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Arsenic

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Formula:
As
System:
Trigonal
Colour:
Tin-white, tarnishing to ...
Lustre:
Metallic, Dull
Hardness:
Member of:
Name:
Name of early origins from the Greek αρσενικόν ("arsenikon"), "masculine", alluding to its potent properties. The Oxford English Dictionary lists the first record of the word "arsenic" in a 1310 book concerning orpiment de iiij libris de orpiment venditis, of unknown authorship.
Dimorph of:

Classification of Arsenic

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
1.CA.05

1 : ELEMENTS (Metals and intermetallic alloys; metalloids and nonmetals; carbides, silicides, nitrides, phosphides)
C : Metalloids and Nonmetals
A : Arsenic group elements
Dana 7th ed.:
1.3.1.1
1.3.1.1

1 : NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
3 : Semi-metals and non-metals
1.33

1 : Elements and Alloys (including the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au)
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http://www.mindat.org/min-357.html
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Occurrences of Arsenic

Geological Setting:
Hydrothermal veins.

Physical Properties of Arsenic

Metallic, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Tin-white, tarnishing to dark grey or black.
Streak:
Grey
Hardness (Mohs):
Hardness (Vickers):
VHN100=72 - 173 kg/mm2
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect basal on {0001}, fair on {0114}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
5.63 - 5.78 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.778 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Arsenic

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:
R3m
Space Group Setting:
R3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 3.768Å, c = 10.574Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 2.806
Unit Cell Volume:
V 130.01 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
6
Morphology:
Granular, massive, concentric layered. Reticulated, reniform, stalagtitic, columnar, acicular. small rhombohedra.
Twinning:
Rare on {1014}, Pressure twinning on {0112}

Crystallographic forms of Arsenic

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Arsenic no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Arsenic no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Arsenic no.9 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Toggle
Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.52 (30)
2.771 (100)
2.05 (20)
1.879 (30)
1.768 (10)
1.757 (7)
1.556 (10)
Comments:
Synthetic.

Optical Data of Arsenic

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Distinct - yellowish brown and light grey to yellowish grey
Reflectivity:
400nmR1=56.0%R2= 57.5%
420nmR1=55.1%R2= 56.8%
440nmR1=54.2%R2= 56.2%
460nmR1=53.3%R2= 55.8%
480nmR1=52.7%R2= 55.7%
500nmR1=52.4%R2= 55.7%
520nmR1=52.0%R2= 55.7%
540nmR1=51.7%R2= 55.7%
560nmR1=51.5%R2= 55.6%
580nmR1=51.2%R2= 55.4%
600nmR1=51.0%R2= 55.2%
620nmR1=50.8%R2= 55.0%
640nmR1=50.6%R2= 54.9%
660nmR1=50.5%R2= 54.8%
680nmR1=50.4%R2= 54.7%
700nmR1=50.4%R2= 54.6%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 57.5%.
R1 shown in black, R2 shown in red
Pleochroism:
Weak

Chemical Properties of Arsenic

Formula:
As
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
Mount Royal, near Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
As (98.14)
Sb (1.65)
S (0.16)
insol. (0.15)
Total (100.10)
Common Impurities:
Bi,Sb,Fe,Ni,Ag,S,Se

Relationship of Arsenic to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Antimony (see here)
Member of:
Other Members of Group:
1.1CopperCu
1.2SilverAg
1.5GoldAu
1.6AuricuprideCu3Au
1.7Tetra-auricuprideAuCu
1.8ZincZn
1.9CadmiumCd
1.10DanbaiteCuZn2
1.11ZhanghengiteCuZn
1.12MercuryHg
1.13KolymiteCu7Hg6
1.14MoschellandsbergiteAg2Hg3
1.15EugeniteAg11Hg2
1.16SchachneriteAg1.1Hg0.9
1.17ParaschachneriteAg3Hg2
1.18LuanheiteAg3Hg
1.19Weishanite(Au,Ag)3Hg2
1.20IndiumIn
1.21AluminiumAl
1.22Khatyrkite(Cu,Zn)Al2
1.23Cupalite(Cu,Zn)Al
1.24DiamondC
1.25GraphiteC
1.26ChaoiteC
1.27LonsdaleiteC
1.28SiliconSi
1.29TinSn
1.30LeadPb
1.31AnyuiiteAu(Pb,Sb)2
1.31NovodnepriteAuPb3
1.32LeadamalgamPb0.7Hg0.3
1.34ArsenolampriteAs
1.35PaxiteCuAs2
1.36KoutekiteCu5As2
1.37DomeykiteCu3As
1.38Algodonite(Cu1-xAsx)
1.39NovákiteCu20AgAs10
1.40KutinaiteAg6Cu14As7
1.41AntimonySb
1.42StibarsenAsSb
1.43ParadocrasiteSb3As
1.44HorsforditeCu, Sb
1.45CuprostibiteCu2(Sb,Tl)
1.46Allargentum(Ag1-xSbx)
1.47AurostibiteAuSb2
1.48DyscrasiteAg3Sb
1.49BismuthBi
1.50MaldoniteAu2Bi
1.51SulphurS8
1.52RosickýiteS
1.53SeleniumSe
1.54TelluriumTe
1.55ChromiumCr
1.56RheniumRe
1.57IronFe
1.58ChromferideFe3Cr1-x (x=0.6)
1.59FerchromideCr3Fe1-x
1.60WairauiteCoFe
1.61NickelNi
1.62Kamacite(Fe,Ni)
1.63Taenite(Fe,Ni)
1.64TetrataeniteFeNi
1.65AwaruiteNi3Fe
1.66Palladium(Pd,Pt)
1.67PotaritePdHg
1.68PaolovitePd2Sn
1.69Stannopalladinite(Pd,Cu)3Sn2
1.70CabriitePd2CuSn
1.71Taimyrite-I(Pd,Cu,Pt)3Sn
1.72Atokite(Pd,Pt)3Sn
1.73Rustenburgite(Pt,Pd)3Sn
1.74Zvyagintsevite(Pd,Pt,Au)3(Pb,Sn)
1.75PlumbopalladinitePd3Pb2
1.76Osmium(Os,Ir,Ru)
1.77Iridium(Ir,Os,Ru)
1.82PlatinumPt
1.83HongshiitePtCu
1.84NiggliitePtSn
1.85IsoferroplatinumPt3Fe
1.86TetraferroplatinumPtFe
1.87TulameenitePt2CuFe
1.88FerronickelplatinumPt2FeNi
1.89Rhodium(Rh,Pt)

Other Names for Arsenic

Name in Other Languages:
Afrikaans:Arseen
Arabic:زرنيخ
Armenian:Մկնդեղ
Azeri:Arsen
Basque:Artseniko
Belarusian:Мыш'як
Bosnian (Latin Script):Arsen
Bulgarian:Арсен
Catalan:Arsènic
Corsican:Arsenicu
Croatian:Arsen
Czech:Arsen
Danish:Arsen
Dutch:Arseen
Esperanto:Arseno
Estonian:Arseen
Finnish:Arseeni
French:Arsenic
Friulian:Arsenic
Galician:Arsénico
Haitian:Asenik
Hebrew:ארסן
Hungarian:Arzén
Icelandic:Arsen
Ido:Arseno
Indonesian:Arsen
Irish Gaelic:Arsanaic
Italian:Arsenico
Japanese:自然ヒ素
Javanese:Arsenik
Kapampangan:Arsenic
Korean:비소
Latin:Arsenicum
Latvian:Arsēns
Lithuanian:Arsenas
Lojban:arseniko
Low Saxon:Arsen
Luxembourgish:Arsen
Manx:Arsnick
Norwegian (Bokmål):Arsen
Norwegian (Nynorsk):Arsen
Occitan:Arsenic
Persian:آرسنیک
Polish:Arsen
Portuguese:Arsênio
Quechua:Arsiniku
Romanian:Arsen
Russian:Мышьяк
Sardinian:Arsènicu
Saterland Frisian:Arsen
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Арсен
Serbo-Croatian:Arsenik
Sicilian:Arsenicu
Simplified Chinese:自然砷
Slovak:Arzén
Slovenian:Arzen
Spanish:Arsénico
Swahili:Asenia
Swedish:Arsenik
Tajik (Cyrillic Script):Арсен
Turkish:Arsenik
Ukrainian:Миш'як
Uzbek (Latin Script):Margimush
Vietnamese:Asen
Welsh:Arsenig

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Arsenic

Reference List:
Broderick and Ehret (1931) Journal of Physical Chemistry: 35: 3322.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 89, 128-130.

Schiferl, D. and Barrett, C.S. (1969): The crystal structure of arsenic at 4.2, 788 and 299 K. Journal of Applied Crystallography, 2, 30-36.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (1990) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume I. Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 588pp.: 24.

Internet Links for Arsenic

Specimens:
The following Arsenic specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Arsenic

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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