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Saponite

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Formula:
Ca0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
White, gray-green, ...
Hardness:
1½ - 2
Member of:
Name:
From Latin, sap, soap, alluding to its greasy or soapy feel and appearance.
Smectite Group.
Beidellite-Saponite Series.
See also the Fe-dominant end-member ferrosaponite.


Classification of Saponite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.EC.45

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
C : Phyllosilicates with mica sheets, composed of tetrahedral and octahedral nets
71.3.1b.2

71 : PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
3 : Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
16.7.7

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
7 : Aluminosilicates of Mg

Type Occurrence of Saponite

Physical Properties of Saponite

Greasy, Dull
Colour:
White, gray-green, bluish, yellow
Hardness (Mohs):
1½ - 2

Crystallography of Saponite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.3Å, b = 9.14Å, c = 16.9Å
β = 97°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.58 : 1 : 1.849
Unit Cell Volume:
V 812.57 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Optical Data of Saponite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.479 - 1.490 nβ = 1.510 - 1.525 nγ = 1.511 - 1.527
2V:
Calculated: 20° to 26°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.032 - 0.037
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
none

Chemical Properties of Saponite

Formula:
Ca0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Ti,Mn,Ni,K,P

Relationship of Saponite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Beidellite (see here)
Member of:
Other Members of Group:
AliettiteCa0.2Mg6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 4H2O
Beidellite(Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
FerrosaponiteCa0.3(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
HectoriteNa0.3(Mg,Li)3(Si4O10)(F,OH)2
Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
PimeliteNi3Si4O10(OH)2·4H2O
Saliotite(Li,Na)Al3(AlSi3O10)(OH)5
SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Stevensite(Ca,Na)xMg3-x(Si4O10)(OH)2
SwineforditeLi(Al,Li,Mg)4((Si,Al)4O10)2(OH,F)4 · nH2O
VolkonskoiteCa0.3(Cr,Mg,Fe)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Yakhontovite(Ca,Na)0.5(Cu,Fe,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 3H2O
ZincsiliteZn3(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
9.EC.05MinnesotaiteFe32+Si4O10(OH)2
9.EC.05TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
9.EC.05WillemseiteNi3Si4O10(OH)2
9.EC.10FerripyrophylliteFe3+Si2O5(OH)
9.EC.10PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
9.EC.15BoromuscoviteKAl2(BSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15CeladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Fe3+(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15Chernykhite(Ba,Na)(V3+,Al,Mg)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15Montdorite(K,Na)2(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)5(Si4O10)2(OH,F)4
9.EC.15MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15NanpingiteCsAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2
9.EC.15ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15RoscoeliteK(V3+,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15Tobelite(NH4,K)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15AluminoceladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Al(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15ChromphylliteK(Cr,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2
9.EC.15FerroaluminoceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Al,Fe3+)(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15FerroceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Fe3+,Al)(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15ChromceladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)(Cr,Al)(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15TainioliteKLiMg2(Si4O10)F2
9.EC.15Ganterite(Ba,Na,K)(Al,Mg)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20AnniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20EphesiteLiNaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20HendricksiteK(Zn,Mg,Mn2+)3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20Masutomilite(K,Rb)(Li,Mn3+,Al)3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.20NorrishiteKLiMn23+(Si4O10)O2
9.EC.20PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20PolylithioniteKLi2Al(Si4O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.20PreiswerkiteNaMg2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20SiderophylliteKFe22+Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20TetraferriphlogopiteKMg3(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH,F)2
9.EC.20FluorotetraferriphlogopiteKMg3(Fe3+Si3O10)F2
9.EC.20Wonesite(Na,K)(Mg,Fe,Al)6((Al,Si)4O10)2(OH,F)4
9.EC.20EastoniteKMg2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20TetraferrianniteKFe32+((Fe3+,Al)Si3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20TrilithioniteK(Li1.5Al1.5)(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.20FluoranniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.20ShirokshiniteKNaMg2(Si4O10)F2
9.EC.20ShirozuliteK(Mn2+,Mg)3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20SokolovaiteCsLi2Al(Si4O10)F2
9.EC.20AspidoliteNaMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20FluorophlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.20UM2004-49-SiO:AlCsFHKLi(Cs,K)(Al,Li)2.6((Si,Al)4O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.20Suhailite(NH4)Fe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20YangzhumingiteKMg2.5(Si4O10)F2
9.EC.20OrloviteKLi2Ti(Si4O10)OF
9.EC.20OxyphlogopiteK(Mg,Ti,Fe)3[(Si,Al)4O10](O,F)2
9.EC.25Brammallite(Na,H3O)(Al,Mg,Fe)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.30MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
9.EC.35Anandite(Ba,K)(Fe2+,Mg)3((Si,Al,Fe)4O10)(S,OH)2
9.EC.35BityiteLiCaAl2(AlBeSi2O10)(OH)2
9.EC.35ClintoniteCa(Mg,Al)3(Al3SiO10)(OH)2
9.EC.35Kinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Mg,Mn2+,Al)3(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
9.EC.35Ferrokinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Fe2+,Mg)3(Al2Si2O10)(OH,F)2
9.EC.35Oxykinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Mg,Ti,Fe3+,Fe2+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(O,OH,F)2
9.EC.35FluorokinoshitaliteBaMg3(Al2Si2O10)F2
9.EC.40Beidellite(Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
9.EC.40Kurumsakite(Zn,Ni,Cu)8Al8V25+Si5O35 · 27H2O (?)
9.EC.40Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
9.EC.40NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
9.EC.40VolkonskoiteCa0.3(Cr,Mg,Fe)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
9.EC.40Yakhontovite(Ca,Na)0.5(Cu,Fe,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 3H2O
9.EC.45HectoriteNa0.3(Mg,Li)3(Si4O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.45SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
9.EC.45SpadaiteMgSiO2(OH)2 · H2O (?)
9.EC.45Stevensite(Ca,Na)xMg3-x(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.45SwineforditeLi(Al,Li,Mg)4((Si,Al)4O10)2(OH,F)4 · nH2O
9.EC.45ZincsiliteZn3(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
9.EC.45FerrosaponiteCa0.3(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
9.EC.50VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
9.EC.55Baileychlore(Zn,Fe2+,Al,Mg)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
9.EC.55Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
9.EC.55ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55FranklinfurnaceiteCa2Fe3+Mn32+Mn3+(Zn2Si2O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55Gonyerite(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55Nimite(Ni,Mg,Al)6((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55Orthochamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH,O)8
9.EC.55PennantiteMn52+Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55SudoiteMg2Al3(Si3Al)O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55DonbassiteAl4.33(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55GlagoleviteNa(Mg,Al)6(AlSi3O10)(OH,O)8
9.EC.55BorocookeiteLi1+3xAl4-x(BSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.60AliettiteCa0.2Mg6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 4H2O
9.EC.60Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2O
9.EC.60DozyiteMg7Al2(Al2Si4O15)(OH)12
9.EC.60HydrobiotiteK(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2O
9.EC.60Karpinskite(Ni,Mg)2Si2O5(OH)2 (?)
9.EC.60KulkeiteMg8Al(AlSi7O20)(OH)10
9.EC.60LunijianlaiteLi0.7Al6.2(AlSi7O20)(OH,O)10
9.EC.60Rectorite(Na,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2O
9.EC.60Saliotite(Li,Na)Al3(AlSi3O10)(OH)5
9.EC.60TosuditeNa0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2O
9.EC.60BrinrobertsiteNa0.3Al4(Si4O10)2(OH)4 · 3.5 H2O
9.EC.65Macaulayite(Fe,Al)24Si4O43(OH)2
9.EC.70BurckhardtitePb2(Fe3+Te6+)[AlSi3O8]O6
9.EC.75Ferrisurite(Pb,Ca)2.4Fe23+(Si4O10)(CO3)1.7(OH)3 · nH2O
9.EC.75Surite(Pb,Ca)3(Al,Fe2+,Mg)2((Si,Al)4O10)(CO3)2(OH)2
9.EC.75Niksergievite(Ba,Ca)2Al3(AlSi3O10)(CO3)(OH)6 · nH2O
9.EC.80KegelitePb8Al4(Si8O20)(SO4)2(CO3)4(OH)8
16.7.1PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
16.7.2SapphirineMg4(Mg3Al9)O4[Si3Al9O36]
16.7.3Sapphirine-1A(Mg,Al,Fe2+)8[(Al,Si,Fe3+)6O18]O2
16.7.4MagnesiochloritoidMgAl2(SiO4)O(OH)2
16.7.5KulkeiteMg8Al(AlSi7O20)(OH)10
16.7.6Palygorskite(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
16.7.8AliettiteCa0.2Mg6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 4H2O
16.7.9Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
16.7.10Baumite(Mg,Al,Mn,Zn,Fe)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4

Other Names for Saponite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Saponite

Reference List:
Palache, C., Vassar, H.E. (1925) Some minerals of the Keweenawan copper deposits: pumpellyite, a new mineral; sericite; saponite. American Mineralogist: 10: 412-418.

Fleischer, M. (1954) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 39: 402-408.

Journal of the Mineral Society of Japan (1971): 6: 299-312.

Gailhanou, H., Blanc, P., Rogez, J., Mikaelian, G., Horiuchi, K., Yamamura, Y., Saito, K., Kawaji, H., Warmont, F., Grenèche, J.M., Vieillard, P., Fialips, C.I., Giffaut, E., Gaucher, E.C. (2013) Thermodynamic properties of saponite, nontronite, and vermiculite derived from calorimetric measurements. American Mineralogist: 98: 1834-1847.

Treiman, A.H., Morris, R.V., Agresti, D.G., Graff, T.G., Achilles, C.N., Rampe, E.B., Bristow, T.F., Ming, D.W., Blake, D.F., Vaniman, D.T., Bish, D.L., Chipera, S.J., Morrison, S.M., Downs, R.T. (2014) Ferrian saponite from the Santa Monica Mountains (California, U.S.A., Earth): Characterization as an analog for clay minerals on Mars with application to Yellowknife Bay in Gale Crater. American Mineralogist: 99: 2234-2250.

Internet Links for Saponite

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Localities for Saponite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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