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Searlesite

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Formula:
Na(H
 
2
BSi
 
2
O
 
7
)
System:MonoclinicColour:White, light brown
Hardness:
Name:Named after John W. Searles, California pioneer and discoverer of Searles Lake, USA


The structure of Searlesite contains sheets, consisting of kinked pyroxene-like polysilicate chains that are linked by (H2BO4) tetrahedra, classifying it as a phyllo-borosilicate. The silicate chains contain two crystallographically distinct Si sites, and the net formula of the anion is (H2BSi2O7)n with (H2BSi2O7) as repeating unit (Ghose and Wan, 1976). Note that we are using a sum formula for the anion. It may also be written as (BSiO5(OH)2), indicating that the two protons are bonded to oxygen atoms.

Classification of Searlesite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/G.05-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.EF.15

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
F : Single nets with 6-membered rings, connected by M[4], M[8], etc.
Dana 8th edition ID:71.3.5.4

71 : PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
3 : Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Hey's CIM Ref.:17.5.3

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
5 : Borosilicates
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Type Occurrence of Searlesite

Co-type Localities:Searles Lake, San Bernardino Co., California, USA
Searles Deep Well, Searles Lake, San Bernardino Co., California, USA
Place of Conservation of Type Material:Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 81274; National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., USA, R6457, 93270, 94734, 96080, 124352.
Year of Discovery:1914
Geological Setting of type material:Commonly interbedded with oil shales or marls (Green River Formation, USA); in boron-bearing evaporite deposits (California, USA); rarely in vugs in phonolite (Point of Rocks, New Mexico, USA).

Occurrences of Searlesite

Geological Setting:Commonly interbedded with oil shales or marls (Green River Formation, USA); in boron-bearing evaporite deposits (California, USA); rarely in vugs in phonolite (Point of Rocks,New Mexico, USA).

Physical Properties of Searlesite

Lustre:Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Comment:Vitreous, slightly pearly on cleavage surfaces
Colour:White, light brown
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
Perfect on {100}, imperfect on {102}, {010}

Crystallography of Searlesite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:a = 7.98Å, b = 7.06Å, c = 4.9Å
β = 93.95°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.13 : 1 : 0.694
Unit Cell Volume:V 275.40 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Flat crystals, to 17 cm, occur along bedding planes. Commonly as spherulitic aggregates of radiating acicular to prismatic crystals; as massive
granular aggregates.

Optical Data of Searlesite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.516 nβ = 1.531 nγ = 1.535
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.019

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low
Dispersion:none

Chemical Properties of Searlesite

Formula:
Na(H
 
2
BSi
 
2
O
 
7
)
Simplified for copy/paste:Na(H2BSi2O7)
Essential elements:B, H, Na, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:B, H, Na, O, Si
Common Impurities:Al,Fe,Mg,H2O

Relationship of Searlesite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.EF.05Petalite
LiAl(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)
9.EF.10Sanbornite
Ba
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)
9.EF.20Silinaite
NaLiSi
 
2
O
 
5
· 2H
 
2
O
9.EF.25Kanemite
NaHSi
 
2
O
 
5
· 2H
 
2
O
9.EF.30Yakovenchukite-(Y)
K
 
3
NaCaY
 
2
[Si
 
12
O
 
30
] · 4H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
17.5.1Manandonite
LiAl
 
4
(BSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
6
17.5.2Reedmergnerite
Na[BSi
 
3
O
 
8
]
17.5.4Olenite
Na(Al
 
3
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
O
 
3
(OH)
17.5.5Elbaite
Na(Li
 
1.5
Al
 
1.5
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
17.5.6Kalborsite
K
 
6
Al
 
4
BSi
 
6
O
 
20
(OH)
 
4
Cl
17.5.7Boromuscovite
KAl
 
2
(BSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
17.5.8Poudretteite
KNa
 
2
B
 
3
Si
 
12
O
 
30
17.5.9Liddicoatite
Ca(Li
 
2
Al)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
17.5.10Datolite
Ca(HBSiO
 
5
)
17.5.11Danburite
CaB
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
17.5.12Howlite
Ca
 
2
B
 
5
SiO
 
9
(OH)
 
5
17.5.13Bakerite
Ca
 
4
(H
 
5
B
 
5
Si
 
3
O
 
20
)
17.5.14Oyelite
Ca
 
10
Si
 
8
B
 
2
O
 
29
· 12.5H
 
2
O
17.5.15Kornerupine
Mg
 
3
Al
 
6
(Si,Al,B)
 
5
O
 
21
(OH)
17.5.16Harkerite
Ca
 
12
Mg
 
4
Al(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
5
· H
 
2
O
17.5.17Serendibite
(Ca,Na)
 
2
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
3
[O
 
2
|(Si,Al,B)
 
6
O
 
18
]
17.5.18Stillwellite-(Ce)
(Ce,La,Ca)BSiO
 
5
17.5.19Tadzhikite-(Ce)
(Ca,Ce)
 
4
(Ce,Y)
 
2
(Ti
4+
 
,Fe
3+
 
,Al)[B
 
4
Si
 
4
O
 
22
](OH)
 
2
17.5.20Melanocerite-(Ce)
(Ce,Ca)
 
5
(Si,B)
 
3
O
 
12
(OH,F) · nH
 
2
O
17.5.21Okanoganite-(Y)
(Na,Ca)
 
3
(Y,Ce)
 
12
Si
 
6
B
 
2
O
 
27
F
 
14
17.5.22Tritomite-(Ce)
(Ce,La,Y,Th)
 
5
(Si,B)
 
3
(O,OH,F)
 
13
17.5.23Tritomite-(Y)
(Y,Ca,La,Fe)
 
5
(Si,B,Al)
 
3
(O,OH,F)
 
13
17.5.24Cappelenite-(Y)
Ba(Y,Ce)
 
6
Si
 
3
B
 
6
O
 
24
F
 
2
17.5.25Dumortierite
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
7
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(BO
 
3
)O
 
3
17.5.26Holtite
(Ta
 
0.6
 
0.4
)Al
 
6
BSi
 
3
O
 
18
(O,OH)
 
2.25
17.5.27Dravite
Na(Mg
 
3
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
17.5.28 Ferridravite
17.5.29Axinite-(Mg)
Ca
 
2
MgAl
 
2
BSi
 
4
O
 
15
OH
17.5.30Uvite
Ca(Mg
 
3
)MgAl
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(F/OH)
17.5.31Garrelsite
Ba
 
3
NaSi
 
2
B
 
7
O
 
16
(OH)
 
4
17.5.32Tienshanite
KNa
 
3
Na
 
6
Ca
 
2
Ba
 
6
Mn
 
6
(Ti
4+
 
,Nb)
 
6
B
 
12
Si
 
36
O
 
114
(O,OH,F)
 
11
17.5.33Leucosphenite
BaNa
 
4
Ti
 
2
B
 
2
Si
 
10
O
 
30
17.5.34Taramellite
Ba
 
4
(Fe
3+
 
,Ti,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
4
(B
 
2
Si
 
8
O
 
27
)O
 
2
Cl
 
x
17.5.35Titantaramellite
Ba
 
4
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
4
(B
 
2
Si
 
8
O
 
27
)O
 
2
Cl
 
x
17.5.36Nagashimalite
Ba
 
4
(V,Ti)
 
4
B
 
2
Si
 
8
O
 
27
(O,OH)
 
2
Cl
17.5.37Chromium-dravite
Na(Mg
 
3
)Cr
3+
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
17.5.38Wawayandaite
Ca
 
6
Mn
 
2
BBe
 
9
Si
 
6
O
 
23
(OH,Cl)
 
15
17.5.39Werdingite
(Mg,Fe)
 
2
Al
 
14
Si
 
4
B
 
4
O
 
37
17.5.40Axinite-(Mn)
Ca
 
2
Mn
2+
 
Al
 
2
BSi
 
4
O
 
15
(OH)
17.5.41Axinite
17.5.42Tinzenite
(CaMn
2+
 
)
 
2
Mn
2+
 
Al
 
2
BSi
 
4
O
 
15
(OH)
17.5.44Schorl
Na(Fe
2+
3
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
17.5.45Fluor-buergerite
Na(Fe
3+
3
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
O
 
3
F
17.5.46Feruvite
Ca(Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
MgAl
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
17.5.47Axinite-(Fe)
Ca
 
2
Fe
2+
 
Al
 
2
BSi
 
4
O
 
15
OH
17.5.48Homilite
Ca
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)B
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
17.5.49Grandidierite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
17.5.50Hyalotekite
(Pb,Ba,K)
 
4
(Ca,Y)
 
2
(B,Be)
 
2
(Si,B)
 
2
Si
 
8
O
 
28
(F,Cl)
17.5.51Hellandite-(Y)
(Ca,Y)
 
6
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)Si
 
4
B
 
4
O
 
20
(OH)
 
4

Other Names for Searlesite

Other Languages:
German:Searlesit
Russian:Сирлезит
Simplified Chinese:水硅硼钠石
Spanish:Searlesita
Traditional Chinese:水矽硼鈉石

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:may fluoresce green under SW UV.
Electrical:Piezoelectric
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Searlesite

Reference List:

- +
Larsen, E.S. & W.B. Hicks (1914) Searlesite, a new mineral, San Bernardino County, California, American Journal of Science, 4th. Series: 38: 437-440.

Ghose, S., and Wan, C. (1976): Structural chemistry of borosilicates, part II:
Searlesite, NaBSi2O5(OH): Absolute configuration, hydrogen locations, and refinement of the structure. American Mineralogist 61, 123-129. [NOTE: The title of the paper gives a wrong formula, in which a sub-script is missing]

Grew, E.S., and Anovitz, L.M. (1996) BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).

Internet Links for Searlesite

Search Engines:
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  • Look for Searlesite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Searlesite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Searlesite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Argentina
     
    • Salta
      • Salar Del Hombre Muerto
    Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, p. 497.; Alonso, R. N. (1999). On the origin of La Puna borates. Acta geológica hispánica, 34(2), 141-166.
    Bosnia and Herzegovina
     
    • Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
      • Tuzla Canton
        • Tuzla
    Am Min 79: pp 562-569
    Canada
     
    • Québec
      • Montérégie
        • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
          • Mont Saint-Hilaire
    Horváth, L and Gault, R.A. (1990), The mineralogy of Mont Saint-Hilaire Quebec. Mineralogical Record: 21: 284-359.
    Egypt
     
    • Western Desert
    Marchesini, M. & Barresi, A. (2009): I minerali di Wadi natrun, Deserto Occidentale, Egitto, Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2009, 228-258.
    Russia
     
    • Northern Region
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
          • Lovozero Massif
    [World of Stones 95:5-6, p64]
    Serbia
     
    Stanley, C.J., Jones, G.C., Rumsey, M.S., Blake, C., Roberts, A.C., Stirling, J.A.R., Carpenter, G.J.C., Whitfield, P.S., Grice, J.D., LePage, Y. (2007): Jadarite, LiNaSiB3O7(OH), a new mineral species from the Jadar Basin, Serbia. European Journal of Mineralogy, 19, 575-580.
    • Raška District
      • Raška
        • Jarandol Basin
          • Baljevac na Ibru
            • Bella Stena (Bela Stena)
    Econ Geol (1992) 87:2169-2174
    Tajikistan
     
    • Region of Republican Subordination
      • Tien Shan Mtn
        • Alai Range (Alayskiy)
    http://www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/dara.htm
    USA
     
    • California
      • Inyo Co.
    USGS
          • Furnace Creek
    McAllister, James Franklin (1970) Geology of the Furnace Creek borate area, Death Valley, Inyo County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology Map Sheet 14, 9 pp.: 9; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 511.
        • Lake Tecopa Basin
    USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10100710.
        • Saratoga District (Tecopa Mountain District; Shoshone District ?)
          • Dublin Hills
            • Shoshone
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • Kern Co.
        • China Lake [town]
          • China Lake
    Hay, Richard Le Roy (1966) Zeolites and zeolitic reactions in sedimentary rocks: Geological Society of America Special Paper 85, 130 p.: 35; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 512.
        • Kramer District
    Rock Currier collection
    Smith, George Irving, Hy Almond, & D.L. Sawyer, Jr. (1958), Sassolite from the Kramer borate district, California: American Mineralogist: 43: 1070; Pemberton, H. Earl, Wm. Moller, Jack Schwartz & George Masimer (1960), The minerals of Boron, California, 40 pp. (Published by the Mineral Research Society of California, Montebello, CA): 31; Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 166; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 512.
    Smith, George Irving, Hy Almond, & D.L. Sawyer, Jr. (1958), Sassolite from the Kramer borate district, California: American Mineralogist: 43: 1070; Pemberton, H. Earl, Wm. Moller, Jack Schwartz & George Masimer (1960), The minerals of Boron, California, 40 pp. (Published by the Mineral Research Society of California, Montebello, CA): 31; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 333.
              • U.S. Borax Mine (Pacific West Coast Borax; Pacific Coast Borax Co.; Boron Mine; U.S. Borax and Chemical Corp.; Kramer Mine; Baker Mine)
    Tschernich, R. (1992): Zeolites of the World, 64, 311; Richard Dale Collection; Clays and Clay Minerals, Vol. 36, No. 2, 131-136, 1988.
    Am Min 49:543-555
      • San Bernardino Co.
    Hay, Richard Le Roy & Richard J. Moiola (1962), Authigenic silicate minerals in Pleistocene sediments of Searles Lake, California (abstract): Geological Society of America Special Paper 73: 168; …Sedimentology: 2: 324; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 118, 333; American Mineralogist (1950): 35: 1014.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
    Larsen, Esper Signius & W.B. Hicks (1914), Searlesite, a new mineral, San Bernardino County, California: American Journal of Science, 4th. series: 38: 437-440; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 292; Rogers, Austin Flint (1924a), The crystallography of searlesite: American Journal of Science, 5th. Series: 7: 498-502; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 333; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 512.
    • Colorado
      • Garfield Co.
        • Piceance Basin
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
      • Rio Blanco Co.
        • Piceance Basin
          • Green River Formation
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
        • Piceance Creek Basin
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    • Nevada
    AmMin 19:268
    Rocks & Minerals, Nov. 1999
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
        • Fish Lake Marsh
    American Mineralogist 19:268-274
        • Silver Peak Range
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Mineral Co.
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada; Tschernich, R. (1992): Zeolites of the World, 66; American Mineralogist,Vol.49:1366-1387
    • New Mexico
      • Colfax Co.
        • Springer
          • Point of Rocks Mesa (Pecks Mesa)
    Rocks & Min.:60:229.; 4th Annual New Mexico Mineral Symposium (1985) New Mexico Geology 7:18-19
    • Utah
      • Duchesne Co.
    Am Min 44:326-327; Am Min 58:211-217
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2002AM/finalprogram/abstract_45510.htm.
    Am Min 45:188-199
      • Uintah Co.
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    Am Min 41:672
    • Wyoming
      • Sweetwater Co.
        • Green River formation
    Am Min 46:420-429
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