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Staurolite

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Formula:
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Zn)
 
1.5-2
Al
 
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
6
(OH,O)
 
2
System:MonoclinicColour:Dark brown, ...
Hardness:7 - 7½
Member of:Staurolite Group
Name:From Greek "stauros", cross, alluding to the cruciform twins it displays in some cases.


Staurolite Group.

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Classification of Staurolite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/B.03-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.AF.30

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
F : Nesosilicates with additional anions; cations in [4], [5] and/or only [6] coordination
Dana 8th edition ID:52.2.3.1

52 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
2 : Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Hey's CIM Ref.:16.19.5

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
19 : Aluminosilicates of Fe and Mg
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Occurrences of Staurolite

Geological Setting:Amphibolite grade of regionally metamorphosed pelitic rocks.

Physical Properties of Staurolite

Lustre:Sub-Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent
Colour:Dark brown, brownish-black, red-brown
Streak:White to grayish
Hardness (Mohs):7 - 7½
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Distinct/Good
Distinct on {010}
Fracture:Sub-Conchoidal
Density (measured):3.74 - 3.83 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.686 g/cm3

Crystallography of Staurolite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:B2/m
Cell Parameters:a = 7.86Å, b = 16.6Å, c = 5.65Å
β = 90.45°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.473 : 1 : 0.34
Unit Cell Volume:V 737.17 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Prismatic crystals
Twinning:Commonly 60 degree twins on {231}, may be cyclic. Less commonly 90 degree cruciform twins on {031}. On (320) (very rare).
Crystal Atlas:
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Staurolite no.12 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Staurolite no.30 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Staurolite no.35 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Staurolite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.736 - 1.747 nβ = 1.740 - 1.754 nγ = 1.745 - 1.762
2V:Measured: 88° , Calculated: 84° to 88°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.009 - 0.015

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:High
Dispersion:r > v weak
Pleochroism:Visible
Comments:X= colourless
Y= pale yellow
Z= golden yellow

Chemical Properties of Staurolite

Formula:
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Zn)
 
1.5-2
Al
 
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
6
(OH,O)
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:(Fe2+,Mg,Zn)1.5-2Al9(SiO4)4O6(OH,O)2
Essential elements:Al, Fe, H, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Al, Fe, H, Mg, O, Si, Zn
Common Impurities:Ti,Cr,Mn,Co,Zn,Li,H2O

Relationship of Staurolite to other Species

Member of:Staurolite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Magnesiostaurolite
(Mg,Li,Fe
2+
 
)
 
1.5-2
Al
 
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
6
(OH)
 
2
Zincostaurolite
(Zn,Li,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
1.5-2
Al
 
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
6
(OH)
 
2
Common Associates:
TourmalineQuartzMuscoviteKyaniteChloritoid
AlmandineAlmandine
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.AF.05Sillimanite
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O
9.AF.10Andalusite
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O
9.AF.10Kanonaite
Mn
3+
 
Al(SiO
 
4
)O
9.AF.15Kyanite
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O
9.AF.20Mullite
Al
 
4+2x
Si
 
2-2x
O
 
10-x
9.AF.20Krieselite
(Al,Ga)
 
2
(GeO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
9.AF.23Boromullite
Al
 
9
BSi
 
2
O
 
19
9.AF.25Yoderite
Mg(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
O(OH)
9.AF.30Magnesiostaurolite
(Mg,Li,Fe
2+
 
)
 
1.5-2
Al
 
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
6
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.30Zincostaurolite
(Zn,Li,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
1.5-2
Al
 
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
6
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.35Topaz
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.AF.40Norbergite
Mg
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.AF.45Alleghanyite
Mn
2+
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.45Chondrodite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(F,OH)
 
2
9.AF.45Reinhardbraunsite
Ca
 
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH,F)
 
2
9.AF.45Kumtyubeite
Ca
 
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
F
 
2
9.AF.45Hydroxylchondrodite
Mg
 
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.50Humite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
7
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(F,OH)
 
2
9.AF.50Manganhumite
(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
7
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.50Unnamed (Ca-analogue of Humite)
Ca
 
7
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
F
 
2
9.AF.55Clinohumite
Mg
 
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
F
 
2
9.AF.55Sonolite
Mn
2+
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH,F)
 
2
9.AF.55Hydroxylclinohumite
Mg
 
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.60Leucophoenicite
Mn
2+
7
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.65Ribbeite
(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.70Jerrygibbsite
Mn
2+
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.75Franciscanite
Mn
2+
6
(V
5+
 
,☐)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
9.AF.75Örebroite
Mn
2+
3
(Sb
5+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)(SiO
 
4
)(O,OH)
 
3
9.AF.75Welinite
Mn
2+
6
(W
6+
 
,Mg)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
9.AF.80Ellenbergerite
Mg
 
6
(Mg,Ti,Zr,◻)
 
2
(Al,Mg)
 
6
Si
 
8
O
 
28
(OH)
 
10
9.AF.85Chloritoid
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Mn
2+
 
)Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O(OH)
 
2
9.AF.85Magnesiochloritoid
MgAl
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O(OH)
 
2
9.AF.85Ottrélite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O(OH)
 
2
9.AF.90Poldervaartite
CaCa[SiO
 
3
(OH)](OH)
9.AF.90Olmiite
CaMn
2+
 
[SiO
 
3
(OH)](OH)
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
16.19.1Indialite
Mg
 
2
Al
 
3
(AlSi
 
5
O
 
18
)
16.19.2Cordierite
(Mg,Fe)
 
2
Al
 
3
(AlSi
 
5
O
 
18
)
16.19.3Sekaninaite
(Fe,Mg)
 
2
Al
 
3
(AlSi
 
5
O
 
18
)
16.19.4Ferro-gedrite
☐{Fe
2+
2
}{Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
16.19.6Chloritoid
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Mn
2+
 
)Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O(OH)
 
2
16.19.7Amesite
Mg
 
2
Al(AlSiO
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
16.19.8Corundophilite
(Mg,Fe,Al)
 
6
(Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
(OH)
 
8
16.19.9Yoderite
Mg(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
O(OH)
16.19.10Delessite
(Mg,Fe,Fe,Al)(Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
(O,OH)
 
8
16.19.11Ferrocarpholite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)Al
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
6
)(OH)
 
4
16.19.12Magnesiocarpholite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Al
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
6
)(OH)
 
4
16.19.13Chamosite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
5
Al(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
16.19.14Orthochamosite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Fe
3+
 
)
 
5
Al(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH,O)
 
8
16.19.15Berthierine
(Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
,AlMg)
 
2-3
((Si,Al)
 
2
O
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
16.19.16Odinite
(Fe,Mg,Al,Fe,Ti,Mn)
 
2.4
((Si,Al)
 
2
O
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
16.19.17Clinochlore
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
5
Al(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
16.19.18Gedrite
☐{Mg
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
16.19.19Magnesiogedrite
16.19.20Diabantite
(Mg,Fe,Al)
 
6
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
16.19.21Sudoite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
Al
 
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
16.19.22Vermiculite
(Mg,Fe,Al)
 
3
((Al,Si)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
16.19.23Corrensite
(Mg,Fe)
 
9
((Si,Al)
 
8
O
 
20
)(OH)
 
10
· nH
 
2
O

Other Names for Staurolite

Synonyms:
CroisetteFairy Stone
Other Languages:
Croatian:Staurolit
Dutch:Stauroliet
Finnish:Stauroliitti
French:Staurotide
German:Staurolith
Baseler Taufstein
Granatit
Hebrew:סטאורוליט
Hungarian:Staurolit
Italian:Staurolite
Japanese:十字石
Lithuanian:Staurolitas
Polish:Staurolit
Portuguese:Estaurolita
Russian:Ставролит
Simplified Chinese:十字石
Spanish:Estaurolita
Staurolita
Varieties:
LusakiteZincian Staurolite

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Staurolite

Reference List:

- +
Klaproth, M.H. (1810): Untersuchung des Stauroliths, Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, Fünfter Band, Rottmann Berlin, 80-85

Friedel, G. (1904): Étude sur les groupements cristallins. Extrait du Bulletin de la Société de l'Industrie minérale, Quatrième série, Tomes III et IV. Saint-Étienne, Société de l’Imprimerie Théolier J. Thomas et C..

Hurst, V., Donnay, J.D.H., Donnay, G. (1956): Mineral. Mag., 31, 145.

Smith J.V. (1968), American Mineralogist: 53: 1139-1155.

Hollister, L.S. (1970) Origin, mechanism, and consequences of compositional sector zoning in staurolite. American Mineralogist: 55: 742-766.

American Mineralogist (1982): 67: 292-297.

Hemingway, B.S. and Robie, R.A. (1984) Heat capacity and thermodynamic functions for gehlenite and staurolite: with comments on the Schottky anomaly in the heat capacity of staurolite. American Mineralogist: 69: 307-318.

Canadian Mineralogist (1993): 31: 551-582.

Hawthorne, F.C., Ungaretti, L., Oberti, R., Caucia, F., and Callegari, A. (1993): The crystal-chemistry of staurolite II. Order-disorder and the monoclinic → orthorhombic phase transition. Canadian Mineralogist: 31: 583-595.

Canadian Mineralogist (1996): 34: 1051.

Nespolo M. & Ferraris G. (2007): Overlooked problems in manifold twins: twin misfit in zero-obliquity TLQS twinning and twin index calculation. Acta Crystallographica A63, 278-286.


Best Localities for Staurolite

Best of Species:Staurolite

Internet Links for Staurolite

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    Localities for Staurolite

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