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Smaltite

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Name:
The earliest name that possibly refers to any skutterudite-like material, cobaltum eineraceum, was introduced by Georgius Agricola in 1529. Wallerius used several names for a smaltite-like mineral (kobaltglants, kobaltmalm, minera cobalti cinerea, cobaltum arsenico mineralisatum). Named speiskobalt by Werner (see Hausmann, 1813), but also seemingly equally applied to safflorite. Named in 1832 by François Sulpice Beudant in reference to "smalt", a cobalt ore used as a blue glass-coloring agent. Name modified to smaltine by François Sulpice Beudant in 1852. (Arsenikkobaltkies was used by Karl Johann August Theodor Scheerer for Norwegian skutterudite in 1837 and Arsenikkobalt was used in 1852 by Gustav Rose.) Lewis S. Ramsdell (1925) renamed it smaltite.
Synonym:
A synonym of Skutterudite
Originally considered to be a cobalt diarsenide, with postulated formula CoAs(2-2.5), then reclassified as an arsenic-deficient variety of skutterudite, CoAs(3-x, x ~0.35), but this non-stoichiometry may not be significant as old analyses may generally be due to mixtures, so it is probably best considered a synonym for skutterudite, close to CoAs3.

Lewis S. Ramsdell (1925) studied smaltite and chloanthite, but did not solve the problem of the chemistry of the series. Ivar Oftedal (1926) reached the conclusion that smaltite and chloanthite formed a series that was non-stoichiometric (As-deficient), but with the skutterudite structure. Holmes (1947) synthesised many Co-Ni-Fe arsenides and reviewed the historically published chemical analyses of these and found no support for significantly non-stoichiometric compositions of any smaltite, skutterudite, chloanthite, etc., and considered the apparent non-stoichiometry of their analyses to be due to mixtures of various orthorhombic and isometric arsenides. He described chloanthite and smaltite as synonyms of skutterudite. Roseboom (1962) also synthesized and studied skutterudites and established their chemical variations and again found no support for any non-stoichiometric compositions, and also described all the triarsenides as skutterudite. Oen et al. (1984) studied white arsenide paragenesis and summarized previous studies.


References for Smaltite

Reference List:
Hausmann (1813): 155 (as speiskobalt).

Beudant, François Sulpice (1852): v. 2: 584.

Ramsdell, Lewis S. (1925) American Mineralogist, v. 10, p. 296.

Oftedal, Ivar (1926) The Crystal Structure of Skutterudite and Related Minerals, Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, v. 8, p. 250-257.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 342-347.

Holmes, R. J. (1947) Higher Mineral Arsenides of Cobalt,
Nickel, and Iron,
Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 58, p. 299-392.

Roseboom, Eugene H., Jr. (1962) Skutterudites (Co,Ni,Fe)As3-x: Composition and Cell Dimensions, American Mineralogist, v 47, p. 310-327.

Oen, I.S., Dunn, P.J., and Kieft, C., 1984, The nickel-arsenide assemblage from Franklin, New Jersey—Description and interpretation: Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie Abhandlungen, v. 150, no. 3, p. 259–272.

Internet Links for Smaltite

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