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Scheelite

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Formula:
Ca(WO
 
4
)
System:TetragonalColour:Tan, golden-yellow, ...
Lustre:Adamantine, VitreousHardness:4½ - 5
Member of:Scheelite Group
Name:
Named in 1821 by Karl Caesar von Leonhard in honor of Carl Wilhelm Scheele [December 9, 1742 Stralsund, Pomerania, Sweden - May 21, 1786 Köping, Sweden], Swedish experimental chemist and commercial apothecary. His experimental work was monumental for the time period and he discovered chlorine and experimented with oxygen before Joseph Priestley recognized it as an element. He investigated many fundamentally important organic compounds. He proved the existence of tungstic oxide in the mineral now bearing his name in 1781.
Isostructural with:Powellite


Powellite-Scheelite Series.

A primary mineral commonly found as a component of contact-metamorphic tactite; in high-temperature hydrothermal veins and greisen; in granitic pegmatites and medium-temperature hydrothermal veins; in alluvial deposits.

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Classification of Scheelite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/G.01-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.GA.05

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
G : Molybdates, Wolframates and Niobates
A : Without additional anions or H2O
Dana 8th edition ID:48.1.2.1

48 : ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
1 : AXO4
Hey's CIM Ref.:27.4.2

27 : Sulphites, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
4 : Tungstates
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Type Occurrence of Scheelite

Type Locality:Bispbergs Klack, Säter, Dalarna, Sweden
Year of Discovery:1821

Occurrences of Scheelite

Geological Setting:Contact metamorphic tactites, high temperature hydrothermal veins and greisens, granitic pegmatites; alluvial deposits.

Physical Properties of Scheelite

Lustre:Adamantine, Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Opaque
Colour:Tan, golden-yellow, colourless, white, greenish, dark brown, etc.; colourless in transmitted light
Comment:May be compositionally colour zoned.
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):4½ - 5
Cleavage:Distinct/Good
Distinct on {101}, interrupted on {112}, indistinct on {001}.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density (measured):6.1(2) g/cm3
Density (calculated):6.09 g/cm3

Crystallography of Scheelite

Crystal System:Tetragonal
Class (H-M):4/m - Dipyramidal
Space Group:I41/a
Cell Parameters:a = 5.2429(3) Å, c = 11.3737(6) Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 2.169
Unit Cell Volume:V 312.64 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Crystals commonly pseudo-octahedral {011} or {112} predominant, with modifying forms include {001} {013}, {121} and/or several additional; tabular on {001} at times; {001} commonly rough; {112} frequently diagonally striated, usually parallel to [311], the intersection with {121}. Usually granular, massive; also columnar.
Twinning:On {110} common, penetration and contact twins with a composition plane of (110)or (001).
Comment:On synthetic material.
Crystal Atlas:
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Scheelite no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Epitaxial Relationships of Scheelite

Epitaxial Minerals:
Wolframite
(Fe
2+
 
)WO
 
4
 
 
to (Mn
2+
 
)WO
 
4
Epitaxi Comments:Scheelite on wolframite, with Scheelite {001} [110] parallel to Wolframite {010} [001].
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
4.76 (55)
3.10 (100)
3.072 (30)
2.622 (25)
2.296 (20)
1.928 (30)
1.592 (30)

Optical Data of Scheelite

Type:Uniaxial (+)
RI values: nω = 1.918 - 1.921 nε = 1.935 - 1.938
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.017

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Comments:May exhibit weak anomalous birefringence.

Chemical Properties of Scheelite

Formula:
Ca(WO
 
4
)
Simplified for copy/paste:Ca(WO4)
Essential elements:Ca, O, W
All elements listed in formula:Ca, O, W
Common Impurities:Mo,Nb,Ta

Relationship of Scheelite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Powellite (see here)
Member of:Scheelite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Powellite
Ca(MoO
 
4
)
Raspite
Pb(WO
 
4
)
Stolzite
Pb(WO
 
4
)
Wulfenite
Pb(MoO
 
4
)
Common Associates:
WolframiteVesuvianiteTremoliteTourmalineTourmaline
TourmalineTopazFluoriteDiopsideCassiterite
Apatite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.GA.05Fergusonite-(Ce)
(Ce,La,Nd)NbO
 
4
7.GA.05Fergusonite-(Nd)
(Nd,Ce)(Nb,Ti)O
 
4
7.GA.05Fergusonite-(Y)
YNbO
 
4
7.GA.05Powellite
Ca(MoO
 
4
)
7.GA.05Stolzite
Pb(WO
 
4
)
7.GA.05Wulfenite
Pb(MoO
 
4
)
7.GA.10Formanite-(Y)
YTaO
 
4
7.GA.10Iwashiroite-(Y)
Y(Ta,Nb)O
 
4
7.GA.15Paraniite-(Y)
Ca
 
2
Y(AsO
 
4
)(WO
 
4
)
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
27.4.1Cuprotungstite
Cu
 
2
(WO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
27.4.4Anthoinite
AlWO
 
3
(OH)
 
3
27.4.5Mpororoite
WAlO
 
3
(OH)
 
3
· 2(H
 
2
O)
27.4.6Yttrotungstite-(Y)
YW
 
2
O
 
6
(OH)
 
3
27.4.7Yttrotungstite-(Ce)
(Ce,Nd,Y)W
 
2
O
 
6
(OH)
 
3
27.4.8Stolzite
Pb(WO
 
4
)
27.4.9Raspite
Pb(WO
 
4
)
27.4.10Russellite
Bi
 
2
WO
 
6
27.4.11Pinalite
Pb
 
3
WO
 
5
Cl
 
2
27.4.12Uranotungstite
(Fe
2+
 
,Ba,Pb)(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(WO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
· 12H
 
2
O
27.4.13Hübnerite
MnWO
 
4
27.4.14Ferberite
FeWO
 
4
27.4.15Wolframite
(Fe
2+
 
)WO
 
4
 
 
to (Mn
2+
 
)WO
 
4
27.4.16Ferritungstite
27.4.17Phyllotungstite
(H
 
2
O,M)
 
x
(W,Fe)(O,OH)
 
3
· yH
 
2
O (M = Ca, Cs, Pb or K)
27.4.18Qitianlingite
(Fe,Mn)
 
2
(Nb,Ta)
 
2
WO
 
10

Other Names for Scheelite

Synonyms:
CalcioscheeliteCalcium tungstateCalciumwolframiteTrimoniteTrimontite
Tungstate of LimeTungstite (of Delamëtherie)Tunstitite
Other Languages:
Basque:Scheelita
Catalan:Scheelita
Dutch:Scheeliet
Finnish:Scheeliitti
French:Scheelite
Scheelin calcaire
German:Scheelit
Calcioscheelit
Scheelerz
Scheelspath
Schwerstein
Szelit
Trimonit
Trimontit
Tungstein
Tunstitit
Italian:Scheelite
Japanese:灰重石
Latin:Lapides stanniferi spathecei
Stannum spathosum subdiaphanum album
Lithuanian:Šeelitas
Polish:Scheelit
Portuguese:Scheelita
Russian:Шеелит
Simplified Chinese:白钨矿
Spanish:Scheelita
Calcioscheelita
Trimonita
Trimontita
Tunstitita
Swedish:Scheelit
Tennspat
Tungsten (of Scheele)
Ukrainian:Шеєліт
Varieties:
Cuprian ScheeliteMolybdoscheelite

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Inherently fluorescent (SW UV & X-rays). Pure end-member material ubiquitously fluoresces bright blue-white (SW UV). Even a small amount of Mo substituting for W produces a creamy yellow fluorescence (SW UV) with a fixed color based on % of Mo.
Thermal Behaviour:Thermoluminescent.
Other Information:Decomposed by HCl or HNO3, leaving a yellow powder of hydrous tungstic oxide, which is soluble in ammonia.

Alters to Tungstite, Hydrotungstite, or Cuprotungstite.

Replaced by Wolframite as perfect pseudomorphs. Often replaces Wolframite.
Pseudomorphs of Quartz, Kaolinite and Bismutite after Scheelite have been noted.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:Ore of tungsten

References for Scheelite

Reference List:

- +
Wallerius, J.G (1747) Mineralogia, eller Mineralriket. Stockholm: 303 (as Tennspat, Lapides stanniferi spathecei).

Cronstedt, A. F. (1751): Rön och Försök Gjorde med trenne Järnmalms arter. Kongl.Svenska VetenskapsAcademien Handlingar 1751: 226-231

Cronstedt, A. (1758): Forsök till Mineralogie eller Mineralrikets upställning. 12mo, Stockholm: 183.

Scheele (1781) Ak. Stockholm, Handl. (as Tungsten).

Werner (1789) Bergmaennisches Journal, Freiberg (Neues Bergmännisches Journal): 386 (as Schwerstein).

Karsten, D.L.G. (1791) Tabellarische Übersicht der mineralogisch-einfachen Fossilien. Berlin (as Schwerstein).

Karsten, D.L.G. (1800) Mineralogische Tabellen, Berlin. First edition: 56 (as Scheelerz).

Haüy, R.J. (1801) Traité de minéralogie. First edition: in 4 volumes with atlas in fol.: 4: 372 (as Scheelin calcaire).

Karsten, D.L.G. (1808) Mineralogische Tabellen, Berlin. Second edition: 74 (as Scheelerz).

Breithaupt, A. (1820) Kurze Charakteristik des Mineral-System’s. 8vo, Freiberg: 23 (as Scheelspath).

Leonhard, K.C. (1821) Handbuch der Oryktognosie. First edition: 594 (as Scheelit).

Breithaupt (1851) Journal für Chemie und Physik, Nuremberg: 54: 130.

Dauber (1859) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 107: 272.

Bauer (1874) Württemburg. Naturwiss. Jahreshefte: 154.

Carnot (1874) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 79: 637.

Iwase (1877) in: Harada (1936) Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University: 3: [4]: 357 (as Trimontite).

Plattner-Richter (1878) Probierkunst m.d. Lothrohr: 185.

Traube (1890) Jb. Min., Beil.-Bd.: 7: 232, 238.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 985.

Traube (1895-1896) Jb. Min., Beil.-Bd.: 10: 457.

Wada, Tsunashiro (1904) Minerals of Japan. 144 pp., Tokyo: 75-76 (as Trimontite).

Colomba (1906) Reale accademia nazionale dei Lincei, Rome, Rend.: 15: 281.

Petterd, W.F. (1910) Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. 221pp., Hobart: 200.

Rohden (1914) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 159: 318.

Zambonini (1916) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 162: 835.

Dickinson (1920) Journal of the American Chemical Society: 42: 85.

Goldschmidt, V. (1922) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 8: 12.

Lindroth and Mauzelius (1922) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 44: 110.

Carobbi (1924) Gazzetta chimica italiana, Rome: 54: 59.

Vegard (1926) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 1: 1151.

Honess, A.P. (1927) The Nature, Origin and Interpretation of the Etch Figures on Crystals. 171pp., New York.

Doelter, C. (1928) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie (in 4 volumes divided into parts): 4 [2]: 814.

Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 4067, 4083, 4113.

Aanerud (1931) Norske Videnskaps-Akademi, Oslo, Skrifter, no. 13.

Lacroix (1933) Bull. serv. Geol. Indochine: 20 [Min. Abs. (1935): 6: 21].

Harada (1934) Journal of the Faculty of Science Hokkaido University: 4,[2]: 279.

Kerr (1934) University of Nevada Bulletin 28, no. 2.

Royer (1936) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 202: 1346.

Kerr (1938) Economic Geology: 33: 390.

Lacroix (1940) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 210: 273.

Servigne (1940) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 210: 440.

Wilson (1941) Arizona Bureau of Mines, Geology Series, Bull. 148.

Greenwood (1943) Economic Geology: 28: 56.

Marsh (1943) Journal of the Chemical Society, London: 577.

Sillén and Nylander (1943) Arkiv för Kemi, Mineralogi och Geologi, Stockholm: 17A, no. 4.

Johnston and Vasconcellos (1945) Economic Geology: 40: 34.

Ramdohr (1949) Heidelberger Beitr. Zur Min.: 1: 105.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 1074-1079.

National Bureau of Standards Circular 539 (1956), 6, 23.

Journal of Chemical Physics (1964): 40: 504-506.

Hazen, R.M., L.W. Finger, and J.W.E. Mariathasan (1985) High-pressure crystal chemistry of scheelite-type tungstates and molybdates. Journal of Physical Chemistry Solids, 46, 253–263.

Kempe, U. & Wolf, D. (1989): Entmischungen von Seyrigit in Molybdoscheelit. Chemie der Erde 49, 5-6.

A. Senyshyn, M. Hoelzel, T. Hansen, L. Vasylechko, V. Mikhailik, H. Kraus and H. Ehrenberg (2011): Thermal structural properties of calcium tungstate. J. Appl. Crystallogr. 44, 319-326.

Internet Links for Scheelite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
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    Localities for Scheelite

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