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Spangolite

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Formula:
Cu
 
6
Al(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
12
Cl · 3H
 
2
O
System:TrigonalColour:Dark to emerald green, ...
Lustre:VitreousHardness:3
Name:Named in 1890 by Samuel Lewis Penfield in honor of Norman Spang [1842 Etna, Pennsylvania, USA - Decemeber, 1922 Paris, France], iron manufacturer and mineral collector of Etna, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, USA, contributor of the type specimen for study.


Spangolite Group

A secondary mineral commonly occurring with other secondary copper minerals in oxidized zones of copper-bearing ore bodies.

Note: The exact type locality is uncertain; the original specimen found “within a radius of 200 miles of Tombstone” (probably from Bisbee).

Thin tabular spangolite may be confused with chalcophyllite.

Classification of Spangolite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Explanation of status:Type material was in collection of Spang, who lived in Tombstone Arizona. His collection was from mines within 200 miles of town, but exact location for type specimen is unknown.
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/D.08-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.DD.15

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
D : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, with H2O
D : With only medium-sized cations; sheets of edge-sharing octahedra
Dana 8th edition ID:31.1.5.1

31 : HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
1 : (AB)m(XO4)pZq·xH2O, where m:p > 6:1
Hey's CIM Ref.:26.8

26 : Sulphates with Halide
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Occurrences of Spangolite

Geological Setting:Oxidized zones of copper-bearing ore bodies.

Physical Properties of Spangolite

Lustre:Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Dark to emerald green, blue-green; light green in transmitted light.
Streak:Pale green
Hardness (Mohs):3
Comment:About 2 on {0001} and about 3 on the inclined faces.
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
On {0001}, perfect.
On p{1011}, _p -p, and -_p: distinct.
Fracture:Conchoidal
Density (measured):3.14 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.14 g/cm3

Crystallography of Spangolite

Crystal System:Trigonal
Class (H-M):3m - Ditrigonal Pyramidal
Space Group:P3 1c
Cell Parameters:a = 8.24Å, c = 14.34Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 1.74
Unit Cell Volume:V 843.21 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Crystals frequently holohedral in aspect; either short prismatic [0001], or, more commonly, tabular {0001}. Less commonly hemimorphic with large {0001} and tapering toward the antilogous pole. The prism and trigonal pyramid faces are horizontally striated with series of trigonal pyramids and prisms in oscillatory combination. The geometrically equivalent positive and negative trigonal pyramids are seemingly always equally developed, rendering a hexagonal appearance to the crystal.
Twinning:On {0001}, rare, with the acute (antilogous) poles of the two individuals joined together.
Comment:Cell parameters are variable: a = 8.245-8.278 A, c = 14.32-14.53 A
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Spangolite

Type:Uniaxial (-)
RI values: nω = 1.694 nε = 1.641
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.053

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:Dichroic:
O = Green
E = Bluish green

Chemical Properties of Spangolite

Formula:
Cu
 
6
Al(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
12
Cl · 3H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:Cu6Al(SO4)(OH)12Cl·3H2O
Essential elements:Al, Cl, Cu, H, O, S
All elements listed in formula:Al, Cl, Cu, H, O, S

Relationship of Spangolite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.DD.05Felsőbányaite
Al
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
10
· 4H
 
2
O
7.DD.10Langite
Cu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
· 2H
 
2
O
7.DD.10Posnjakite
Cu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
· H
 
2
O
7.DD.10Wroewolfeite
Cu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
· 2H
 
2
O
7.DD.20Ktenasite
Zn(Cu,Zn)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
· 6H
 
2
O
7.DD.25Christelite
Cu
 
2
Zn
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
· 4H
 
2
O
7.DD.30Campigliaite
Mn
2+
 
Cu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
· 4H
 
2
O
7.DD.30Devilline
CaCu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
· 3H
 
2
O
7.DD.30Orthoserpierite
Ca(Cu,Zn)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
· 3H
 
2
O
7.DD.30Serpierite
Ca(Cu,Zn)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
· 3H
 
2
O
7.DD.30Niedermayrite
CdCu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
· 4H
 
2
O
7.DD.30Edwardsite
Cu
 
3
Cd
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
·4H
 
2
O
7.DD.35Carrboydite
[(Ni
 
1-x
Al
 
x
)(OH)
 
2
][SO
 
4
]
 
x/2
· nH
 
2
O
7.DD.35Glaucocerinite
(Zn
 
1-x
Al
 
x
)(OH)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
x/2
· nH
 
2
O
7.DD.35Honessite
(Ni
 
1-x
Fe
3+
x
)(OH)
 
2
[SO
 
4
]
 
x/2
· nH
 
2
O
7.DD.35Hydrohonessite
(Ni
 
1-x
Fe
3+
x
)(OH)
 
2
[SO
 
4
]
 
x/2
· nH
 
2
O
7.DD.35Motukoreaite
Mg
 
6
Al
 
3
(OH)
 
18
[Na(H
 
2
O)
 
6
][SO
 
4
]
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
7.DD.35Mountkeithite
[(Mg
 
1-x
Fe
3+
x
)(OH)
 
2
][SO
 
4
]
 
x/2
· nH
 
2
O
7.DD.35Shigaite
Mn
 
6
Al
 
3
(OH)
 
18
[Na(H
 
2
O)
 
6
][SO
 
4
]
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
7.DD.35Wermlandite
Mg
 
7
Al
 
2
(OH)
 
18
[Ca(H
 
2
O)
 
6
][SO
 
4
]
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
7.DD.35Woodwardite
Cu
 
1-x
Al
 
x
(OH)
 
2
[SO
 
4
]
 
x/2
· nH
 
2
O
7.DD.35Zincaluminite
Zn
 
6
Al
 
6
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
16
· 5H
 
2
O
7.DD.35Hydrowoodwardite
(Cu
 
1-x
Al
 
x
)(OH)
 
2
[SO
 
4
]
 
x/2
· nH
 
2
O
7.DD.35Zincowoodwardite
Zn
 
1-x
Al
 
x
(OH)
 
2
[SO
 
4
]
 
x/2
· nH
 
2
O
7.DD.35Natroglaucocerinite
Na
 
x
Zn
 
8-y
Al
 
y
(SO
 
4
)
 
(x+y)/2
(OH)
 
16
· 6H
 
2
O
7.DD.35Nikischerite
Fe
2+
6
Al
 
3
(OH)
 
18
[Na(H
 
2
O)
 
6
][SO
 
4
]
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
7.DD.40Lawsonbauerite
(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
9
Zn
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
22
· 8H
 
2
O
7.DD.40Torreyite
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
7
 
2
Mn
2+
2
Zn
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
22
· 8H
 
2
O
7.DD.45Mooreite
Mg
 
9
 
2
Mn
 
2
Zn
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
26
· 8H
 
2
O
7.DD.50Namuwite
(Zn,Cu)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
· 4H
 
2
O
7.DD.55Bechererite
(Zn,Cu)
 
6
Zn
 
2
(SO
 
4
,HSiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
12
7.DD.60Ramsbeckite
(Cu,Zn)
 
15
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
22
· 6H
 
2
O
7.DD.65Vonbezingite
Ca
 
6
Cu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
12
· 2H
 
2
O
7.DD.70Redgillite
Cu
 
6
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
10
· H
 
2
O
7.DD.75Chalcoalumite
CuAl
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
12
· 3H
 
2
O
7.DD.75Nickelalumite
(Ni,Cu)Al
 
4
(SO
 
4
,(NO
 
3
)
 
2
)(OH)
 
12
· 3H
 
2
O
7.DD.75Kyrgyzstanite
ZnAl
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
12
·3H
 
2
O
7.DD.80Guarinoite
(Zn,Co,Ni)
 
6
(SO
 
4
)(OH,Cl)
 
10
· 5H
 
2
O
7.DD.80Schulenbergite
(Cu,Zn)
 
7
(SO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
10
· 3H
 
2
O
7.DD.80Thérèsemagnanite
(Co,Zn,Ni)
 
6
(SO
 
4
)(OH,Cl)
 
10
· 8H
 
2
O
7.DD.80UM1992-30-SO:CCuHZn
(Zn,Cu)
 
7
(SO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
10
· 3H
 
2
O
7.DD.85Montetrisaite
Cu
 
6
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
10
· 2H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
26.1Kogarkoite
Na
 
3
(SO
 
4
)F
26.2Sulphohalite
Na
 
6
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
FCl
26.3Schairerite
Na
 
3
(SO
 
4
)(F,Cl)
26.4Galeite
Na
 
15
(SO
 
4
)
 
5
F
 
4
Cl
26.5Connellite
Cu
 
19
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
32
Cl
 
4
· 3H
 
2
O
26.6Chlorothionite
K
 
2
Cu(SO
 
4
)Cl
 
2
26.7Kamchatkite
KCu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
OCl
26.9Aubertite
CuAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
Cl · 14H
 
2
O
26.10Magnesioaubertite
(Mg,Cu)Al(SO
 
4
)
 
2
Cl · 14H
 
2
O
26.11Svyazhinite
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
,Ca)(Al,Fe
3+
 
)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
F · 14H
 
2
O
26.12D'Ansite
Na
 
21
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
10
Cl
 
3
26.13Anhydrokainite
KMg(SO
 
4
)Cl
26.14Kainite
KMg(SO
 
4
)Cl · 3H
 
2
O
26.15Mosesite
(Hg
 
2
N)(Cl,SO
 
4
,MoO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
26.16Kleinite
(Hg
 
2
N)(Cl,SO
 
4
) · nH
 
2
O
26.17Wilcoxite
MgAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
F · 17H
 
2
O
26.18Creedite
Ca
 
3
SO
 
4
Al
 
2
F
 
8
(OH)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
26.19Lannonite
Mg
 
2
Ca
 
4
Al
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
8
F
 
8
· 24H
 
2
O
26.20Chukhrovite-(Y)
Ca
 
3
(Y,Ce)[F|SO
 
4
|(AlF
 
6
)
 
2
] · 10H
 
2
O
26.21Chukhrovite-(Ce)
Ca
 
3
(Ce,Y)[F|SO
 
4
|(AlF
 
6
)
 
2
] · 10H
 
2
O
26.22Grandreefite
Pb
 
2
(SO
 
4
)F
 
2
26.23Pseudograndreefite
Pb
 
6
(SO
 
4
)F
 
10
26.24Sundiusite
Pb
 
10
(SO
 
4
)O
 
8
Cl
 
2
26.25Caracolite
Na
 
3
Pb
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
26.26Mammothite
Pb
 
6
Cu
 
4
AlSb
5+
 
O
 
2
(OH)
 
16
Cl
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
26.27Atlasovite
K(BiO)Cu
 
6
Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
5
O
 
3
Cl
26.28Xitieshanite
Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)Cl · 6H
 
2
O
26.29Nabokoite
KCu
 
7
(SO
 
4
)
 
5
(Te
4+
 
O
 
3
)OCl

Other Names for Spangolite

Other Languages:
German:Spangolith
Spangolit
Russian:Спанголит
Simplified Chinese:氯铜铝矾
Spanish:Spangolita
Traditional Chinese:氯銅鋁礬

Other Information

Electrical:Pyroelectric.
Other Information:Insoluble in water. Readily soluble in acids.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Spangolite

Reference List:

- +
Penfield (1890) American Journal of Science, 3rd. series: 39: 370.

Miers (1894) Mineralogical Magazine: 10: 273.

Pelloux (1909) Ann. Mus. Civico Stor. Nat. Genova: 4: [3a]: 194.

Frondel, C. (1949) American Mineralogist: 34: 181.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 576-578.

Merlino S., Pasero M., Sabelli C., Trosti-Ferroni R.(1992): Crystal structure refinements of spangolite, a hydrated basic sulphate of copper and aluminum, from three different occurrences. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1992: 349-357.

American Mineralogist (1993): 78: 649-652.

Internet Links for Spangolite

Search Engines:
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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Spangolite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Spangolite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Yancowinna Co.
        • Broken Hill
    Australian Min. 3:1 (1997)
    [UKJMM 19:28]
    • Queensland
      • Mount Isa - Cloncurry area
        • Mount Isa district
    Steve Sorrell Collection
    • Tasmania
      • Rosebery district
        • Colebrook Hill
    Bottrill, RS, unpub data 2001
    Austria
     
    • Carinthia
      • Friesach - Hüttenberg area
        • Hüttenberg
          • Waitschach
    Kolitsch, U., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fink, R. & Auer, C. (2013): Die Mineralogie der weltweit einzigartigen Schlacken von Waitschach, Kärnten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A, 115, 19-87 (in German).
    • Salzburg
      • Hohe Tauern
        • Rauris valley
          • Hüttwinkl valley
            • Alteck - Hoher Sonnblick area
              • Hoher Sonnblick
    Schnorrer, G. & Bacher, F. (2000): Die Mineralien von der Sonnblick- Nordwand, Rauris, Salzburg / Österreich - insbesondere der erste Khaidarkanit- Fund in Österreich. Mineralien-Welt, 11 (5), 52-57.
    • Styria
      • Ennstaler Alpen
        • Johnsbach
          • Severinggraben
    POSTL, W. & WALTER, F. (1983): 544. Antlerit-xx und Baryt-xx aus der Kupferschlacke Severinggraben, Johnsbach, Steiermark. P. 355 in NIEDERMAYR, G., W. POSTL & F. WALTER (1983): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich XXXII. Carinthia II, 173./93.: 339-362.; Postl, W. & Moser, B. (1988): Mineralogische Notizen aus der Steiermark. Mitt. Abt. Miner. Landesmuseum Joanneum, 56, 5-47.; R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    • Tyrol
      • North Tyrol
        • Inn valley
          • Brixlegg - Schwaz area
            • Brixlegg - Rattenberg
              • Gratlspitz
    Lapis 19(7/8):13-78 (1994)
              • St Gertraudi
                • Kleinkogel
    Lapis 19(7/8):13-78 (1994)
            • Schwaz
              • Falkenstein District
                • Falkenstein
    Lapis 19(7/8):13-78 (1994)
    Canada
     
    • British Columbia
      • Skeena Mining Division
        • Stewart
    Personal collection of John Dagenais
    Chile
     
    • Atacama Region
      • Chañaral Province
        • Inca de Oro
          • San Pedro de Cachiyuyo District
    maurizio dini collection - analysed material
      • Copiapó Province
        • Puquios district
          • Carrera Pinto
    Maurizio Dini - analysis by Dr. Robert A. Jenkins.
    • Tarapacá Region
      • El Tamarugal Province
        • Collahuasi District
    Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter (Hamburg University), Germany.
    Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
     
    • Katanga (Shaba)
      • Katanga Copper Crescent
        • Kambove District
    Lapis 17(3), 13-40 (1992)
    France
     
    • Corsica
      • Haute-Corse
        • Corte
          • Ghisoni
    M. Arliguie collection
    • Languedoc-Roussillon
      • Gard
        • Alzon
    Patrice Queneau Collection
    • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
      • Var
        • Le Pradet
    [UKJMM 2:11-15 "Cap Garonne Secondary Copper and Lead - W.R. van den Berg"]
    trouvaille (1980) et collection personelle;
    Georges FAVREAU collection
    • Rhône-Alpes
      • Loire
        • La Pacaudière
          • Le Crozet
    Vernay, R. (1997): Le Crozet (Loire, France). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 55(1), 9-22. ; Chollet, P. & Devouard, B. (2013): La mine de cuivre et de plomb des Rats, Le Crozet (Loire). Le Règne Minéral, 109, 7-46.
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Black Forest
        • Emmendingen
          • Freiamt Pb-Cu mining District
    S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Hesse
      • Richelsdorf District
        • Süss
          • Richelsdorf Smelter
    S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Lower Saxony
      • Harz
        • Clausthal-Zellerfeld
          • Bockswies veins
            • Oberschulenberg
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
        • Goslar
          • Astfeld
    van den Berg, W. & van Loon, C. (1990): Slag Minerals from the Rammelsberg, Harz Mountains, Germany. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 8, 18-23.
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Sauerland
        • Meschede
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    SCHNORRER, G. (1995): Mineralogische Neuheiten von bekannten deutschen Fundorten. Lapis 20 (12), 43-48; 62.
    Schnorrer, G. (1995): Mineralogische Neuigkeiten von bekannten deutschen Fundorten. Lapis, 20 (12), 43.
      • Siegerland
        • Müsen
    Der Aufschluss 2000(2), 71-123
        • Wilnsdorf
    Mineralien-Welt 17, (4), 36-37; SCHNORRER, G. (1995): Mineralogische Neuheiten von bekannten deutschen Fundorten. Lapis 20 (12), 43-48; 62.
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Siegerland
        • Niederfischbach
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
    • Saxony
      • Erzgebirge
        • Schmiedeberg
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    • Schleswig-Holstein
      • Helgoland Island
    Markus Gerstmann - Collection
    Greece
     
    • Aegean Islands Department (Aiyaíon)
      • Kykládes Prefecture
        • Cyclade Islands (Cyclades; Kikladhes; Nomos Kikladhon)
          • Serifos Island (Seriphos)
            • Avissalos (Avyssalos; Avessalos; Aghriomelisa Mountain)
    Fritz Schreiber collection (analysed by U. Kolitsch)
    • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
      • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
        • Lavrion District Mines
    NIEDERMAYR, G. (1982): Neues von Lavrion: Spangolith aus der Oxidationszone. Lapis, 7 (6), 16-17.
            • Kamariza Mines (Kamareza Mines)
    No reference listed
    GRÖBNER, J. (2001): Roter Skorodit und weitere ungewöhnliche Arsenate: Die Mineralien des Abbaus 132 der Grube Christiana, Lavrion/Griechenland. Lapis, 26 (11), 13-21.
              • Hilarion area
    Wendel, W. (2000): Lavrion-News 2000. Lapis 25 (10), 45-47.; J. Gröbner und U. Kolitsch (2002): Neufunde von Laurion aus den Jahren 2001 und 2002. Aufschluss 53 (5-6), 363-371.
    Colleen Thomson collection
    No reference listed
          • Lavrion (Laurion; Laurium)
    No reference listed
          • Megala Pefka area
            • Megala Pefka Mines
    Lapis, 24, 7/8 (1999)
          • Sounion area
            • Sounion Mines
    Lapis, 24, 7/8 (1999)
        • Lavrion District slag localities
          • Sounion area
    van Kalmthout, P. (2012): De slakkenmineralen van Lavrion (Gr.) - Ontwikkelingen na 1996, inclusief een archeologische ontdekking. GEA, 45 (1), 14-19 (in Dutch).; Fritz Schreiber Collection
    Italy
     
    • Liguria
      • Genova Province
        • Genova
          • Varenna Valley
    Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 2 (Avril/Juin), 175-188.
        • Ne
    [MinRec 32:360]
    Redazionale (2005): Sistematica ligure: resoconto 2005. Notiziario di Mineralogia del Ferrania Club, 19 , 3-5.
    • Sardinia
      • Cagliari Province
        • Sinnai
    Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Brizzi G., (1993): Sarrabus Miniere e Minerali. Edito a cura dell'EMSA e "varie associazioni mineralogiche", 208 pp.
        • Villaputzu
    Campostrini, I. & Gramaccioli, C. M. (2001): Selenium-rich secondary minerals from the Baccu Locci mine (Sardinia, Italy). Neues Jahrbuch fuer Mineralogie, Abhandlungen 177, 37-59.
      • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
        • Domusnovas
    Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Tanca, G.A. (1996): Iglesiente e Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Edito a cura dell'EMSA e "varie associazioni mineralogiche", Volume 1, 238 pp.
        • Fluminimaggiore
          • Oridda Valley
    [O'Donoghue, 1978 - "Encyclopedia of Minerals & Gemstones", p283]
      • Nuoro Province
        • Gadoni
    Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Sabelli, C., Ibba, A. (1999): I minerali di Funtana Raminosa. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 1/1999, 10-27.
    • Tuscany
      • Grosseto Province
        • Massa Marittima
    Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
      • Livorno Province
        • Campiglia Marittima
    http://www.comune.pisa.it/apsn/Articoli/Scorie/Capattoli.htm
    Luigi Chiappino collection
    Perchiazzi, N. & Marinai, W. (1990): Alteration minerals in metallurgical slags from Rocca S. Silvestro, Livorno, Tuscany. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana 1990, (3), 145-150. (In Italian.); Gianni Porcellini collection
          • Sassetta
    Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
        • Piombino
    Cerutti, G. and Preite, D. (1995): Mineralien der etruskischen Schlacken von Baratti, Toskana. Lapis, 20 (4), 13-18; 50 (in German).
    Luigi Chiappino data
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Kinki Region
        • Hyogo Prefecture
          • Taka-gun
    Takada & Matsuuchi (1981) Chigaku Kenkyu, 32, 191-199.
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Karagandy Province (Qaragandy Oblysy; Karaganda Oblast')
      • Dzhezkazgan (Zhezqazghan)
    Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
    • Southern Kazakhstan Province (Ongtüstik Qazaqstan Oblysy; Yuzhno-Kazakhstanskaya Oblast')
      • Karatau Range
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    Mexico
     
    • Sonora
      • Mun. de Santa Cruz
        • Cuitaca
    Peter Megaw collection
    Portugal
     
    • Aveiro District
      • Albergaria-a-Velha
        • Branca
    Marques de Sá, J. & Leal Gomes, C. (2010): Les mines de cuivre et nickel de Palhal et Telhadela, Albergaria-a-Velha, Aveiro, Portugal. Le Règne Minéral, 92, 36-47.
    Spain
     
    • Andalusia
      • Almería
        • Tíjola
    Georges FAVREAU collection
      • Granada
        • Albuñol
    FMF Forum
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cornwall
        • Camborne - Redruth - St Day District
          • Gwennap
            • St Day United Mines (Poldice Mines)
    No reference listed
    [Embrey & Symes, 1987, 124 - "Minerals of Cornwall and Devon"]
        • Liskeard District
          • St Cleer
            • Crow's Nest
    Golley & Williams (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual, p. 57
    BMS Database
      • Cumbria
        • North and Western Region (Cumberland)
          • Braithwaite District
    No reference listed
      • Leicestershire
        • Stanton under Bardon
    UKJMM 26:31-42
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Cochise Co.
        • Dragoon Mts
          • Turquoise District (Courtland-Gleeson District)
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 198, 376.
        • Mule Mts
          • Warren District
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.:69
    Bruce J. Murophy specimen
              • Queen Hill
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 376; Ford, W.E. (1914), New occurrences of spangolite, Amer. Jour. Sci.: 38: 503-504.
    Frondel, C. (1949), Crystallography of spangolite, Am.Min.: 34: 181-187; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 65; Dana 7:II:573.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 175, 376; Graeme, R. (1993), Bisbee revisited, Min.Rec.: 24: 421-436.
        • Tombstone Hills
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 578.
      • Coconino Co.
        • Grandview District
          • Grand Canyon National Park
            • Horseshoe Mesa
              • Cape Royal
    Dr Marcus Origlieri
      • Greenlee Co.
        • Shannon Mts
          • Copper Mountain District (Clifton-Morenci District)
            • Clifton
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 376; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 65; Dana 7:II:578,1094.
    Merritt Stephen Enders (2000) The Evolution of Supergene Enrichment in the Morenci Porphyry Copper Deposit, Greenlee County, Arizona. PhD Thesis, University of Arizona
    • Colorado
      • Saguache Co.
        • Bonanza District (Kerber Creek District)
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    • Nevada
      • Churchill Co.
        • Table Mountain District
          • Cottonwood Canyon
            • Bolivia
    T. Kennedy collection
      • Esmeralda Co.
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
        • Weepah District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Humboldt Co.
        • Iron Point District
          • Valmy
    Dr. William S. Wise presentation to Northwest Micro Mineral Study Group on 1 May 2004, Update on Mineralogy of the Silver Coin Mine, Iron Point District, Edna Mountains, Humboldt Co., Nevada
      • Lyon Co.
        • Yerington District
    Collected by Sugar White.
          • Yerington
    Pullman, Steven, and Thomssen, Richard, "Nevada Mineral Locality Index" Rocks & Minerals, Vol. 74 No. 6. pg. 375
      • Pershing Co.
        • Antelope District
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 579, 1009.; Ameican Mineralogist, Volume 63, pages 704-708, 1978
    "Sigurd Stordal" Collection
    • New Jersey
      • Sussex Co.
        • Franklin Mining District
          • Ogdensburg
            • Sterling Hill
    Jenkins, R.E., II: The Picking Table:34(1):6-9 (1993); Dunn(1995):Pt5:639.
    • New Mexico
      • Lincoln Co.
        • Red Cloud District
          • Gallinas Mts
    Min Rec 24:5 p383; NMBMGMR Open-file Report - 532
      • Sandoval Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
      • Socorro Co.
        • Hansonburg District
          • Bingham
    [O'Donoghue, 1978 - "Encyclopedia of Minerals & Gemstones", p283]
    Jason B. Smith specimen
    Min News 21:8 p 8
    M Massis collection
    [MinRec 20:24]; GF Loughlin (1942) Geology and ore deposits of the Magdalena mining district, New Mexico. USGS Professional Paper 200.
          • Magdalena
    GF Loughlin (1942) Geology and ore deposits of the Magdalena mining district, New Mexico. USGS Professional Paper 200.
    • Utah
      • Juab Co.
        • East Tintic Mts
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
            • Mammoth
    Dana 7:II:573 & 578.
      • Tooele Co.
        • Oquirrh Mts
          • Ophir District
            • Ophir
    Brent Thorne collection; Elmar Lackner collection
            • Ophir Hill area
    Rocks & Minerals 83:1 pp 52-62; Rocks & Minerals 83:1 pp 52-62
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