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Stephanite

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Formula:
Ag
 
5
SbS
 
4
System:OrthorhombicColour:Lead gray or black
Lustre:MetallicHardness:2 - 2½
Name:
Named after the Austrian Mining Director / engineer and life-long mineral collector, Archduke Stephan Franz Victor von Habsburg-Lothringen (1817-1867).
This page provides mineralogical data about Stephanite.

Classification of Stephanite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:2/E.06-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:2.GB.10

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
G : Sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites
B : Neso-sulfarsenites, etc. with additional S
Dana 8th edition ID:3.2.4.1

3 : SULFOSALTS
2 : ø = 4
Hey's CIM Ref.:5.2.11

5 : Sulphosalts - Sulpharsenites and Sulphobismuthites (those containing Sn, Ge,or V are in Section 6)
2 : Sulpharsenites etc. of Ag
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Type Occurrence of Stephanite

Type Locality:Freiberg District, Erzgebirge, Saxony, Germany
Year of Discovery:1845

Occurrences of Stephanite

Geological Setting:Late stage mineral in hydrothermal silver deposits.

Physical Properties of Stephanite

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Lead gray or black
Streak:Iron Black
Hardness (Mohs):2 - 2½
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Imperfect/Fair
[010] Imperfect, [021] Poor
Fracture:Sub-Conchoidal
Density (measured):6.26 g/cm3
Density (calculated):6.28 g/cm3

Crystallography of Stephanite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mm2 - Pyramidal
Space Group:Cmc21
Cell Parameters:a = 7.837(3) Å, b = 12.467(6) Å, c = 8.538(2) Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.629 : 1 : 0.685
Unit Cell Volume:V 834.20 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Crystals short prismatic to tabular
Twinning:On {110}; less common on {130}{100}{010}.
Crystal Atlas:
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Stephanite no.10 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Stephanite no.82 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.56 (30)
3.08 (100)
2.89 (60)
2.58 (90)
2.19 (40)
2.13 (50)
1.834 (40)

Optical Data of Stephanite

Type:Anisotropic
Anisotropism:Strong
Colour in reflected light:white-grey
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:white to pink-white

Chemical Properties of Stephanite

Formula:
Ag
 
5
SbS
 
4
Simplified for copy/paste:Ag5SbS4
Essential elements:Ag, S, Sb
All elements listed in formula:Ag, S, Sb
Common Impurities:As,Cu,Fe

Relationship of Stephanite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
2.GB.05Argentotennantite
Ag
 
6
[Cu
 
4
(Fe,Zn)
 
2
]As
 
4
S
 
13
2.GB.05Freibergite
Ag
 
6
[Cu
 
4
Fe
 
2
]Sb
 
4
S
 
13-x
2.GB.05Giraudite
Cu
 
6
[Cu
 
4
(Fe,Zn)
 
2
]As
 
4
Se
 
13
2.GB.05Goldfieldite
Cu
 
12
(Te,Sb,As)
 
4
S
 
13
2.GB.05Hakite
Cu
 
6
[Cu
 
4
Hg
 
2
]Sb
 
4
Se
 
13
2.GB.05Tennantite
Cu
 
6
[Cu
 
4
(Fe,Zn)
 
2
]As
 
4
S
 
13
2.GB.05Tetrahedrite
Cu
 
6
[Cu
 
4
(Fe,Zn)
 
2
]Sb
 
4
S
 
13
2.GB.10Selenostephanite
Ag
 
5
Sb(Se,S)
 
4
2.GB.15Pearceite
[(Ag,Cu)
 
6
(As,Sb)
 
2
S
 
7
][Ag
 
9
CuS
 
4
]
2.GB.15Polybasite
[(Ag,Cu)
 
6
(Sb,As)
 
2
S
 
7
][Ag
 
9
CuS
 
4
]
2.GB.15UM2003-14-S:AgBiFeTe
Ag
 
16
FeBiTe
 
3
S
 
8
2.GB.15Selenopolybasite
[(Ag,Cu)
 
6
(Sb,As)
 
2
(S,Se)
 
7
][Ag
 
9
Cu(S,Se)
 
2
Se
 
2
]
2.GB.15Cupropearceite
[Cu
 
6
As
 
2
S
 
7
][Ag
 
9
CuS
 
4
]
2.GB.15Cupropolybasite
[Cu
 
6
Sb
 
2
S
 
7
][Ag
 
9
CuS
 
4
]
2.GB.15UM1979-17-S:BiCuFe
Cu
 
18
Fe
 
4
BiS
 
16
2.GB.20Galkhaite
(Cs,Tl)(Hg,Cu,Zn)
 
6
(As,Sb)
 
4
S
 
12
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
5.2.1Smithite
AgAsS
 
2
5.2.2Trechmannite
AgAsS
 
2
5.2.3Proustite
Ag
 
3
AsS
 
3
5.2.4Xanthoconite
Ag
 
3
AsS
 
3
5.2.5Pearceite
[(Ag,Cu)
 
6
(As,Sb)
 
2
S
 
7
][Ag
 
9
CuS
 
4
]
5.2.6Pearceite-T2ac
5.2.7Argentotennantite
Ag
 
6
[Cu
 
4
(Fe,Zn)
 
2
]As
 
4
S
 
13
5.2.8Miargyrite
AgSbS
 
2
5.2.9Pyrargyrite
Ag
 
3
SbS
 
3
5.2.10Pyrostilpnite
Ag
 
3
SbS
 
3
5.2.12Polybasite
[(Ag,Cu)
 
6
(Sb,As)
 
2
S
 
7
][Ag
 
9
CuS
 
4
]
5.2.13Billingsleyite
Ag
 
7
AsS
 
6
5.2.14Polybasite-Tac
5.2.15Freibergite
Ag
 
6
[Cu
 
4
Fe
 
2
]Sb
 
4
S
 
13-x
5.2.16Aramayoite
Ag(Sb,Bi)S
 
2
5.2.17Matildite
AgBiS
 
2
5.2.18Schapbachite
Ag
 
0.4
Pb
 
0.2
Bi
 
0.4
S
5.2.19Pavonite
(Ag,Cu)(Bi,Pb)
 
3
S
 
5
5.2.20Arcubisite
Ag
 
6
CuBiS
 
4
5.2.21Bohdanowiczite
AgBiSe
 
2
5.2.22Selenostephanite
Ag
 
5
Sb(Se,S)
 
4
5.2.23Benleonardite
Ag
 
8
(Sb,As)Te
 
2
S
 
3
5.2.24Volynskite
AgBiTe
 
2

Other Names for Stephanite

Synonyms:
Argento mineralisatum nigrumBlack SilverBrittle Silver OreGoldschmidtineMelane-glance
MelanglancePsaturoseRöschwächsSchwarzgülden (of Wallerius)
Other Languages:
French:Argent fragile
Argent noir
Argent sulfuré fragile
German:Stephanit
Antimonsilberglanz
Melanglanz
Prismatischer Melanglanz
Schwarzgültigerz
Schwarzsilberglanz
Sprödes Silberglanzerz (of Emmerling)
Sprödglanzerz
Tigererz
Italian:Stefanite
Latin:Argentum mineralisatum nigrum
Russian:Стефанит
Simplified Chinese:脆银矿
Spanish:Estefanita
Plata agria
Rosicler negro
Stephanita
Swedish:Svartgylden

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:Silver ore

References for Stephanite

Reference List:

- +
W. Haidinger: Zweite Klasse: Geogenide. XIV. Ordnung. Glanze. VIII. Melanglanz. Stephanit. In: Handbuch der Bestimmenden Mineralogie. Braumüller und Seidel, Wien 1845, p. 570 [http://rruff.info/uploads/HMB1845_563.pdf]

Murdoch, Joseph (1942), Crystallographic notes, cristobalite, stephanite, natrolite: American Mineralogist: 27: 500-506.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 358-360.

Ribar B., Nowacki W. (1970), Acta Crystallographica (1970), B26, 201.

Leitl, M., Pfitzner, A., Bindi, L. (2009): Preferred ion diffusion pathways and activation energies for Ag in the crystal structure of stephanite, Ag5SbS4. Mineralogical Magazine, 73, 17-26.

Internet Links for Stephanite

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  • External Links:
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  • Look for Stephanite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Stephanite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Stephanite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Find Stephanite on www.crystalclassics.co.uk
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  • Specimens:The following Stephanite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Stephanite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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