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Searlesite

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Formula:
Na(H2BSi2O7)
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
White, light brown
Hardness:
Name:
Named after John W. Searles, California pioneer and discoverer of Searles Lake, USA
The structure of Searlesite contains sheets, consisting of kinked pyroxene-like polysilicate chains that are linked by (H2BO4) tetrahedra, classifying it as a phyllo-borosilicate. The silicate chains contain two crystallographically distinct Si sites, and the net formula of the anion is (H2BSi2O7)n with (H2BSi2O7) as repeating unit (Ghose and Wan, 1976). Note that we are using a sum formula for the anion. It may also be written as (BSiO5(OH)2), indicating that the two protons are bonded to oxygen atoms.

Classification of Searlesite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
9.EF.15

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
F : Single nets with 6-membered rings, connected by M[4], M[8], etc.
71.3.5.4

71 : PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
3 : Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
17.5.3

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
5 : Borosilicates
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First Recorded Occurrence of Searlesite

Place of Conservation of First Recorded Material:
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 81274; National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., USA, R6457, 93270, 94734, 96080, 124352.
Year of Discovery:
1914
Geological Setting of First Recorded Material:
Commonly interbedded with oil shales or marls (Green River Formation, USA); in boron-bearing evaporite deposits (California, USA); rarely in vugs in phonolite (Point of Rocks, New Mexico, USA).

Occurrences of Searlesite

Geological Setting:
Commonly interbedded with oil shales or marls (Green River Formation, USA); in boron-bearing evaporite deposits (California, USA); rarely in vugs in phonolite (Point of Rocks,New Mexico, USA).

Physical Properties of Searlesite

Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent
Comment:
Vitreous, slightly pearly on cleavage surfaces
Colour:
White, light brown
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {100}, imperfect on {102}, {010}

Crystallography of Searlesite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.98Å, b = 7.06Å, c = 4.9Å
β = 93.95°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.13 : 1 : 0.694
Unit Cell Volume:
V 275.40 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Flat crystals, to 17 cm, occur along bedding planes. Commonly as spherulitic aggregates of radiating acicular to prismatic crystals; as massive
granular aggregates.

Optical Data of Searlesite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.516 nβ = 1.531 nγ = 1.535
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.019
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
none

Chemical Properties of Searlesite

Formula:
Na(H2BSi2O7)
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Al,Fe,Mg,H2O

Relationship of Searlesite to other Species

9.EF.05PetaliteLiAl(Si4O10)
9.EF.10SanborniteBa2(Si4O10)
9.EF.20SilinaiteNaLiSi2O5 · 2H2O
9.EF.25KanemiteNaHSi2O5 · 2H2O
9.EF.30Yakovenchukite-(Y)K3NaCaY2[Si12O30] · 4H2O
17.5.1ManandoniteLi2Al4(Si2AlB)O10(OH)8
17.5.2ReedmergneriteNa[BSi3O8]
17.5.4OleniteNa(Al3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3(OH)
17.5.5ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
17.5.6KalborsiteK6Al4BSi6O20(OH)4Cl
17.5.7BoromuscoviteKAl2(BSi3O10)(OH)2
17.5.8PoudretteiteKNa2B3Si12O30
17.5.9LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
17.5.10DatoliteCa(HBSiO5)
17.5.11DanburiteCaB2Si2O8
17.5.12HowliteCa2B5SiO9(OH)5
17.5.13BakeriteCa4(H5B5Si3O20)
17.5.14OyeliteCa10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
17.5.15KornerupineMg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
17.5.16HarkeriteCa12Mg4Al(BO3)3(SiO4)4(CO3)5 · H2O
17.5.17Serendibite(Ca,Na)2(Mg,Fe2+)3(Al,Fe3+)3[O2|(Si,Al,B)6O18]
17.5.18Stillwellite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Ca)BSiO5
17.5.19Tadzhikite-(Ce)(Ca,Ce)4(Ce,Y)2(Ti4+,Fe3+,Al)[B4Si4O22](OH)2
17.5.20Melanocerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4,BO4)3(OH,0)
17.5.21Okanoganite-(Y)(Na,Ca)3(Y,Ce)12Si6B2O27F14
17.5.22Tritomite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Y,Th)5(Si,B)3(O,OH,F)13
17.5.23Tritomite-(Y)(Y,Ca,La,Fe)5(Si,B,Al)3(O,OH,F)13
17.5.24Cappelenite-(Y)Ba(Y,Ce)6Si3B6O24F2
17.5.25Dumortierite(Al,Fe3+)7(SiO4)3(BO3)O3
17.5.26Holtite(Ta0.60.4)Al6BSi3O18(O,OH)2.25
17.5.27DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
17.5.28 Ferridravite
17.5.29Axinite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2BSi4O15OH
17.5.30UviteCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)
17.5.31GarrelsiteBa3NaSi2B7O16(OH)4
17.5.32TienshaniteKNa3Na6Ca2Ba6Mn6(Ti4+,Nb)6B12Si36O114(O,OH,F)11
17.5.33LeucospheniteBaNa4Ti2B2Si10O30
17.5.34TaramelliteBa4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2Clx
17.5.35TitantaramelliteBa4(Ti,Fe3+,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2Clx
17.5.36NagashimaliteBa4(V,Ti)4B2Si8O27(O,OH)2Cl
17.5.37Chromium-draviteNa(Mg3)Cr63+(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
17.5.38WawayandaiteCa6Mn2BBe9Si6O23(OH,Cl)15
17.5.39Werdingite(Mg,Fe)2Al14Si4B4O37
17.5.40Axinite-(Mn)Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
17.5.41Axinite
17.5.42Tinzenite(Ca,Mn2+)2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
17.5.44SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
17.5.45Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe33+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3F
17.5.46FeruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
17.5.47Axinite-(Fe)Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OH
17.5.48HomiliteCa2(Fe2+,Mg)B2Si2O10
17.5.49Grandidierite(Mg,Fe2+)(Al,Fe3+)3(SiO4)(BO3)O2
17.5.50Hyalotekite(Pb,Ba,K)4(Ca,Y)2(B,Be)2(Si,B)2Si8O28(F,Cl)
17.5.51Hellandite-(Y)(Ca,REE)4Y2Al(Be,Li)2-xB4Si4O22(OH)2

Other Names for Searlesite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Searlesit
Simplified Chinese:水硅硼钠石
Spanish:Searlesita
Traditional Chinese:水矽硼鈉石

Other Information

may fluoresce green under SW UV.
Electrical:
Piezoelectric
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Searlesite

Reference List:
Larsen, E.S. & W.B. Hicks (1914) Searlesite, a new mineral, San Bernardino County, California, American Journal of Science, 4th. Series: 38: 437-440.

Ghose, S., and Wan, C. (1976): Structural chemistry of borosilicates, part II:
Searlesite, NaBSi2O5(OH): Absolute configuration, hydrogen locations, and refinement of the structure. American Mineralogist 61, 123-129. [NOTE: The title of the paper gives a wrong formula, in which a sub-script is missing]

Grew, E.S., and Anovitz, L.M. (1996) BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).

Internet Links for Searlesite

Localities for Searlesite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Argentina
 
  • Salta
    • Salar Del Hombre Muerto
Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, p. 497.; Alonso, R. N. (1999). On the origin of La Puna borates. Acta geológica hispánica, 34(2), 141-166.; CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 9:1-27.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
 
  • Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
    • Tuzla Canton
      • Tuzla
Am Min 79: pp 562-569
Canada
 
  • Québec
    • Montérégie
      • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
        • Mont Saint-Hilaire
Horváth, L and Gault, R.A. (1990), The mineralogy of Mont Saint-Hilaire Quebec. Mineralogical Record: 21: 284-359.
Egypt
 
  • Western Desert
Marchesini, M. & Barresi, A. (2009): I minerali di Wadi natrun, Deserto Occidentale, Egitto, Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2009, 228-258.
Russia
 
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaja Oblast'
      • Kola Peninsula
        • Lovozero Massif
[World of Stones 95:5-6, p64]
Serbia
 
Stanley, C.J., Jones, G.C., Rumsey, M.S., Blake, C., Roberts, A.C., Stirling, J.A.R., Carpenter, G.J.C., Whitfield, P.S., Grice, J.D., LePage, Y. (2007): Jadarite, LiNaSiB3O7(OH), a new mineral species from the Jadar Basin, Serbia. European Journal of Mineralogy, 19, 575-580.
  • Raška District
    • Raška
      • Jarandol Basin
        • Baljevac na Ibru
          • Bella Stena (Bela Stena)
Econ Geol (1992) 87:2169-2174
Tajikistan
 
  • Region of Republican Subordination
    • Tien Shan Mtn
      • Alai Range (Alayskiy)
http://www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/dara.htm
Turkey
 
  • Central Anatolia Region
    • Ankara Province
Helvaci, C., Mordogan, H., Çolak, M., & Gündogan, I. (2004). Presence and distribution of lithium in borate deposits and some recent lake waters of west-central Turkey. International Geology Review, 46(2), 177-190.
    • Eskişehir Province
      • Kirka
García-Veigas, J., & Helvacı, C. (2013). Mineralogy and sedimentology of the Miocene Göcenoluk borate deposit, Kırka district, western Anatolia, Turkey. Sedimentary Geology, 290, 85-96.
USA
 
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
USGS
        • Furnace Creek
McAllister, James Franklin (1970) Geology of the Furnace Creek borate area, Death Valley, Inyo County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology Map Sheet 14, 9 pp.: 9; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 511.
      • Lake Tecopa Basin
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10100710.
      • Saratoga District (Tecopa Mountain District; Shoshone District ?)
        • Dublin Hills
          • Shoshone
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Kern Co.
      • China Lake [town]
        • China Lake
Hay, Richard Le Roy (1966) Zeolites and zeolitic reactions in sedimentary rocks: Geological Society of America Special Paper 85, 130 p.: 35; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 512.
      • Kramer District
Rock Currier collection
Smith, George Irving, Hy Almond, & D.L. Sawyer, Jr. (1958), Sassolite from the Kramer borate district, California: American Mineralogist: 43: 1070; Pemberton, H. Earl, Wm. Moller, Jack Schwartz & George Masimer (1960), The minerals of Boron, California, 40 pp. (Published by the Mineral Research Society of California, Montebello, CA): 31; Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 166; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 512.
Smith, George Irving, Hy Almond, & D.L. Sawyer, Jr. (1958), Sassolite from the Kramer borate district, California: American Mineralogist: 43: 1070; Pemberton, H. Earl, Wm. Moller, Jack Schwartz & George Masimer (1960), The minerals of Boron, California, 40 pp. (Published by the Mineral Research Society of California, Montebello, CA): 31; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 333.
            • U.S. Borax Mine (Pacific West Coast Borax; Pacific Coast Borax Co.; Boron Mine; U.S. Borax and Chemical Corp.; Kramer Mine; Baker Mine)
Tschernich, R. (1992): Zeolites of the World, 64, 311; Richard Dale Collection; Clays and Clay Minerals, Vol. 36, No. 2, 131-136, 1988.
Am Min 49:543-555
    • San Bernardino Co.
Hay, Richard Le Roy & Richard J. Moiola (1962), Authigenic silicate minerals in Pleistocene sediments of Searles Lake, California (abstract): Geological Society of America Special Paper 73: 168; …Sedimentology: 2: 324; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 118, 333; American Mineralogist (1950): 35: 1014.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
Larsen, Esper Signius & W.B. Hicks (1914), Searlesite, a new mineral, San Bernardino County, California: American Journal of Science, 4th. series: 38: 437-440; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 292; Rogers, Austin Flint (1924a), The crystallography of searlesite: American Journal of Science, 5th. Series: 7: 498-502; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 333; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 512.
  • Colorado
    • Garfield Co.
      • Piceance Basin
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    • Rio Blanco Co.
      • Piceance Basin
        • Green River Formation
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
      • Piceance Creek Basin
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
  • Nevada
AmMin 19:268
Rocks & Minerals, Nov. 1999
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Fish Lake Marsh
American Mineralogist 19:268-274
      • Silver Peak Range
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Mineral Co.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada; Tschernich, R. (1992): Zeolites of the World, 66; American Mineralogist,Vol.49:1366-1387
  • New Mexico
    • Colfax Co.
      • Springer
        • Point of Rocks Mesa (Pecks Mesa)
Rocks & Min.:60:229.; 4th Annual New Mexico Mineral Symposium (1985) New Mexico Geology 7:18-19
  • Utah
    • Duchesne Co.
Am Min 44:326-327; Am Min 58:211-217
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2002AM/finalprogram/abstract_45510.htm.
Am Min 45:188-199
    • Uintah Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
Am Min 41:672
  • Wyoming
    • Sweetwater Co.
      • Green River formation
Am Min 46:420-429
Mineral and/or Locality  
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