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Pyrobitumen

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System:AmorphousColour:black


A widespread hydrocarbon mineraloid of variable composition. Differs from asphaltum (asphalt) by being brittle, infusible and relatively insoluble. Formed by polymerization of petroleum over geological time periods, therefore being related to petroleum the same way that amber is related to tree resin. May be relatively enriched in N, S, and sometimes rare elements like U, V, Pt, etc.

Classification of Pyrobitumen

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Occurrences of Pyrobitumen

Geological Setting:Ancient sedimentary rocks, and remobilized in hydrothermal ore deposits. Also frequent as inclusions in quartz crystals, especially those of the "herkimer-type" from dolomitized rocks.

Physical Properties of Pyrobitumen

Colour:black

Crystallography of Pyrobitumen

Crystal System:Amorphous

Relationship of Pyrobitumen to other Species

Common Associates:
QuartzPyriteDolomiteCalcite

Other Names for Pyrobitumen

Synonyms:
Anthraxolite
Other Languages:
Simplified Chinese:碳沥青
Spanish:Pirobitumen
Varieties:
Carbonite (of Mueller)Thucholite

Other Information

Health Warning:Some varieties contain uranium and so require the same precautions as any other mildly radioactive materials.

References for Pyrobitumen

Reference List:

- +
G. Mueller (1964) Rept. 22nd Internat. Geol. Congress, India, pt 1, p 46.

Robertson, J.A. (1976) The Blind River Uranium Deposits: the ores and their setting. (Ontario Division of Mines, Miscellaneous paper 65)

John Parnell (1988) Native platinum in pyrobitumen from Fonda, New York American Mineralogist, 73, 1170-1171.

Wilson, N.S.F. & Zentilli, M. (2006) International Journal of Coal Geology, 65, 158-169

Internet Links for Pyrobitumen

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  • Localities for Pyrobitumen

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Argentina
     
    • Neuquén
      • Buta Ranquil
    Dr Jorge Dascal specimens
    Australia
     
    • Northern Territory
      • Roper Gulf Shire
        • Gulf of Carpenteria
          • Wollogorang Station
    www.portergeo.com.au and www.redbankcopper.com.au
    • South Australia
      • Yorke Peninsula
        • Moonta
    [var: Thucholite]
    Austria
     
    • Carinthia
      • Gailtaler Alpen & Karnische Alpen
        • Nötsch im Gailtal
    Brandstätter, F., Kolitsch, U., Niedermayr, G., Prasnik, H., Seemann, R. & Walter, F. (2011): 1677) Baryt, Bornit, Brochantit, Chalkopyrit, Chalkosin, Chrysokoll, Galenit, Palygorskit, Pyrobitumen, Tetraedrit und Volborthit aus dem Steinbruch „Jakomini“, nördlich Nötsch. Pp. 142-145 in Niedermayr, G. et al. (2011): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LX. Carinthia II, 201./121., 135-186.
    • Salzburg
      • St Johann im Pongau
        • Mitterberg District
    [var: Thucholite] R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    Belgium
     
    • Liège Province
      • Verviers
        • Theux
    L. Dejonghe et al - Atlas des gisements plombo-zinciferes du synclinorium de Verviers - 1993 - 483 pages.
    • Namur Province
      • Namur
    Blondieau et al. (2012) - minéralogie de la carrière de Beez. Le Règne Minéral, 104, 5-26
    Bolivia
     
    • Santa Cruz Department
      • Chiquitos Province
    Alfredo Petrov and Josep Sanchez-Lafuente specimens
    Canada
     
    • British Columbia
      • Omenica Mining Division
        • Owen Lake
    MINFILE No 093L 002
    • New Brunswick
      • York Co.
        • Prince William Parish
          • Lake George
    [var: Thucholite] Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 18, pp. 329-332 (1980)
    • Ontario
      • Algoma District
    [var: Thucholite] Robertson, J.A. (1976) The Blind River Uranium Deposits: the ores and their setting. (Ontario Division of Mines, Miscellaneous paper 65)
    [var: Thucholite] Robertson, J.A. (1976) The Blind River Uranium Deposits: the ores and their setting. (Ontario Division of Mines, Miscellaneous paper 65)
    [var: Thucholite] Robertson, J.A. (1976) The Blind River Uranium Deposits: the ores and their setting. (Ontario Division of Mines, Miscellaneous paper 65)
    [var: Thucholite] Econ Geol (1984) 79:297-321
        • Long Township
    [var: Thucholite] Robertson, J.A. (1976) The Blind River Uranium Deposits: the ores and their setting. (Ontario Division of Mines, Miscellaneous paper 65)
      • Hastings Co.
        • Madoc area
          • Madoc Township
    [var: Thucholite] Can. Mineralogist 12 (1974) 360-363
    [var: Thucholite] [Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index"]
    [var: Thucholite] Januzzi, R.E. and Seaman, David M. (1976) Mineral Localities Of Connecticut and Southern New York State and Pegmatite Minerals of the World.
    [var: Thucholite] Ref.: Geological Survey of Canada Miscellaneous Report 39.
        • Henvey Township
    [var: Thucholite] Geological survey of Canada misc report 39; Dr. Kameki Kinoshita collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
        • McDougall Township
    [var: Thucholite] MDI Number: MDI000000000624
      • Sudbury District
        • Balfour Township
    Mineralogical Research Company specimen
    • Québec
      • Capitale-Nationale
        • Charlevoix-EST RCM
    [var: Thucholite] Ellsworth, H. V. and Osborne, F. Fitz, 1934, Uraninite from Lac Pied des Monts, Saguenay District,Quebec, American Mineralogist, v. 19, p. 421-425
      • Laurentides
        • Deux-Montagnes RCM
          • Saint-Eustache
    Alfredo Petrov collection
      • Outaouais
        • Papineau RCM
          • Mulgrave-et-Derry
    [var: Thucholite] Sabina, A.P. (1986) Rocks & Minerals for the collector; Buckingham - Mont-Laurier - Grenville, Quebec Hawkesbury - Ottawa, Ontario. GSC Misc. Report 33, 20 p.; Hugh S. Spence (1930) Pegmatite minerals of Ontario and Quebec. American Mineralogist 15:430-450
    Chile
     
    • Atacama Region
      • Copiapó Province
        • Copiapó
    Cisternas, M.E., and Hermosilla, J. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 339-355.
    Cisternas, M.E., and Hermosilla, J. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 339-355.
    Cisternas, M.E., and Hermosilla, J. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 339-355.
    Cisternas, M.E., and Hermosilla, J. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 339-355.
    • Coquimbo Region
      • Elqui Province
        • La Serena
          • Talcuna Cu-Mn-Ag Mining District
    Wilson, N.S.F. & Zentilli, M. (2006) International Journal of Coal Geology, 65, 158-169.
        • Vicuña
          • Quebrada Uchumi
    Wilson, N.S.F. & Zentilli, M. (2006) International Journal of Coal Geology, 65, 158-169.
    China
     
    • Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
      • Hechi Prefecture
        • Nandan Co.
          • Dachang Sn-polymetallic ore field
    Pašava, J., Kříbek, B., Dobeš, P., Vavřín, I., Žák, K., Fan Delian, Zhang Tao, and Boiron, M.-C. (2003): Mineralium Deposita 38(1), 39-66.
    Bin Yang and Zongting Liao (1999): Acta Sedimentologica Sinica 17(s1)
    • Hunan Province
      • Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture
        • Huayuan Co.
    Guozong Peng (1986): Chinese Journal of Geology 29(2)
    • Sichuan Province
      • Ngawa Autonomous Prefecture (Aba Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Zoigê Co. (Ruo'ergai Co.)
    Su Sun (1993): Gold Science and Technology 1(2), 4-10
    • Yunnan Province
      • Nujiang Autonomous Prefecture
        • Lanping Co.
    Xiugen Fu, Li Lin, Yanchun Pang, Lidong Zhu, and Xinli Wang (2005): Journal of Jilin University (Earth Science Edition) 50(5), 581-586
      • Qujing Prefecture
        • Huize Co.
    Zhu Bingquan, Hu Yaoguo, Zhang Zhengwei, Cui Xuejun, Dai Tongmo, Chen Guanghao, Peng Jianhua, Sun Yongge, Liu Dehan, and Chang Xiangyang (2007): Ore Geology Reviews 32, 366-380.
      • Zhaotong Prefecture
        • Ludian Co.
    Zhu Bingquan, Hu Yaoguo, Zhang Zhengwei, Cui Xuejun, Dai Tongmo, Chen Guanghao, Peng Jianhua, Sun Yongge, Liu Dehan, and Chang Xiangyang (2007): Ore Geology Reviews 32, 366-380.
        • Yongshan Co.
          • Basalt Cu occurrences
    Zhu Bingquan, Hu Yaoguo, Zhang Zhengwei, Cui Xuejun, Dai Tongmo, Chen Guanghao, Peng Jianhua, Sun Yongge, Liu Dehan, and Chang Xiangyang (2007): Ore Geology Reviews 32, 366-380.
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Central Bohemia Region
    Geol. Pruz. (Prague) 20, 275-276 (1978)
    Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
     
    • Katanga (Shaba)
      • Lake Mweru
    Haest, M., Muchez, P., Dewaele, S., Boyce, A.J., von Quadt, A., and Schneider, J. (2009): Mineralium Deposita 44, 505-522.
    El Desouky, H. A. et al. (2008): Econ. Geol. 103, 555-582.
    El Desouky, H.A., Muchez, P., and Tyler, R. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 561-579.
    Finland
     
    • Lapland Region
      • Kittilä
    [var: Thucholite] http://www.gsf.fi/explor/zinc/pahtavuoma.htm
    [var: Thucholite] Eilu, P. (2003). Exploration for orogenic gold deposits. Fennoscandian Exploration and Mining 2003. Rovaniemi, Finland; Geological Survey of Finland 2008 Saattopora - Gold Database
    • Western and Inner Finland Region
      • Orivesi
        • Eräjärvi area
    [var: Thucholite] Sandström, F. & Lahti, S.I. (2009): Viitaniemipegmatiten i Eräjärvi, Orivesi, Finland. Litofilen 26 (1): 11-38
    Germany
     
    • Lower Saxony
      • Harz
        • St Andreasberg District
          • St Andreasberg
    [var: Thucholite] Mücke, A., (1993): Die hydrothermale polymineralische Gangvererzung mit oxidischen Vanadiummineralien, Tucholith und Pechblende von der Grube Roter Bär, St. Andreasberg/Harz, Der Aufschluss, Vol. 44, 59-72
    • Thuringia
      • Schleiz
        • Tegau
    In the collection of Joachim Esche
    Ireland
     
    • Co. Donegal
      • Ballintra
    Barry Flannery (Personal Observation 25-7-10)
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Northern Kazakhstan Province (Soltüstik Qazaqstan Oblysy; Severo-Kazakhstanskaya Oblast')
      • Razgul'noye (Priishimskiy)
        • Ishimsky Uranium ore field
    Dahlkamp, F.J., Ed. (2009): Uranium Deposits of the World: Asia. Springer (Berlin, Heidelberg), pp. 191-268.
    New Zealand
     
    • South Island
      • Buller River
    [var: Thucholite] Christie & Brathwaite, (2000) NZ Mineral Commodity Report 19 - Beryllium, Gallium, Lithium, Magnesium, Uranium and Zirconium
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Taymyrskiy Autonomous Okrug
        • Taimyr Peninsula
          • Putoran Plateau
    Spiridonov, E.M., Gritsenko, Y.D., and Ponomarenko, A.I. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 755-762.
      • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
        • Chitinskaya Oblast'
          • Krasnokamensk
            • Strel'tsovskoe Mo-U ore field
    [var: Thucholite] Pavel M. Kartashov data
    Slovakia
     
    • Prešov Region
      • Poprad Co.
    [var: Thucholite] Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
    South Africa
     
    • Gauteng Province
      • Witwatersrand field
        • Far West Rand (West Wits Line)
          • Western Sector
    [var: Thucholite] C. Lemanski collection (8055CL).
    • North West Province
      • Dr Ruth Segomotsi Mompati District
        • Reivilo
    Gutzmer, J. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 40, 664-685.
    Spain
     
    • Asturias
      • Ribadesella
        • Berbes Mining area
    Manuel Gutierrez Claverol, Carlos Luque Cabal, Jose Ramon Garcia Alvarez and Luis Miguel Rodriguez Terente (2009) La Fluorita - un siglo de mineria en Asturias. p114.
    • Basque Country
      • Álava
        • Arratzua-Ubarrundia
          • Landa
    Personally collected by Roberto Galcerán
    Sweden
     
    • Dalarna
      • Falun
    [var: Thucholite] Hugh S. Spence (1930) A REMARKABLE OCCURRENCE OF THUCHOLITE AND OIL IN A PEGMATITE DYKE, PARRY SOUND DISTRICT, ONTARIO. The American Mineralogist, 15, No. 11, 499-520. (British Museum specimens)
    • Närke
      • Askersund
        • Zinkgruvan
          • Zinkgruvan Mines
    [var: Thucholite] Sandström, F., Lorin, T, Niklasson, S.O. & Strand, U. (2010): Zinkgruvan. Litiofilen, 28 (1): 15-37
    [var: Thucholite] Sandström, F., Lorin, T, Niklasson, S.O. & Strand, U. (2010): Zinkgruvan. Litiofilen, 28 (1): 15-37
    • Södermanland
      • Norrö
    [var: Thucholite] Gustafson, Lars.(1989): Norrö glimmerbrott.Stuffen (Medlemsblad för Södertörn Amatörgeologiska Sällskap). Nr 39, nov 1989, 8-12
      • Nynäshamn
        • Stora Vika
    [var: Thucholite] Gustafson, L. (1987). Topasförande cleavelanditpegmatiter i Stora Vika kalkstensbrott. Stuffen (Medlemsblad för Södertörn Amatörgeologiska Sällskap). Nr 33, 5-8.
    [var: Thucholite] Gustafson, L. (1987). Topasförande cleavelanditpegmatiter i Stora Vika kalkstensbrott. Stuffen (Medlemsblad för Södertörn Amatörgeologiska Sällskap). Nr 33, 5-8.
    • Värmland
      • Hagfors
    [var: Thucholite] Nysten, P. (1996): Paragenetic setting and crystal chemistry of milarites from Proterozoic granitic pegmatites in Sweden. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1996, 564-576.
    • Västerbotten
      • Boliden
    [var: Thucholite] No reference listed
    UK
     
    • England
      • Derbyshire
        • Ashover
          • Overton Hall
    Tim Colman specimen
    USA
     
    • Alaska
      • Northwest Arctic Borough
        • Brooks Range
          • Cosmos Hills
    Runnells, D.D. (1965) Journal of Sedimentary Research, 33, #3, 599-603.
    • Colorado
      • Clear Creek Co.
        • Idaho Springs District
    [var: Thucholite] USGS OFR 66-87(Moench,1966); U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 371
      • San Miguel Co.
    [var: Thucholite] Page, L. R.; Stocking, H. E.; Smith, H. B. (1956) Contributions to the geology of uranium and thorium by the United States Geological Survey and Atomic Energy Commission for the United Nations International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, Switzerland, 1955. USGS Professional Paper 300 pp97-103
    [var: Thucholite] Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • New York
      • Fulton Co.
        • Town of Ephratah
          • Lassellsville
    George Robinson & Steven Chamberlain (2007) Gazetteer of major New York State mineral localities. Rocks & Minerals, 82, #6, 472-483.
      • Herkimer Co.
        • Little Falls
    George Robinson & Steven Chamberlain (2007) Gazetteer of major New York State mineral localities. Rocks & Minerals, 82, #6, 472-483.
        • Town of Newport
          • Middleville
    George Robinson & Steven Chamberlain (2007) Gazetteer of major New York State mineral localities. Rocks & Minerals, 82, #6, 472-483.; Rocks & Minerals 82:472-483
    George Robinson & Steven Chamberlain (2007) Gazetteer of major New York State mineral localities. Rocks & Minerals, 82, #6, 472-483.
    George Robinson & Steven Chamberlain (2007) Gazetteer of major New York State mineral localities. Rocks & Minerals, 82, #6, 472-483.
    New York State Museum Institute specimen
      • Montgomery Co.
        • Mohawk Township
    John Parnell (1988) Native platinum in pyrobitumen from Fonda, New York American Mineralogist, 73, 1170-1171.
    George Robinson & Steven Chamberlain (2007) Gazetteer of major New York State mineral localities. Rocks & Minerals, 82, #6, 472-483.
    George Robinson & Steven Chamberlain (2007) Gazetteer of major New York State mineral localities. Rocks & Minerals, 82, #6, 472-483.
        • St Johnsville
    George Robinson & Steven Chamberlain (2007) Gazetteer of major New York State mineral localities. Rocks & Minerals, 82, #6, 472-483.
      • St. Lawrence Co.
    [var: Thucholite] NY State Museum spec. no. 16135
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