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Sapphirine

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Formula:
(Mg,Fe)
 
4-x
Al
 
4+x
[Al
 
4+x
Si
 
2-x
O
 
18
]O
 
2
System:MonoclinicColour:Light blue, blue-gray, ...
Hardness:
Member of:Sapphirine Group > Sapphirine Supergroup
Name:In allusion to its sapphire-like color.


Aenigmatite Group

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Classification of Sapphirine

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/F.15-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.DH.45

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
H : Inosilicates with 4-periodic single chains, Si4O12
Dana 8th edition ID:69.2.1b.1

69 : INOSILICATES Chains with Side Branches or Loops
2 : Chains with Side Branches or Loops with P>2
Hey's CIM Ref.:16.7.2

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
7 : Aluminosilicates of Mg
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Type Occurrence of Sapphirine

Type Locality:Fiskenaes old harbour, Fiskenaes (Fiskenaesset; Qeqertarsuatsiaat), Nuuk (Godthåb), Sermersooq, Greenland

Physical Properties of Sapphirine

Lustre:Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:Light blue, blue-gray, green, greenish gray, rarely yellow-brown or pink
Streak:colourless
Hardness (Mohs):
Cleavage:Poor/Indistinct
{100}, {001}, and {010}
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density (measured):3.4 - 3.5 g/cm3

Crystallography of Sapphirine

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:P21/b {P1 1 21/b} {P21/c} {P1 21/c 1} {P21/a}
Cell Parameters:a = 11.27Å, b = 14.4Å, c = 9.93Å
β = 125.5°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.783 : 1 : 0.69
Unit Cell Volume:V 1312 ų
Z:4
Morphology:Crystals tabular {010}, slightly elongated [001] at times. Usually as disseminated grains or aggregations of grains.
Twinning:Polysynthetic twinning on one, or possibly two, laws is observed in polished sections when 1A polytype is present.
Comment:Unit cell from Moore (1969), for 2M polytype. 2M polytype is commonest. 1A, 3A, 4M and 5A also known.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Sapphirine

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.701 - 1.729 nβ = 1.703 - 1.732 nγ = 1.705 - 1.734
2V:Measured: 51° to 69°, Calculated: 78° to 88°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.004 - 0.005

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:High
Dispersion:r < v
Pleochroism:Visible
Comments:X = pinkish buff, yellowish, light smoky brown, colourless
Y = sky-blue, sapphire-blue, greenish blue
Z = dark sky-blue, dark sapphire-blue

Chemical Properties of Sapphirine

Formula:
(Mg,Fe)
 
4-x
Al
 
4+x
[Al
 
4+x
Si
 
2-x
O
 
18
]O
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:(Mg,Fe)4-xAl4+x[Al4+xSi2-xO18]O2
Essential elements:Al, Mg, O
All elements listed in formula:Al, Fe, Mg, O, Si

Relationship of Sapphirine to other Species

Member of:Sapphirine Group > Sapphirine Supergroup
Other Members of Group:

- +
Khmaralite
(Mg,Al,Fe)
 
16
[(Al,Si,Be)
 
12
O
 
36
]O
 
4
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.DH.05Leucophanite
NaCaBeSi
 
2
O
 
6
F
9.DH.10Ohmilite
Sr
 
3
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)(Si
 
4
O
 
12
)(O,OH) · 2-3H
 
2
O
9.DH.15Haradaite
SrVSi
 
2
O
 
7
9.DH.15Suzukiite
BaVSi
 
2
O
 
7
9.DH.20Batisite
BaNaNaTi
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
12
)O
 
2
9.DH.20Shcherbakovite
(K,Ba)KNa(Ti,Nb)
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
12
)O
 
2
9.DH.25Taikanite
Sr
 
3
BaMn
2+
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
12
)O
 
2
9.DH.30Krauskopfite
BaSi
 
2
O
 
5
· 3H
 
2
O
9.DH.35Balangeroite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)
 
42
Si
 
16
O
 
54
(OH)
 
40
9.DH.35Gageite
Mn
 
21
(Si
 
4
O
 
12
)
 
2
O
 
3
(OH)
 
20
9.DH.40Aenigmatite
Na
 
2
Fe
2+
5
Ti(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)O
 
2
9.DH.40Dorrite
Ca
 
4
(Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
9
)O
 
4
(Si
 
3
Al
 
8
Fe
3+
 
O
 
36
)
9.DH.40Høgtuvaite
(Ca,Na)
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
,Ti)
 
6
[O
 
2
|Be(Si,Al)
 
5
O
 
18
]
9.DH.40Krinovite
Na
 
2
Mg
 
4
Cr
3+
2
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)O
 
2
9.DH.40Makarochkinite
Ca
 
2
Fe
2+
4
Fe
3+
 
Ti[O
 
2
|BeAlSi
 
4
O
 
18
]
9.DH.40Rhönite
Ca
 
2
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
,Ti)
 
6
[O
 
2
|(Si,Al)
 
6
O
 
18
]
9.DH.40Serendibite
(Ca,Na)
 
2
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
3
[O
 
2
|(Si,Al,B)
 
6
O
 
18
]
9.DH.40Welshite
Ca
 
4
Mg
 
9
Sb
 
3
O
 
4
[Si
 
6
Be
 
3
AlFe
 
2
O
 
36
]
9.DH.40Wilkinsonite
Na
 
2
Fe
2+
4
Fe
3+
2
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)O
 
2
9.DH.50Khmaralite
(Mg,Al,Fe)
 
16
[(Al,Si,Be)
 
12
O
 
36
]O
 
4
9.DH.55Surinamite
(Mg,Fe)
 
3
Al
 
4
BeSi
 
3
O
 
16
9.DH.60Deerite
(Fe,Mn)
 
6
(Fe,Al)
 
3
[Si
 
6
O
 
17
]O
 
3
(OH)
 
5
9.DH.65Howieite
Na(Fe,Mn)
 
10
(Fe,Al)
 
2
Si
 
12
O
 
31
(OH)
 
13
9.DH.65Taneyamalite
(Na,Ca)(Mn,Mg,Fe)
 
12
Si
 
12
(O,OH)
 
44
9.DH.70Johninnesite
Na
 
2
Mn
2+
9
Mg
 
7
(OH)
 
8
[AsO
 
4
]
 
2
[Si
 
6
O
 
17
]
 
2
9.DH.75Agrellite
NaCa
 
2
Si
 
4
O
 
10
F
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
16.7.1Pyrope
Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
16.7.3Sapphirine-1A
(Mg,Al,Fe
2+
 
)
 
8
[(Al,Si,Fe
3+
 
)
 
6
O
 
18
]O
 
2
16.7.4Magnesiochloritoid
MgAl
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O(OH)
 
2
16.7.5Kulkeite
Mg
 
8
Al(AlSi
 
7
O
 
20
)(OH)
 
10
16.7.6Palygorskite
(Mg,Al)
 
5
(Si,Al)
 
8
O
 
20
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
16.7.7Saponite
Ca
 
0.25
(Mg,Fe)
 
3
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· nH
 
2
O
16.7.8Aliettite
Ca
 
0.2
Mg
 
6
((Si,Al)
 
8
O
 
20
)(OH)
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
16.7.9Montmorillonite
(Na,Ca)
 
0.33
(Al,Mg)
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· nH
 
2
O
16.7.10Baumite
(Mg,Al,Mn,Zn,Fe)
 
3
(Si,Al)
 
2
O
 
5
(OH)
 
4

Other Names for Sapphirine

Synonyms:
Saphirine
Other Languages:
Dutch:Saffirien
German:Sapphirin
Blauer Diamantspath
Italian:Saffirina
Russian:Сапфирин
Simplified Chinese:假蓝宝石
Varieties:
Beryllian Sapphirine

Polytypes for Sapphirine

Polytypes:
Sapphirine-1ASapphirine-2M

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Sapphirine

Reference List:

- +
Stromeyer (1819): Analyse einiger von dem Prof. von Giesecke in Grönland entdeckten Fossilien, 2. Saphirin von Fiskenaes oder Kikertarsoeitsiak, Annalen der Physik und Chemie, Vol. 63, p 374

Giesecke (1819), Stromeyer, Göttingen gel. Anz.: 1994.

Giesecke (1821), Untersuch. Misch. Mineralk.: 1: 391.

Hausmann (1847): 427.

Ussing (1889), Zeitschr. Kristall.: 15: 600.

Middlemiss (1904), Records of the Geological Survey of India: 31: 38.

Walker and Collins (1907), Records of the Gelogical Survey of India: 36, part 1: 1.

Warren (1912), American Journal of Science: 33: 263.

Lacroix (1913): 5: 73.

Doelter (1915): 2(2): 628.

Lacroix and de Gramont (1921), Bull. soc. min.: 44: 67.

Gossner and Mussgnug (1928), Jb. Min.: 58: 233.

Mountain (1939), Mineralogical Magazine: 25: 277.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 724-726.

McKie, D. (1963) Order-disorder in sapphirine. Mineralogical Magazine: 635-645.

Moore, P.B. (1969) The crystal structure of sapphirine. American Mineralogist: 54: 31-49.

Merlino, S. (1973) Polymorphism in sapphirine. Contribs Mineral Petrol: 41: 21-29. Abstract in American Mineralogist (1974): 59: 632.

Schreyer W., and Abraham, K. (1975) Peraluminous sapphirine as a metastable reaction product in a kyanite-gedrite-talc schist from Sar e Sang, Afghanistan. Mineralogical Magazine: 40: 171-180.

Higgins, J.B. and Ribbe, P.H. (1979) Sapphirine II: a neutron and x-ray diffraction study of Mg-Al and Al-Si ordering in monoclinic sapphirine. Contribs Mineral Petrol: 68: 357-368.

Higgins, J.B., Ribbe, P.H., Herd, R.K. (1979) Sapphirine I: crystal chemical contributions. Contribs Mineral Petrol: 68: 349-356.

Merlino, S. (1980) The crystal structure of sapphirine-1Tc. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 151: 91-100.

Grew, E.S. (1980) Sapphirine + quartz association from Archean rocks in Enderby Land, Antarctica. American Mineralogist: 65: 821-836.

Warren, R.G., and Hensen, B.J. (1987) Peraluminous sapphirine from the Aileron district, Arunta block, central Australia. Mineralogical Magazine: 51: 409-416.

Christy, A.G. and Putnis, A. (1988) Planar and line defects in the sapphirine polytypes. Phys Chem Minerals: 15: 548-558. Abstract in American Mineralogist (1990): 75: 937.

Christy, A.G. (1989a) A short-range interaction model for polytypism and planar defect placement in sapphirine. Phys Chem Minerals: 16: 343-351.

Christy, A.G. (1989b) The stability of sapphirine + clinopyroxene: implications for phase relations in the CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system under deep crustal and upper mantle conditions. Contribs Mineral Petrol: 102: 422-428.

Christy, A.G. (1989c) The effect of composition, pressure and temperature on the stability of the 1Tc and 2M polytypes of sapphirine. Contribs Mineral Petrol 103: 203-215.

Sengupta, P., Dasgupta, S., Bhattacharya, P.K., Fukuoka, M., Chakraborti, S., and Bhowmick, S. (1990) Petro-tectonic imprints in the sapphirine granulites from Anantagiri, Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt, India: Journal of Petrology: 31: 971-996.

Grew, E.S., Yates, M.G., Romanenko, I.M., Christy, A.G., Swihart, G.H. (1992) Calcian, borian sapphirine from the serendibite deposit at Johnsburg, New York, USA. European Journal of Mineralogy: 4: 475-485.

Grew, E.S., Pertsev, N.N., Yates, M.G., Christy, A.G., Marquez, N., Chernosky, J.V. (1994) Sapphirine + forsterite and sapphirine + humite-group minerals in an ultra-magnesian lens from Kuhi-Lal, SW Pamirs, Tajikistan: are these assemblages forbidden? Journal of Petrology: 35: 1275-1293.

Harley, S.L. and Christy, A.G. (1995) Titanium-bearing sapphirine in a partially melted aluminous granulite xenolith, Vestfold Hills, Antarctica - geological and mineralogical implications. European Journal of Mineralogy: 7: 637-653.

Harley, S.L. and Motoyoshi, Y. (2000) Al zoning in orthopyroxene in a sapphirine quartzite: evidence for (greater than) 1120° C metamorphism in the Napier Complex, Antarctica, and implications for the entropy of sapphirine. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 138: 293-307.

Christy, A.G., Tabira, Y., Hölscher, A., Grew, E.S., Schreyer, W. (2002) Synthesis of beryllian sapphirine in the system MgO-BeO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O and comparison with naturally occurring beryllian sapphirine and khmaralite, Part 1: experiments, TEM and XRD. American Mineralogist: 87: 1104-1112.

Christy, A.G., and Grew, E.S. (2004) Synthesis of beryllian sapphirine in the system MgO-BeO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O and comparison with naturally occurring beryllian sapphirine and khmaralite, Part 2: a chemographic study of Be content as a function of P, T, assemblage and FeMg-1 exchange. American Mineralogist: 89: 327-338.

Koshimoto, S., Tsunogae, T., Santosh, M. (2004) Sapphirine and corundum bearing ultrahigh-temperature rocks from the Palghat-Cauvery Shear System, southern India. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences: 99: 298-310.

Das, S., Bhattacharya, A., Raith, M.M., Bhadra, S., Banerjee, M. (2006) Aluminous sapphirine granulites from the eastern Ghats Belt (India): phase relations and relevance to counterclockwise P-T history. European Journal of Mineralogy: 18: 35-48.

Grew, E.S., Yates, M.G., Shearer, C.K., Haggerty, J.J., Sheraton, J.W., and Sandiford, M. (2006) Beryllium and other trace elements in paragenisses and anatectic veins of the ultrahigh-temperature Napier Complex, Enderby Land, East Antarctica: The role of sapphirine. Journal of Petrology: 47: 859-882.

Tsunogae, T., and Santosh, M. (2006) Spinel-sapphirine-quartz bearing composite inclusion within garnet from an ultrahigh-temperature pelitic granulite: implications for metamorphic history and P-T path. Lithos: 92: 524-536.

Internet Links for Sapphirine

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Sapphirine details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Sapphirine

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Algeria
     
    • Tamanghasset Province
      • Ahaggar Mtn (Hoggar Mtn)
        • In Ouzzal
    M. Guiraud, J.R. Kienast, A. Rahmani : "Petrological study of high-temperature granulites from In Ouzal, Algeria : some implications on the phase relationships in the FMASTOCr system", Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, 1375-1390.
    Antarctica
     
    • Eastern Antarctica
    D. J. Ellis, J. W. Sheraton, R. N. England, W. B. Dallwitz (1980) Osumilite-sapphirine-quartz granulites from Enderby Land Antarctica — Mineral assemblages and reactions. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 72:123-143
        • Edward VIII Bay
    Journal of Petrology, 2004, 45 (7), pp. 1481-1512.
    Harley, S.L. and Motoyoshi, Y. (2000) Al zoning in orthopyroxene in a sapphirine quartzite: evidence for (greater than) 1120° C metamorphism in the Napier Complex, Antarctica, and implications for the entropy of sapphirine. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 138: 293-307; http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2003AM/finalprogram/abstract_60995.
          • Tula Mts
            • Amundsen Bay
    Polar Geoscience 14:1-24
    Grew, E. (1982): Osumilite in the Sapphirine-Quartz terrane of Enderby Land, Antarctica:…., American Mineralogist, Vol. 67, pp. 762-787
    Grew, E. (1982): Osumilite in the Sapphirine-Quartz terrane of Enderby Land, Antarctica:…., American Mineralogist, Vol. 67, pp. 762-787
            • Mt. Riiser-Larsen
    Y. Motoyoshi and B.J. Hensen, Eur. J. Mineral., 1989, 1, pp. 467-471.
      • Mac Robertson Land
    Mineralogical Magazine 1963 33 : 635-645
      • Princess Elizabeth Land
        • Ingrid Christensen Coast
          • Prydz Bay
            • Larsemann Hills (Larseman Hills)
    Edward S. Grew, et al (2007) European Journal of Mineralogy, 19, 29-245
    Laixi Tong, Xiaohan Liu, Liansheng Zhang, Haihong Chen, Liudong Ren, Yanbin Wang, and Yue Zhao (1997): Acta Petrologica Sinica 13(2), 127-138
    MinMag 58:259 (1994)
      • Queen Maud Land (Dronning Maud Land)
        • Lützow-Holm Bay
          • East Ongul Island
            • Showa Station (Syowa Station)
    Yoshikuni Hiroi, et al (2009) JAKOKA: 2009 Annual Meeting of the Japan Association of Mineralogical Sciences, S1-15.
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Wellesley Co.
    Min Mag 50:635-640
    • Northern Territory
      • Arunta Region
    Vry, J.K.(1994): Boron-free Kornerupine from the Reynolds Range Arunta Block Central Australia, Mineralogical Magazine (Mar 1994): 58, 27-37.
      • Central Desert Shire
        • Harts Range (Harts Ranges; Hartz Range; Hartz Ranges)
    Don McColl (need article reference)
    Neues Jahrb Mineral Monatsh1:15-35. (1976)
    Austria
     
    • Lower Austria
      • Mostviertel
        • Dunkelstein Forest
          • Dunkelsteinerwald
            • Gansbach
    D.A. Carswell et al., Eur.J. Mineral., 1989, 1, pp. 455-466.
    Canada
     
    • Newfoundland and Labrador
      • Labrador
        • Grenville
    Arima, M., Gower, C. (1991): Osumilite-bearing Granulites in the Eastern Grenville Province, Eastern Labrador, Canada: Mineral Parageneses and Metamorphic Conditions, Journal of Petrolog, Vol. 32 (1), pp. 29-61
    Tectonophysics 347:167–177 (2002)
    • Nunavut Territory
      • Somerset Island
    Mineralogical Record 22:386
    • Québec
      • Capitale-Nationale
        • Charlevoix RCM
    Mineralogical Magazine 1963 33 : 635-645
            • Saint-Urbain-de-Charlevoix
    Sabina (1983) GSC MR 32, 78-81
    Sabina (1983) GSC MR 32, 78-81
    Sabina (1983) GSC MR 32, 78-81
    Sabina (1983) GSC MR 32, 78-81
    Sabina (1983) GSC MR 32, 78-81
    Sabina (1983) GSC MR 32, 78-81
      • Côte-Nord
        • Minganie RCM
          • Havre-Saint-Pierre
    Charlier, B. et al. (2010): Origin of the giant Allard Lake ilmenite ore deposit (Canada) by fractional crystallization, multiple pulses and mixing. Lithos 117, 119-134.
    Perreault, S. (2003) Contrasting styles of Fe-Ti mineralization in the Havre-Saint-Pierre anorthosite suite, Quebec’s North Shore, Canada: in Ilmenite deposits and their geological environment. Jean-Clair Duchesne & Are Korneliussen ed. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse Special Publication No. 9
    • Saskatchewan
      • Athabasca Basin
        • Honsvall Lake
    Eur. J. Mineral. , 1995, 7, pp. 1251-1272.
    China
     
    • Jiangsu Province
      • Lianyungang Prefecture
        • Donghai Co.
          • Zhimafang
    Zhang, R.Y., Liou, J.G., and Zheng, J.P. (2004): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 147, 21-31.
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • South Bohemia Region
        • Písek
    J. Kotkova, S.L. Hartley, M. Fisera, Eur J. Mineral., 1997, Vol. 9, N. 5, pp. 1017-1033
    Finland
     
    • Lapland Region
    No reference listed
    Haapala, Ilmari; Siivola, Jaakko; Ojanperä, Pentti & Yletyinen, Veijo 1971. Red corundum, sapphirine and kornerupine from Kittilä, Finnish Lapland. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland 43 (2), 221-231.
    • Northern Finland Region
    Rouhunkoski, P. 1968. On the geology and geochemistry of the Vihanti ore deposit, Finland. Bulletin de la Commission Géologique de la Finlande
    France
     
    • Auvergne
      • Haute-Loire
        • Lavoûte-Chilhac
          • Saint-Ilpize
    FORESTIER F. H., LASNIER B. (1969) – Découverte de niveaux d’amphibolites à pargasite, anorthite, corindon et saphirine dans les schistes cristallins de la vallée du Haut-Allier – Existence du faciès granulite dans la massif Central Français, Contr. Mineral. And Petrol. 23, pp. 194-235.
          • Saint-Privat-du-Dragon
    PERINET F., PEGERE G. (2009) – Les sables éluvionnaires à rubis et sapphirine du secteur de Peygerolles, St-Privat-du-Dragon, Haute-Loire – Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n° 104, pp. 35-41.
    • Midi-Pyrénées
      • Ariège
        • Massat
          • Le Port
            • Col d'Agnès
              • Etang de Lherz
    Germany
     
    • Saxony
      • Döbeln
        • Waldheim
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
      • Erzgebirge
        • Schwarzenberg District
          • Pöhla
    Frank-Uwe Braun, Jena, personal communication to Michael Scheven.
    Greece
     
    • Aegean Islands Department (Aiyaíon)
      • Kykládes Prefecture
        • Cyclade Islands (Cyclades; Kikladhes; Nomos Kikladhon)
    J.B.H. Jansen (1977) Ph.D. Thesis, State Univ. of Utrecht
    • Thraki Department (Thrace; Thracia)
      • Komotini Prefecture (Rodopi; Rhodope)
        • Thermes
    Eur. J. Mineral. , 1994, 6, pp. 733-738.
    Greenland
     
    • Qeqqata
      • Maniitsoq (Sukkertoppen)
    Boeggild, O.B. (1953): The Mineralogy of Greenland, Reitzels Forlag Koebenhavn, p.192; Mineralogical Magazine 1963 33 : 635-645
    Bøggild, O.B. (1953): The Mineralogy of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bd. 149. Nr. 3. 445 pages (p.192)
    • Sermersooq
      • Nuuk (Godthåb)
    Petersen, O. V. & Secher, K. (1993): The Minerals of Greenland. Mineralogical Record 24 (2): 1-67
          • Bjørnesund
    Petersen, O.V & Johnsen, O. (1980): Giant crystals of Kornerupine. Mineralogical Record 11,93-96
    Friend, C,R.L. (1982): A1-Cr substitution in peraluminous sapphirines
    Williams, H.R. (1984): Field relations and chemistry of Sapphirine-bearing rocks from the Bjoernesund area, Fiskenaesset, Western Greenland, Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 22, 417 - 421
    Stromeyer (1819): Analyse einiger von dem Prof. von Giesecke in Grönland entdeckten Fossilien, 2. Saphirin von Fiskenaes oder Kikertarsoeitsiak, Annalen der Physik und Chemie, Vol. 63, p 374; Mineralogical Magazine 1987 51 : 695-708.
    Ackermand, D., Windley, B.F., Herd R.K. (1983): Magnesian Högbomite in a Sapphirine-bearing rock from the Fiskenaesset region, W. Greenland, Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 47, 555-561
    India
     
    • Andhra Pradesh
      • Anantagiri District
        • Eastern Ghats Belt
    Journal of Petrology: 31: 971-996.
      • Visakhapatnam District
        • Eastern Ghats Belt
    Journal of Petrology (1987): 28: 1139-1168.
    C.V. Dharma Rao, M. Santosh, Reia M. Chmielowski (2012) Sapphirine granulites from Panasapattu, Eastern Ghats belt, India: Ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism in a Proterozoic convergent plate margin. Geoscience Frontiers 3:9-31
    American Mineralogist: 91: 375-384.
    Journal of Metamorphic Geology: 18: 223-240.
    Eur. J. Mineral. , 1991, 3, pp. 367-386.
    • Tamil Nadu
      • Madurai District
    Mineralogical Magazine 1963 33 : 635-645; T. N. Muthuswami (1950) Sapphirine (Madura) — Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Section A, 30, 6, 295-301.
    Mineralogical Magazine 1963 33 : 635-645
    Italy
     
    • Lombardy
      • Sondrio Province
        • Novate Mezzola
          • Codera Valley
    Ghizzoni, S. & Mazzoleni, G. (2005): Itinerari mineralogici in val Codera. Geologia Insubrica, Ed., Milano, 316 pp.
    • Piedmont
      • Cuneo Province
    [MinRec 27:303]
        • Varaita Valley
          • Brossasco
    Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
    Piccoli, G.C. (2002). Minerali delle Alpi Marittime e Cozie Provincia di Cuneo. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 366 pp.
    Kenya
     
    • Coast Province
      • Taita Taveta District
    Natural History Museum Vienna collection
    Libya
     
    • Al Jufrah District
      • Dar al Gani
    Zhang, A.-C. & Yurimoto, H. (2013). Petrography and mineralogy of the ungrouped type 3 carbonaceous chondrite Dar al Gani 978. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 48 (9): 1651–1677. (Sept 2013)
    Madagascar
     
    • Fianarantsoa Province
      • Horombe Region
        • Ihosy District
          • Sahambano Commune
    Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Rakotosamizanany, S., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., Mercier, A., Ratrimo, V., and Ralison, B. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.
    Goujou, J.C. (2005): Inventaire minéralogique des zones prospectées:Sahambano-Mosalahy-Befanova-Manivala, y compris les secteurs méridionaux visités lors de la 2ème mission de terrain Ranotsara, Iakora. Rapport [http://fonjatany-mth.com/pdf/etudes/annexes_rapport.pdf]
    Goujou, J.C. (2005) : Etude géologique (pétro-structurale) et minéralogique des zones de Sahambano, Mosalahy, Befanova, Manivala, Zazafotsy, Ranotsara, Iakora–Madagascar. Rapport [http://fonjatany-mth.com/pdf/etudes/rapport_jcg_consult.pdf]
    B. Devouard et al. : "Occurrence of musgravite in anorthite-corundum-spinel-sapphirine rocks ("sakenites") from South Madagascar : Evidence for a high-grade metasomatic event". 18th General Meeting of the IMA, Sept. 2002, Edinburgh, Scotland.
    Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Rakotosamizanany, S., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., Mercier, A., Ratrimo, V., and Ralison, B. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.
          • Zazafotsy Commune
    Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Rakotosamizanany, S., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., Mercier, A., Ratrimo, V., and Ralison, B. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.
    • Tuléar Province (Toliara)
      • Androy Region
        • Ambovombe District
          • Antanimora Commune
    Knut Edvard Larsen collection # MM-1269
          • Imanombo Commune
    Ackermand, D., Windley, B. F. & Razafiniparany, A. .H. (1991): Kornerupine breakdown reactions in paragneisses from southern Madagascar. Mineralogical Magazine 55: 71-80
        • Amboasary District
          • Tranomaro Commune
    Niedermayr, G. (1998): Für den Sammler. Informationen für den sammler- Ausgabe 1998. Carinthia II. 188[108]: 285-290 [p.290]
    Royal Museum for Central Africa, Belgium collection Sample # 13333
          • Ianabinda Commune
    Razakamanana, T., Ackermand, D. and Windley, B. F. (2006 ): Metamorphic evolution of sapphirine-bearing rocks from Vohidava area, Southern Madagascar: Structural and tectonic implication. Proceedings of the German-Malagasy Research Cooperation in Life and Earth Sciences edited by C Schwitzer, S Brandt et al. p 41-60 ; Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Rakotosamizanany, S., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., Mercier, A., Ratrimo, V., and Ralison, B. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.
    Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la mineralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive. p 46 ; Razakamanana, T., Ackermand, D. and Windley, B. F. (2006 ): Metamorphic evolution of sapphirine-bearing rocks from Vohidava area, Southern Madagascar: Structural and tectonic implication. Proceedings of the German-Malagasy Research Cooperation in Life and Earth Sciences edited by C Schwitzer, S Brandt et al. p 41-60
          • Ianakafy Commune
    Knorring,v.O; Sahama, Th.G & Lehtinen, M.(1969): Kornerupine-bearing gneiss from Inanakafy nearBetroka, Madagascar. Bull.Geol.Soc. Finland 41, 79-84
          • Isoanala Commune
    Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Rakotosamizanany, S., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., Mercier, A., Ratrimo, V., and Ralison, B. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.
          • Mahabo Commune
    Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
          • Mahasoa East Commune
    American Mineralogist 9:22
    Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Rakotosamizanany, S., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., Mercier, A., Ratrimo, V., and Ralison, B. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.
    Norway
     
    • Aust-Agder
      • Arendal
        • Hisøy (Hisø)
    Kihle, J., Harlov, D.E., Frigaard, Ø. & Jamtveit, B.(2010): A quartz-corundum-sapphirine-pyrope-bearing ultra high temperature (UHT) granulitepitaxial quartz inclusions in corundum from a sapphirine–garnet boudin, Bamble Sector, SE Norway: SiO2–Al2O3 miscibility at high P–T dry granulite facies conditions. Journal of Metamorphic Geology. 28: 769-784
      • Tvedestrand
    Kihle, 1989: Polymetamorphic Evolution of the Cordierite-bearing metapelites of Bamble-sector, SE Norway. Thesis, Univ. Oslo
        • Snaresund
    Touret, J. & De La Roche, H. (1971): Contribution to the mineralogy of Norway , No. 45. Saphirine à Snaresund, prés de Tvedestrand (Norvége Méridionale). Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 51, 170-175
    • Finnmark
      • Nordkapp
        • Magerø island
    Nordrum, F.S. (2012): Noen funn av mineraler i Norge 2011-2012. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter. 49, 117-124
    Larsen, K.E. & Nordrum, F.S. (2013): Noen funn av mineraler i Norge 2012-2013. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift. 50, 111-117
    • Møre og Romsdal
      • Ulstein
        • Hareidland
    Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 61.
    Straume, A. K. & Austrheim, H. (1999): Importance of fracturing during retro-metamorphism of eclogites.Journal of Metamorphic Geology. 17, 637-652
    • Nordland
      • Meløy
        • Meløyfjorden
    Østergaard, T.V. (1969): Sapphirine in a kyanite- and staurolite- bearing rock. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse nr 258. (Årbok 1968), 62-65 + Neumann (1985, p. 132).
    • Rogaland
      • Bjerkreim
        • Vikeså
          • Ivesdalsfjellet
    Hermans, G. A. E. M. et al. (1976): Sapphirine occurence near Vikeså in Rogaland, southwestern Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidskrift 56 (4): 397-412
    Oman
     
    • Semail Ophiolite
      • Khawr Fakkan Massif
    Geological Magazine 139 (3), 241 - 255
    Pakistan
     
    • Gilgit-Baltistan (Northern Areas)
      • Gilgit District
    Garnier, V., Giuliani, G., Ohnenstetter, D., Fallick, A.E., Dubessy, J., Banks, D., Vinh, H.Q., Lhomme, T., Maluski, H., Pêcher, A., Bakhsh, K.A., Long, P.V., Trinh, P.T., and Schwarz, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 169-191.
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
        • Chitinskaya Oblast'
          • Zabaikal'skii district
    Igor Savin data
    • Northern Region
      • Karelia Republic
        • Northern Karelia
          • Loukhi
            • Tedino
              • Dyadino lake
    P.M. Kartashov data
    Dmitry Tonkacheev
    South Africa
     
    • Limpopo Province
      • Vhembe District
        • Messina
    Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa: 240.
    Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa: 240.
    • Northern Cape Province
      • Namakwa District (Namaqualand)
    Contrib Mineral Petrol (1985) 91 : 369 382
    Contrib Mineral Petrol (1985) 91 : 369 382
        • Okiep Copper District
    Minerals of South Africa
    Sri Lanka
     
    • Central Province
    Journal of Petrology, Volume 40, Issue 8: August 1999
    Journal of Petrology, Volume 40, Issue 8: August 1999
    • Southern Province
      • Embilipitiya
    Natural History Museum Vienna collection
    Sweden
     
    • Halland
      • Falkenberg
    Tajikistan
     
    • Viloyati Mukhtori Gorno-Badakhshan (Viloyati Badakhshoni Kuni)
      • Pamir Mts
        • Pyandzh River Valley
    Grew, E.S., Pertsev, N.N., Vrána, S., Yates, M.G., Shearer, C.K., and Wiedenbeck, M. (1998): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 131, 22-38.
          • Kukh-i-Lal (Kukhilal; Kuhi-lal)
    Grew, E.S., Pertsev, N.N., Vrána, S., Yates, M.G., Shearer, C.K., and Wiedenbeck, M. (1998): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 131, 22-38.
    Grew, E.S., Pertsev, N.N., Vrána, S., Yates, M.G., Shearer, C.K., and Wiedenbeck, M. (1998): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 131, 22-38.
    Tanzania
     
    • Dodoma Region
      • Kongwa
    www.min.uni-kiel.de/petrographie/schenk/projekte/tansania/mautia/dmg_mautia.pdf.; Mineralogical Magazine 1963 33 : 635-645
    Thailand
    Sutthirat, C., Saminpanya, S., Droop, G. T. R., Henderson, C. M. B., & Manning, D. A. C. (2001). Clinopyroxene-corundum assemblages from alkali basalt and alluvium, eastern Thailand: constraints on the origin of Thai rubies. Mineralogical Magazine, 65(2), 277-295.
    Uganda
     
    • Kotido District (Karamoja District)
    http://www.min.uni-kiel.de/petrographie/schenk/ugandaweb/index1.html?/petrographie/schenk/ugandaweb/labwor.html
    UK
     
    • Scotland
      • Outer Hebrides
        • Isle of Harris
    AmMin 85: 1474-1484
    United Arab Emirates
    Cont. Min. & Petrol. 116 (4) (May 1994)
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • La Paz Co.
        • Quartzsite
          • Dome Rock Mts
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 361; Wilson, E.D. (1929), An occurrence of dumortierite near Quartzsite, AZ, Am.Min.: 14: 373-381.
    • Colorado
      • Custer Co.
        • Cisneros Trail
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
        • Hardscrabble District
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.; The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 43, pp. 601-622 (2005)
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.; The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 43, pp. 601-622 (2005)
    • Kansas
      • Riley Co.
    AmMin 61:1194
    • New Hampshire
      • Cheshire Co.
    Schumacher and Robinson, 1987: Journal of Petrology 28 (6):1033-1073
    • New York
      • Warren Co.
    NY State Museum spec. no. 15779
      • Westchester Co.
    Jensen (1978) Minerals of New York State, p.153; Mineralogical Magazine 1963 33 : 635-645
    Van King
    • North Carolina
    JMG, v. 14, p. 103-114
    Forsyth Gem and Mineral Club; GEORGIA JOURNAL OF SCIENCE Volume 56 1998 Number 1
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