both U and rare earths
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http://www.mindat.org/min-3512.html
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Type Occurrence of Samarskite-(Y)

Occurrences of Samarskite-(Y)

Geological Setting:
pegmatites

Physical Properties of Samarskite-(Y)

Vitreous, Resinous, Sub-Metallic
Colour:
Black internally, pale to yellow-brown surface
Comment:
Brown in transmitted light.
Streak:
Dark reddish brown to black
Hardness (Mohs):
5 - 6
Hardness (Vickers):
VHN100=736 - 897
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Poor/Indistinct
On {010} (?)
Fracture:
Conchoidal, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
5 - 5.69 g/cm3 (Measured)    6.28 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Samarskite-(Y)

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Pbcn
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.687Å, b = 4.925Å, c = 5.21Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.155 : 1 : 1.058
Unit Cell Volume:
V 145.92 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Prismatic [001] (with rectangular cross-section); tabular {100} or {010} less common; elongated [010] with prominent {101} at times. Crystals rough. Massive.

Crystallographic forms of Samarskite-(Y)

Crystal Atlas:
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Samarskite-(Y) no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
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X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.030 (1000
3.728 (15)
2.843 (15)
2.603 (15)
2.495 (10)
1.920 (10)
1.863 (10)
Comments:
(XRD data obtained by heating metamict mineral until crystallinity is restored, with no guarantee that the structure is identical to the original pre-metamict structure.)

Optical Data of Samarskite-(Y)

Type:
Isotropic
RI values:
n = 2.1 - 2.2
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.000 - Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:
Very High
Type:
Isotropic

Chemical Properties of Samarskite-(Y)

Formula:
(Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Samarskite-(Y) to other Species

Other Members of Group:
Calciosamarskite(Ca,Fe3+,Y)2(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O8
IshikawaiteU4+Fe2+Nb2O8
Samarskite-(Yb)(Yb,Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8
SrilankiteZrTi2O6
4.DB.05ArgutiteGeO2
4.DB.05CassiteriteSnO2
4.DB.05PlattneritePbO2
4.DB.05PyrolusiteMnO2
4.DB.05RutileTiO2
4.DB.05TripuhyiteFe3+Sb5+O4
4.DB.05TugarinoviteMoO2
4.DB.05Varlamoffite(Sn,Fe)(O,OH)2
4.DB.10ByströmiteMgSb2O6
4.DB.10Tapiolite-(Fe)(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6
4.DB.10Tapiolite-(Mn)(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6
4.DB.10OrdoñeziteZnSb2O6
4.DB.15bAkhtenskiteε-Mn4+O2
4.DB.15cNsutite(Mn4+,Mn2+)(O,OH)2
4.DB.15aParamontroseiteV4+O2
4.DB.15aRamsdelliteMn4+O2
4.DB.20Scrutinyiteα-PbO2
4.DB.25IshikawaiteU4+Fe2+Nb2O8
4.DB.25Ixiolite(Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)4O8
4.DB.25SrilankiteZrTi2O6
4.DB.25Yttrocolumbite-(Y)Y(U4+,Fe2+)Nb2O8
4.DB.25Calciosamarskite(Ca,Fe3+,Y)2(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O8
4.DB.25Samarskite-(Yb)(Yb,Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8
4.DB.30FerberiteFeWO4
4.DB.30HübneriteMnWO4
4.DB.30Sanmartinite(Zn,Fe)WO4
4.DB.30KrasnoselskiteCoWO4
4.DB.30HeftetjerniteScTaO4
4.DB.30HuanzalaiteMgWO4
4.DB.35Columbite-(Fe)FeNb2O6
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Fe)FeTa2O6
4.DB.35Columbite-(Mn)(Mn,Fe)(Nb,Ta)2O6
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Mn)MnTa2O6
4.DB.35Columbite-(Mg)(Mg,Fe,Mn)(Nb,Ta)2O6
4.DB.35Qitianlingite(Fe,Mn)2(Nb,Ta)2WO10
4.DB.35Magnocolumbite
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Mg)(Mg,Fe2+)(Ta,Nb)2O6
4.DB.40FerrowodginiteFeSnTa2O8
4.DB.40LithiotantiteLi(Ta,Nb)3O8
4.DB.40LithiowodginiteLiTa3O8
4.DB.40TitanowodginiteMnTiTa2O8
4.DB.40WodginiteMn(Sn,Ta)Ta2O8
4.DB.40FerrotitanowodginiteFe2+TiTa2O8
4.DB.40WolframowodginiteMn(Mn,Sn,Fe,Ta)(W,Ta,Nb)2O8
4.DB.45TivaniteV3+TiO3(OH)
4.DB.50Carmichaelite(Ti,Cr,Fe)[O2-x(OH)x]
4.DB.55AlumotantiteAlTaO4
4.DB.60Biehlite((Sb,As)O)2[MoO4]
18.4.1Uranpyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)(U,Ca,Ce)2(Nb,Ta)2O6(OH,F)
18.4.2Yttrocolumbite-(Y)Y(U4+,Fe2+)Nb2O8
18.4.3Yttrotantalite-(Y)(Y,Ca,U4+,Fe2+)2(Ta,Nb)2O8
18.4.4IshikawaiteU4+Fe2+Nb2O8
18.4.5Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ti,Ta)2O6
18.4.6Tanteuxenite-(Y)(Y,Ce,Ca)(Ta,Nb,Ti)2(O,OH)6
18.4.7Kobeite-(Y)(Y,Zr)2(Ti,Fe3+)2(O,OH)7
18.4.8Polycrase-(Y)(Y,U)(Ti,Nb)2O6
18.4.9Yttropyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)
18.4.10Calciobetafite (of Mazzi & Munno)
18.4.11Yttrobetafite (of Hogarth 1977)

Other Names for Samarskite-(Y)

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Samarskite-(Y)

Reference List:
Rose (1839), Ann. Phys.: 48: 555 (as uranotantal).

Rose (1847), Ann. Phys.: 71: 157 (as samarskit [Uranniobit]).

Hermann (1847), J. pr. Chem.: 42: 129 (as Yttroilmenite).

Hermann (1848), J. pr. Chem.: 44: 216.

Dana (1876), American Journal of cience: 11: 202.

Brögger (1881), Geol. För. Förh.: 5: 354 (as Ånnerödite).

Brögger (1906), Vidensk. Selskr., Oslo, Mat.-Nat. Kl.: 6: 142, 154.

Ellsworth (1928), American Mineralogist: 13: 66.

Fenner (1928), American Journal of Science: 16: 382.

Hess and Wells (1930), American Journal of Science: 19: 17.

Machatschki (1932), Chem. Erde: 7: 72.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 797-800.

Murdoch, Joseph (1946), Nuevite, a new rare-earth mineral from California (abstract): Geological Society of America Bull.: 57: 1219.

Murdoch, Joseph (1951), Notes on California minerals: nuevite = samarskite; trona, and hanksite; Gaylussite: American Mineralogist: 36: 358-361.

Mineralogical Magazine (1980): 43: 1054.

Sugitani, Y., Suzuki, Y., Nagashima, K. (1984) Recovery of the original samarskite structure by heating in a reducing atmosphere. American Mineralogisrt (1984): 69: 377-379.

Sugitani, Y., Y. Suzuki, and K. Nagashima (1985) Polymorphism of samarskite and its relationship to other structurally related Nb Ta oxides with the alpha-PbO2 structure. American Minealogist (1985): 70: 856-866.

Lumpkin, G.R., Ewing, R.C., and Eyal, Y. (1988) Preferential leaching and natural annealing of alpha-recoil track in metamict betafite and samarskite. Journal of Mater. Res.: 3: 357-368.

Julie K. Warner, Rodney C. Ewing (1993) Crystal chemistry of samarskite. American Mineralogist (1983): 78: 419-424.

Mineralogical Magazine (1999): 63: 27-36.

Tomašić, N.; Gajović, A.; Bermanec, V.; Linarić, M. R.; Su, D.; Škoda, R. (2010): Preservation of the samarskite structure in a metamict ABO4 mineral: a key to crystal structure identification. European Journal of Mineralogy, 22, 435-444.

Internet Links for Samarskite-(Y)

Localities for Samarskite-(Y)

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