Mindat Logo

Siderite

This page kindly sponsored by Geoff Van Horn



Formula:
FeCO
 
3
System:TrigonalColour:Yellowish-brown to ...
Lustre:Vitreous, Silky, PearlyHardness:3½ - 4½
Member of:Calcite Group
Name:Named in 1845 by Wilhelm Karl von Haidinger from the Greek σίδηρος, "iron", in allusion to its composition.


Calcite Group. Magnesite-Siderite Series, Rhodochrosite-Siderite Series, Siderite-Smithsonite Series.

Crystals typically found as brown to tan rhombohedrons in clusters, faces often curved or composites; more often found as medium to dark brown massive fine grained material or as massive crystalline material with exposed curved cleavage surfaces.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Siderite. Currently in public beta-test.

Classification of Siderite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:5/B.02-40
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:5.AB.05

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
A : Carbonates without additional anions, without H2O
B : Alkali-earth (and other M2+) carbonates
Dana 7th edition ID:14.1.1.3
Dana 8th edition ID:14.1.1.3

14 : ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
1 : A(XO3)
Hey's CIM Ref.:11.13.1

11 : Carbonates
13 : Carbonates of Fe
mindat.org URL:http://www.mindat.org/min-3647.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Occurrences of Siderite

Geological Setting:Most often found in bedded sedimentary deposits with a biological component, with shales, clays and coal beds - suggesting that the siderite is biogenically created under low-oxygen and low-Ph conditions. It is also found in metamorphosed sedimentary rocks as more massively crystalline material, as a primary gangue mineral in hydrothermal deposits, and in pegmatites, including nepheline syenite pegamtites; as bog deposits.

Physical Properties of Siderite

Lustre:Vitreous, Silky, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent
Colour:Yellowish-brown to greyish-brown, pale yellow to tannish, grey, brown, green, red, black and sometimes nearly colourless; tarnished iridescent at times; colourless to yellow and yellow-brown in transmitted light.
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):3½ - 4½
Hardness Data:Measured
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
Perfect on {1011}.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density (measured):3.96(1) g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.932 g/cm3

Crystallography of Siderite

Crystal System:Trigonal
Class (H-M):3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:R3c
Cell Parameters:a = 4.6916Å, c = 15.3796Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 3.278
Unit Cell Volume:V 293.17 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:6
Morphology:Crystals usually rhombohedral {1011} or {0112}, often curved or with composite faces; also more rarely thi to thick tabular {0001}, prismatic [0001] with {1120}, or scalenohedral; most often found as massive material, either fine-grained in sedimentary settings or massively crystalline in metamorphic settings; may also be botryoidal or globular with a fibrous internal structure.
Twinning:On {0112}, lamellar,uncommon, with translation gliding on {0001} or {1011}. On {0001}, rare.
Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Siderite no.27 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Siderite no.50 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Toggle
Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.59(30)
2.80(100)
2.35(20)
2.13(20)
1.965(20)
1.738(30)
1.732(40)
1.506(10)

Optical Data of Siderite

Type:Uniaxial (-)
RI values: nω = 1.875 nε = 1.633
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.242

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:High
Dispersion:Strong

Chemical Properties of Siderite

Formula:
FeCO
 
3
Simplified for copy/paste:FeCO3
Essential elements:C, Fe, O
All elements listed in formula:C, Fe, O
Common Impurities:Mn,Mg,Ca,Zn,Co

Relationship of Siderite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Rhodochrosite (see here)
Forms a series with Magnesite (see here)
Forms a series with Smithsonite (see here)
Member of:Calcite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Calcite
CaCO
 
3
Gaspéite
(Ni,Mg,Fe)CO
 
3
Magnesite
MgCO
 
3
Otavite
CdCO
 
3
Rhodochrosite
MnCO
 
3
Smithsonite
ZnCO
 
3
Spherocobaltite
CoCO
 
3
Common Associates:
CoalClay
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
5.AB.05Calcite
CaCO
 
3
5.AB.05Gaspéite
(Ni,Mg,Fe)CO
 
3
5.AB.05Magnesite
MgCO
 
3
5.AB.05Otavite
CdCO
 
3
5.AB.05Rhodochrosite
MnCO
 
3
5.AB.05Smithsonite
ZnCO
 
3
5.AB.05Spherocobaltite
CoCO
 
3
5.AB.10Ankerite
Ca(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
5.AB.10Dolomite
CaMg(CO
 
3
)
 
2
5.AB.10Kutnohorite
Ca(Mn,Mg,Fe)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
5.AB.10Minrecordite
CaZn(CO
 
3
)
 
2
5.AB.15Aragonite
CaCO
 
3
5.AB.15Cerussite
PbCO
 
3
5.AB.15Strontianite
SrCO
 
3
5.AB.15Witherite
BaCO
 
3
5.AB.20Vaterite
CaCO
 
3
5.AB.25Huntite
CaMg
 
3
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
5.AB.30Norsethite
BaMg(CO
 
3
)
 
2
5.AB.35Alstonite
BaCa(CO
 
3
)
 
2
5.AB.40Olekminskite
Sr(Sr,Ca,Ba)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
5.AB.40Paralstonite
BaCa(CO
 
3
)
 
2
5.AB.45Barytocalcite
BaCa(CO
 
3
)
 
2
5.AB.50Carbocernaite
(Ca,Na)(Sr,Ce,Ba)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
5.AB.55Benstonite
(Ba,Sr)
 
6
(Ca,Mn)
 
6
Mg(CO
 
3
)
 
13
5.AB.60Juangodoyite
Na
 
2
Cu(CO
 
3
)
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
11.13.2Pyroaurite
Mg
 
6
Fe
3+
2
(OH)
 
16
[CO
 
3
] · 4H
 
2
O
11.13.3Pyroaurite-2H
Mg
 
6
Fe
3+
2
(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
16
· 4H
 
2
O
11.13.4Brugnatellite
Mg
 
6
Fe
3+
 
(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
13
· 4H
 
2
O
11.13.5Coalingite
Mg
 
10
Fe
3+
2
(OH)
 
24
[CO
 
3
] · 2H
 
2
O
11.13.6Ankerite
Ca(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
Related Minerals - Dana Grouping):

- +
14.1.1.1Calcite
CaCO
 
3

Other Names for Siderite

Synonyms:
AerosideriteBemmeleniteCalcareous Iron OreCarbonate of IronChalybite
GyriteIron SparJunckériteJunkeritePelosiderite
Siderite (of Haidinger)Sparry Iron OreSpathic IronSpathose IronSteel Ore
Thomaîte
Other Languages:
French:Fer carbonaté
Sidérose
German:Aerosiderit
Bemmelenit
Brachytyper Parachrosbaryt
Chalybit
Eisenkalk
Eisenspat
Eisenspath (of Hausmann)
Gyrit
Järn med Kalkjord förenadt
Junckérit
Kohlensaures Eisen
Pelosiderit
Siderit
Spateisenstein
Spatheisenstein
Spathiger Eisen
Stahelreich Eisen
Stahlstein
Thomaît
Weißeisenerz
Latin:Minera ferri alba spathiformis
Russian:Сидерит
Simplified Chinese:菱铁矿
Spanish:Aerosiderita
Bemmelenita
Chalybita
Gyrita
Pelosiderita
Siderita
Thomaîta
Swedish:Spatformig Jernmalm
Varieties:
Ca-rich SideriteKobalt-oligonspathKolloid-sideriteLady's SlipperManganoan Siderite
ManganosphaeriteMg-rich SideriteOligonitePistomesiteSideroplesite
SphärosideriteZincian Siderite

Other Information

Magnetism:Paramagnetic
Other Information:Slighty soluble in water.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:An ore of iron when found in sufficient volumes to be economically recoverable.

References for Siderite

Reference List:

- +
Gesner, C. (1565) De omni rerum fossilium genere, gemmis, lapidibus, metallis, etc. Tiguri (as Stahelreich Eisen).

Wallerius, J.G (1747) Mineralogia, eller Mineralriket. Stockholm (as Spatformig Jernmalm.

Cronstedt, A. (1758) Mineralogie; eller Mineral-Rikets Upstallning. Stockholm: 29 (as Stahlstein).

de Lisle, R. (1783) Cristallographie, ou description des formes propres à tous les corps du regne minéral. 4 volumes, Paris: 3: 281 (as Fer spatique).

Wollaston (1812) Phil. Trans.: 159.

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1813) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen. Second edition: 951, 952 (as Eisenspath).

Glocker, E.F. (1847) Generum et specierum mineralien secundum ordines naturals digestorum synopsis. Halle: 241.

Johnsen (1902) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: II: 133.

Hutchinson (1903) Mineralogical Magazine: 13: 209.

Kreutz (1909) Mineralogical Magazine: 15: 232.

Goldschmidt, V. (1916) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 3: 107.

Honess (1918) American Journal of Science: 45: 201.

Wyckoff (1920) American Journal of Science: 50: 317.

Niggli (1921) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 56: 224.

Klerk (1926) Beiträge zur Krystallographie und Mineralogie, Heidelberg: 3: 85.

Schoklitsch (1935) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 90: 433.

Fornaseri (1941) Rendus soc. min. ital. (1941): 1: 60.

Wayland (1942) American Mineralogist: 27: 614.

Rowland and Jonas (1949) American Mineralogist: 34: 550.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 166-171.

Henderson, E.P. & S.H. Perry (1958), Studies of seven siderites: Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum: 107: 339-403.

Goldsmith, J.R., D.L. Graf, J. Witters & D.A. Northrop (1962), Studies in the system CaCO3•MgCO3•FeCO3: (1) Phase relations; (2) A method for major element spectrochemical analyses; and (3) Composition of some ferroan dolomites. Journal of Geology: 70: 659-688.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie (1981): 156: 233-243.

Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig (1997), Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana: 435.

Reviews in Mineralogy, Mineralogical Society of America: 11.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 644.

E. Boulard, F. Guyot, G. Fiquet (2012): The influence on Fe content on Raman spectra and unit cell parameters of magnesite–siderite solid solutions. Phys. Chem. Minerals 39, 239-246.

Mindat.org articles about Siderite

Article entries:
Siderite Along the Clackamas River, OregonBill Tompkins

Internet Links for Siderite

Search Engines:
  • Look for Siderite on Google
  • Look for Siderite images on Google
  • External Links:
  • Look for Siderite on Webmineral
  • Look for Siderite on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Siderite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Siderite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Siderite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
  • SpiriferMinerals.com - high quality low prices
  • Rare and Unusual minerals at Mineralogical Research Company
  • rare and unusual minerals mainly crystallized
  • Buy minerals from YourMineralCollection
  • Fine and rare minerals from mintreasure.com
  • Buy RARE Minerals from Rocks of Africa
  • Buy from David K Joyce minerals
  • Buy from McDougall Minerals
  • Lapis Mineral Magazin
  • Siderite specimens for sale - minfind.com
  • Search for Siderite on Well-Arranged Molecules
  • DAKOTA MATRIX offers Cabinet and Rare Species from Worldwide Localities.
  • Specimens:The following Siderite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Siderite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    Mineral and/or Locality  
    Search Google  
    Copyright © Jolyon Ralph and Ida Chau 1993-2014. Site Map. Locality, mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. Site hosted & developed by Jolyon Ralph. Mindat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free mineralogical information to all. Mindat relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters. Mindat does not offer minerals for sale. If you would like to add information to improve the quality of our database, then click here to register.
    Current server date and time: August 28, 2014 01:54:50
    Mineral and Locality Search
    Mineral:
    and/or Locality:
    Options
    Fade toolbar when not in focusFix toolbar to bottom of page
    Hide Social Media Links
    Slideshow frame delay seconds
    Locality Updated: JordanFrom Uwe Kolitsch, 30th Aug 2014 20:07:54