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Samarskite-(Y)

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Formula:
(Y,Fe
3+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,U,Th,Ca)
 
2
(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
8
System:OrthorhombicColour:Black internally, pale ...
Hardness:5 - 6
Member of:Samarskite Group
Name:Named for Colonel Vasilii Yevgrafovich Samarskii-Bykhovets (1803-1870), Chief of Staff of the Russian Corps of Mining Engineers.


Samarskite Group.
The Y analogue of Samarskite-(Yb).

Classification of Samarskite-(Y)

IMA status:Approved 1980
Explanation of status:(Chemical data are inconsistent, and it is possible that "samarskite-(Y)" includes more than one species.)
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/D.19-60
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.DB.25

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
B : With medium-sized cations; chains of edge-sharing octahedra
Dana 8th edition ID:8.1.11.1

8 : MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
1 : ABO4
Hey's CIM Ref.:18.4.12

18 : Niobates and Tantalates
4 : Niobates and tantalates containing both U and rare earths
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Type Occurrence of Samarskite-(Y)

Type Locality:Blyumovskaya Pit (Blum Pit; Pit No. 50), Ilmen Natural Reserve, Ilmen Mts, Chelyabinsk Oblast', Southern Urals, Urals Region, Russia

Occurrences of Samarskite-(Y)

Geological Setting:pegmatites

Physical Properties of Samarskite-(Y)

Lustre:Vitreous, Resinous, Sub-Metallic
Colour:Black internally, pale to yellow-brown surface
Comment:Brown in transmitted light.
Streak:Dark reddish brown to black
Hardness (Mohs):5 - 6
Hardness (Vickers):VHN100=736 - 897
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Poor/Indistinct
On {010} (?)
Fracture:Conchoidal, Sub-Conchoidal
Density (measured):5 - 5.69 g/cm3
Density (calculated):6.28 g/cm3

Crystallography of Samarskite-(Y)

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:Pbcn {P21/b 2/c 21/n}
Cell Parameters:a = 5.687Å, b = 4.925Å, c = 5.21Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.155 : 1 : 1.058
Unit Cell Volume:V 145.92 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Prismatic [001] (with rectangular cross-section); tabular {100} or {010} less common; elongated [010] with prominent {101} at times. Crystals rough. Massive.
Crystal Atlas:
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Samarskite-(Y) no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.030 (1000
3.728 (15)
2.843 (15)
2.603 (15)
2.495 (10)
1.920 (10)
1.863 (10)
Comments:(XRD data obtained by heating metamict mineral until crystallinity is restored, with no guarantee that the structure is identical to the original pre-metamict structure.)

Optical Data of Samarskite-(Y)

Type:Isotropic
RI values: n = 2.1 - 2.2
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.000 - Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:Very High
Type:Isotropic

Chemical Properties of Samarskite-(Y)

Formula:
(Y,Fe
3+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,U,Th,Ca)
 
2
(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
8
Simplified for copy/paste:(Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8
Essential elements:Nb, O, Y
All elements listed in formula:Ca, Fe, Nb, O, Ta, Th, U, Y

Relationship of Samarskite-(Y) to other Species

Member of:Samarskite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Calciosamarskite
(Ca,Fe
3+
 
,Y)
 
2
(Nb,Ta,Ti)
 
2
O
 
8
Ishikawaite
U
4+
 
Fe
2+
 
Nb
 
2
O
 
8
Samarskite-(Yb)
(Yb,Y,Fe
3+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,U,Th,Ca)
 
2
(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
8
Srilankite
ZrTi
 
2
O
 
6
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.DB.05Argutite
GeO
 
2
4.DB.05Cassiterite
SnO
 
2
4.DB.05Plattnerite
PbO
 
2
4.DB.05Pyrolusite
MnO
 
2
4.DB.05Rutile
TiO
 
2
4.DB.05Tripuhyite
Fe
3+
 
Sb
5+
 
O
 
4
4.DB.05Tugarinovite
MoO
 
2
4.DB.05Varlamoffite
(Sn,Fe)(O,OH)
 
2
4.DB.10Byströmite
MgSb
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.10Tapiolite-(Fe)
(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.10Tapiolite-(Mn)
(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.10Ordoñezite
ZnSb
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.15bAkhtenskite
ε-Mn
4+
 
O
 
2
4.DB.15cNsutite
(Mn
4+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)(O,OH)
 
2
4.DB.15aParamontroseite
V
4+
 
O
 
2
4.DB.15aRamsdellite
Mn
4+
 
O
 
2
4.DB.20Scrutinyite
alpha-PbO
 
2
4.DB.25Ishikawaite
U
4+
 
Fe
2+
 
Nb
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.25Ixiolite
(Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)
 
4
O
 
8
4.DB.25Srilankite
ZrTi
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.25Yttrocolumbite-(Y)
Y(U
4+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)Nb
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.25Calciosamarskite
(Ca,Fe
3+
 
,Y)
 
2
(Nb,Ta,Ti)
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.25Samarskite-(Yb)
(Yb,Y,Fe
3+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,U,Th,Ca)
 
2
(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.30Ferberite
FeWO
 
4
4.DB.30Hübnerite
MnWO
 
4
4.DB.30Sanmartinite
(Zn,Fe)WO
 
4
4.DB.30Krasnoselskite
CoWO
 
4
4.DB.30Heftetjernite
ScTaO
 
4
4.DB.30Huanzalaite
MgWO
 
4
4.DB.35Columbite-(Fe)
FeNb
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Fe)
FeTa
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.35Columbite-(Mn)
(Mn,Fe)(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Mn)
MnTa
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.35Columbite-(Mg)
(Mg,Fe,Mn)(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.35Qitianlingite
(Fe,Mn)
 
2
(Nb,Ta)
 
2
WO
 
10
4.DB.35Magnocolumbite
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Mg)
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)(Ta,Nb)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.40Ferrowodginite
FeSnTa
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.40Lithiotantite
Li(Ta,Nb)
 
3
O
 
8
4.DB.40Lithiowodginite
LiTa
 
3
O
 
8
4.DB.40Titanowodginite
MnTiTa
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.40Wodginite
Mn(Sn,Ta)Ta
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.40Ferrotitanowodginite
Fe
2+
 
TiTa
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.40Wolframowodginite
Mn(Mn,Sn,Fe,Ta)(W,Ta,Nb)
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.45Tivanite
V
3+
 
TiO
 
3
(OH)
4.DB.50Carmichaelite
(Ti,Cr,Fe)[O
 
2-x
(OH)
 
x
]
4.DB.55Alumotantite
AlTaO
 
4
4.DB.60Biehlite
((Sb,As)O)
 
2
[MoO
 
4
]
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
18.4.1Uranpyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)
(U,Ca,Ce)
 
2
(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
6
(OH,F)
18.4.2Yttrocolumbite-(Y)
Y(U
4+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)Nb
 
2
O
 
8
18.4.3Yttrotantalite-(Y)
(Y,Ca,U
4+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
(Ta,Nb)
 
2
O
 
8
18.4.4Ishikawaite
U
4+
 
Fe
2+
 
Nb
 
2
O
 
8
18.4.5Euxenite-(Y)
(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ti,Ta)
 
2
O
 
6
18.4.6Tanteuxenite-(Y)
(Y,Ce,Ca)(Ta,Nb,Ti)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
18.4.7Kobeite-(Y)
(Y,Zr)
 
2
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
7
18.4.8Polycrase-(Y)
(Y,U)(Ti,Nb)
 
2
O
 
6
18.4.9Yttropyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)
18.4.10Calciobetafite (of Mazzi & Munno)
18.4.11Yttrobetafite (of Hogarth 1977)

Other Names for Samarskite-(Y)

Synonyms:
AdelfoliteAdelpholiteAmpangabéiteEytlanditeHydroeuxenite
HydrosamarskiteNueviteSamarskiteUranoniobit (of Rose)Uranotantal
Other Languages:
German:Adelfolit
Adelpholit
Ampangabéit
Nuevit
Samarskit
Japanese:サマルスキー石
Spanish:Adelfolita
Adelpholita
Ampangabéita
Nuevita
Samarskita
Varieties:
Titanian Samarskite-(Y)Vietinghofite

Other Information

Health Warning:Mineral is radioactive, some specimens may be strong radioactive.

References for Samarskite-(Y)

Reference List:

- +
Rose (1839), Ann. Phys.: 48: 555 (as uranotantal).

Rose (1847), Ann. Phys.: 71: 157 (as samarskit [Uranniobit]).

Hermann (1847), J. pr. Chem.: 42: 129 (as Yttroilmenite).

Hermann (1848), J. pr. Chem.: 44: 216.

Dana (1876), American Journal of cience: 11: 202.

Brögger (1881), Geol. För. Förh.: 5: 354 (as Ånnerödite).

Brögger (1906), Vidensk. Selskr., Oslo, Mat.-Nat. Kl.: 6: 142, 154.

Ellsworth (1928), American Mineralogist: 13: 66.

Fenner (1928), American Journal of Science: 16: 382.

Hess and Wells (1930), American Journal of Science: 19: 17.

Machatschki (1932), Chem. Erde: 7: 72.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 797-800.

Murdoch, Joseph (1946), Nuevite, a new rare-earth mineral from California (abstract): Geological Society of America Bull.: 57: 1219.

Murdoch, Joseph (1951), Notes on California minerals: nuevite = samarskite; trona, and hanksite; Gaylussite: American Mineralogist: 36: 358-361.

Mineralogical Magazine (1980): 43: 1054.

Sugitani, Y., Suzuki, Y., Nagashima, K. (1984) Recovery of the original samarskite structure by heating in a reducing atmosphere. American Mineralogisrt (1984): 69: 377-379.

Sugitani, Y., Y. Suzuki, and K. Nagashima (1985) Polymorphism of samarskite and its relationship to other structurally related Nb Ta oxides with the alpha-PbO2 structure. American Minealogist (1985): 70: 856-866.

Lumpkin, G.R., Ewing, R.C., and Eyal, Y. (1988) Preferential leaching and natural annealing of alpha-recoil track in metamict betafite and samarskite. Journal of Mater. Res.: 3: 357-368.

Julie K. Warner, Rodney C. Ewing (1993) Crystal chemistry of samarskite. American Mineralogist (1983): 78: 419-424.

Mineralogical Magazine (1999): 63: 27-36.

Tomašić, N.; Gajović, A.; Bermanec, V.; Linarić, M. R.; Su, D.; Škoda, R. (2010): Preservation of the samarskite structure in a metamict ABO4 mineral: a key to crystal structure identification. European Journal of Mineralogy, 22, 435-444.

Internet Links for Samarskite-(Y)

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    Localities for Samarskite-(Y)

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